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Speech Communication for Global Literacy (Advanced students) Koji Nakamura n Professor of English and Speech Communication for Global Literacy (Advanced students) Koji Nakamura n Professor of English and Global Education Konan University Kobe, Japan [email protected] ac. jp VTR: Students of Konan Univ. Kobe Japan are making persuasive speech and logical debate in EIL. n 1

What is communicative competence in writing and speaking? n n n Grammatical and lexical What is communicative competence in writing and speaking? n n n Grammatical and lexical competence (sentence structures, styles and vocabularies) Coherent and Cohesive competence (Flow of the writing and speech) Discourse and contextual competence (ex. “You are my Desdemona. ” Dramatic irony “May these be the worst day. ” Victorian moral, WASP and etc. ) Socio-linguistic competence ( It’s very hot in this room, isn’t it? ) Strategic Competence (Ex. Non-verbal communication) 2

Organization and coherent flow in writing and speech n n n  Attention-getting Introduction はじめ       Topic Sentence (主題文)       Organization and coherent flow in writing and speech n n n  Attention-getting Introduction はじめ       Topic Sentence (主題文)       Thesis Statement (命題文)      Body (Support) (支持文)        Cause/Effect(因果関係)        (coherence) n   Comparison/Contrast (比較/例証)   一貫性 n      Pro-Con Structure(賛成・反対)  n        Discusson (議論)      Conclusion (結論) おわり     Clincher (最後の決め手) 3

Introduction Topic Sentence Controlling Ideas Thesis Statement Controlling Ideas Body BODY Support Discussion Cause Introduction Topic Sentence Controlling Ideas Thesis Statement Controlling Ideas Body BODY Support Discussion Cause Effect Discussion Comparison Contrast Conclusion Clincher 4

What is Process Writing? n Process writing is a productive and interactive writing strategy What is Process Writing? n Process writing is a productive and interactive writing strategy between students and teachers, or among students. White (1991) states that writing is far from being a simple matter of transcribing language into written symbols. Therefore writing can be an interactive and creative means of ommunication. 5

Process Writing is a process of Academic and Problem-solving Approach n White (1991) defines Process Writing is a process of Academic and Problem-solving Approach n White (1991) defines process writing as a form of problem-solving which involves such processes as generating ideas, discovering a voice with which to write, planning, goalsetting, monitoring and evaluating what is going to be written as well as what has been written, and searching for language with which to express exact meanings. 6

The Process of Academic Approach to (Global Literacy) 1 Gathering information 2 Sharing relevant The Process of Academic Approach to (Global Literacy) 1 Gathering information 2 Sharing relevant information, facts and evidence. (Sharing) 3 Processing the necessary information for outlining and drafting one’s own speech. 4 Organizing and constructing one’s own opinion in written and oral forms. 7

The Process of Problem-solving Approach 1 Narrowing down theme into your topic 2 Defining The Process of Problem-solving Approach 1 Narrowing down theme into your topic 2 Defining the problem in the relevant issues 3 Analyzing the causes and effects of the problem 4 Exploring possible workable solutions as a brainstorming (Sharing) 5 Suggesting possible workable solutions with each other (Sharing) 6 Selecting the best solution or integrated solutions 7 Implementing ways of carrying out the best solution. 8

Writer-Reader-Speaker Connection n n A good writer is a good reader and speaker. Recent Writer-Reader-Speaker Connection n n A good writer is a good reader and speaker. Recent research has demonstrated the cognitive links between writing and reading (Blanton, 1992; Carrell, 1987). Reading provides students with stimuli for topics, activates the schema (that is, the background knowledge) of the students about a topic, and shows them the value of the audience in writing and speaking. The writing-reading-speaking connection is essential to a successful writing and speech communication. The more writers read, the more successful their writing and speaking will be. 9

1 What is communication? 2 What is Speech Communication? n Communication comes from “communicatio” in 1 What is communication? 2 What is Speech Communication? n Communication comes from “communicatio” in Latin, which means sharing meaning and information with others n Speech Communication?    10

Speech Communicationの領域 Public Speaking パブリック・スピーキング Problem-Solving Democratic Discussion 問題解決のための 民主的なデイスカッション Logical Debate with valid Speech Communicationの領域 Public Speaking パブリック・スピーキング Problem-Solving Democratic Discussion 問題解決のための 民主的なデイスカッション Logical Debate with valid Evidence 証拠で説得する論理的な デイベート 11

1 Public Speaking  Informative Speech  n       情報を提供するスピーチ n Persuasive Speech   n      説得するスピーチ n Inspirational Speech  1 Public Speaking  Informative Speech  n       情報を提供するスピーチ n Persuasive Speech   n      説得するスピーチ n Inspirational Speech  n      啓蒙するスピーチ 12

How can we make a good speech? n n n 1 Delivery (話し方) Eye-Contact (目線)  Smile (微笑み) How can we make a good speech? n n n 1 Delivery (話し方) Eye-Contact (目線)  Smile (微笑み) Voice (はっきりとした声) Emotional Appeal (心引かれる熱意) Logical Reasoning (Flow and support) n 2 Content (内容) 3 English as an International Language VTR 1 Impressive Speech 1 n n n n 13

What are strategies of a Persuasive Speech? Logical Reasoning with valid Evidence    n Emotional What are strategies of a Persuasive Speech? Logical Reasoning with valid Evidence    n Emotional Appeal  n Rhetorical Device (simile, metaphor, and analogy) ex. n Credibility and Good Will 信頼関係 n 方略1 Deductive Approach 演繹法 n 方略2 Inductive Approach  帰納法 n 14

The Voice from Edward Said Lecture at Cairo Univ. in 2003 before the Islamic The Voice from Edward Said Lecture at Cairo Univ. in 2003 before the Islamic audience n n n You cannot deal with others without profound knowledge of his or her culture, society and history. (VTR) 2 Force never works, because you can never destroys the will of people and the power of people. Idea is equality, coexistence and sustainable life. The present is our battle ground and knowledge is our main weapons. (Said: 2003) 15

方略1 演繹法  Deductive Approach  Proposition 提案・命題 We have to end child labor with fair trade.  理由 方略1 演繹法  Deductive Approach  Proposition 提案・命題 We have to end child labor with fair trade.  理由 Reason 1 125 million children are forced to work full time. Reason 2 理由 110 million working children are out of school. Reason 3 理由 Hazardous, exploitative and life-threatening child labor goes against The Rights of the Child. 16

方略2 帰納法  Inductive Approach   Reason 1  理由 Reason 5 理由   Reason 3  理由 方略2 帰納法  Inductive Approach   Reason 1  理由 Reason 5 理由   Reason 3  理由 提案・命題 Proposition Reason 2 Reason 4  理由 理由 17

     Mother Teresa のスピーチは感    動を与え、行動を促すか。VTR 3 n n マザーテレサのハーバード大学でのスピーチ There is a hunger, maybe not      Mother Teresa のスピーチは感    動を与え、行動を促すか。VTR 3 n n マザーテレサのハーバード大学でのスピーチ There is a hunger, maybe not a hunger for a piece of bread, but there is a terrible hunger for love. Find them, love them and put your love for them in your living actions. For loving them, you are loving God himself. God bless you. 18

I Have a Dream (VTR 4) by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n I have I Have a Dream (VTR 4) by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood; 19

I Have a Dream by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n I have a I Have a Dream by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice; 20

I Have a Dream by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n I have a I Have a Dream by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character; I have a dream today 21

I Have a Dream by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n With this faith I Have a Dream by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. n With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. 22

Why do people regard this speech as one of the best speeches in the Why do people regard this speech as one of the best speeches in the 20 th century? Repeating American Dreams positively n Hating discrimination but loving people Universality (beyond race, religion, culture) Excellent Rhetoric  Analogy 類似 oasis of freedom and justice Metaphor 隠喩 a beautiful symphony of  brotherhood Simile 直喩  justice rolls down like waters Parallel 並列 I have a dream that …I have a dream … Persuasive Speeches impress people and enlighten people and bring compassion, and people translate their feelings into their action. n 23     

How to start your speech (Attention-getting Introduction) n How do Japanese people start their How to start your speech (Attention-getting Introduction) n How do Japanese people start their speeches? n How do Westerners start their speeches?    n        Toastmasters International Speech Contest in 1995 by Mark Brown(VTR 5 )     n The real monster is within your heart. n n n Intolerance 不寛容 Ignorance   無知 Indifference 無関心 24

How to end your speech (The Power of Clincher) n n n “Government of How to end your speech (The Power of Clincher) n n n “Government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth. ” (Lincoln) “ Intolerance, indifference and ignorance. Yes, let’s kill the beast. Because everyone deserves a second chance. ” “Free at last! free at last!Thank God almighty, we are free at last!” (Dr. King) “And so my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. ” (John F. Kennedy) 25

How do famous speakers prepare for their Speeches? n n n 1 You should How do famous speakers prepare for their Speeches? n n n 1 You should be an expert on your subject.  話すテーマに関する専門家 2 Gathering information.  情報収集 * All the facts on both sides of your subjects must be collected, arranged, studied, digested. *Prove them; be sure they are facts; then think out yourself the best solution. 26

Strategy and procedure to present a good speech 方略と手順1 1 State your facts. ---Argue Strategy and procedure to present a good speech 方略と手順1 1 State your facts. ---Argue from them---Appeal for action. n     事実を述べ、事実から議論 n 2 Show something that is wrong (Analysis of the status-quo)  n 現状分析を示す n 3 Show to remedy it. ---Appeal for action.  解決策を示し、行動を促す。   4 Appeal to the motives that make people act.  人が行動を起こす動機をアピール n 27

Strategy and procedure to present a good speech 方略と手順2  5 If possible record your Strategy and procedure to present a good speech 方略と手順2  5 If possible record your speech in your tape recorder and listen it again and again to feed back (録音して練習) n 6 Do not read your note. Do not see your notes. (できる限り原稿を読まない) n 7 Notes destroy about fifty percent of the interest in your talk. n   (原稿を読むと人は聞かない)( 28

Strategy and procedure to present a good speech 方略と手順3 n n 8. After you Strategy and procedure to present a good speech 方略と手順3 n n 8. After you have thought out and arranged your talk, then practice it as you walk along the street. 歩きなが ら練習 ( A dog barked at me when I walked and reciting my own speech. ) 9.Imagine that you are addressing a real audience. The more of this you do, the more comfortable you will feel when the time comes for you to make your talk.  (Dale Carnegie) 29 n

Memory System(記憶システム) を生かそう n n n n 1. Impression  印象的な記憶 impressive memory 2. Repetition Memory System(記憶システム) を生かそう n n n n 1. Impression  印象的な記憶 impressive memory 2. Repetition  繰り返し練習 through the power of repetition 3. Association 連想させる We can associate one fact with others. 4.Reading aloud (Lincoln Method)        声を出して自分の耳で聞く 30 30

n n The Magic of Presentation  Spaced Rehearsal. The magic power of spaced rehearsal. n n The Magic of Presentation  Spaced Rehearsal. The magic power of spaced rehearsal.  間隔をおいて何回も練習を重ねる After we memorize a thing, we forget as much during the first eight hours as we do during the next thirty days. So go over your notes and practice every day. 暗記した記憶は8時間で消える。 毎朝、昼休み、毎夕少しづつ繰り返し口頭練習 31

A speech must grow. A speech can grow and explore with enough spaced rehearsal A speech must grow. A speech can grow and explore with enough spaced rehearsal and rewriting. n n n A speech must grow. A speech can grow and explore with enough spaced rehearsal and rewriting.        スピーチは練習と共に成長する。 We can select our topic early in the week. We can narrow down the subject into our own favorite topic. Think over it during the day, brood over it and sleep over it and even dream over it. This is a Lincoln Method.    (Dale Carnegie) 32

Speech is a human art. n n n It’s just like an art, creating Speech is a human art. n n n It’s just like an art, creating a wonderful sculpture.   スピーチは芸術作品・彫刻と同じ We can’t become an expert of speech, but we can become an expert of our own topic.   スピーチの達人ではなく自分の選んだ テーマの専門家にはなれる。 Actor of Royal Shakespeare Theater 33

A Speech is a Voyage  スピーチは航海 n n n A Speech is a voyage. A Speech is a Voyage  スピーチは航海 n n n A Speech is a voyage. It must be charted. スピーチは航海 (海図・誘導) A Speech is like drawing a picture.  ス ピーチは絵を描くように Draw a horizon, mountains, hills, rivers, villages, parks, gardens, houses, a seashore and a big ocean.   白のカンバスに話を描いていく 34

How to Develop Self-confidence in Public Speaking 自信 *Everybody feels butterflies in his/her stomach in How to Develop Self-confidence in Public Speaking 自信 *Everybody feels butterflies in his/her stomach in public speaking.  誰でも緊張する。 n 誰でもパブリック・スピーキングの素質を伸ばせる。 n 多くの有名な話し手は集団やグループの前に立つ 時、より巧みに話せる。 是非話したくなる。 n  観客の存在は刺激になり、誰でも自分の考えを表  n  現したいという基本願望がある。 n 最も有名なシェイクスピアの役者でも舞台前はいつ も緊張するが、よく練習しているので、ひとたび幕が 開くと、もうそこにはいつもの俳優である自分がいる。 n 35

Public Speaking のまとめ n n n n 1. Start with a strong and persistent Public Speaking のまとめ n n n n 1. Start with a strong and persistent desire. 表現したい強い願望からはじめる。 2. Arouse your enthusiasm, urge, passion, zeal, drive and motivation. 3. Prepare everyday.  準備は最善の策 4. Enough preparation. If you prepare well and practice hard, you will have a strong desire to express yourself. 5. Act confidently. 自信のある振る舞い 6. Practice makes perfect. 練習 This is the most important point of all in public speaking. Fear is the result of a lack of confidence. 36

Robert Kennedy made an excellent speech in the midst of anti-US Waseda Students at Robert Kennedy made an excellent speech in the midst of anti-US Waseda Students at Waseda Univ. Tokyo, Japan in 1967. n “My friends, I appreciate very much the welcome you have given to me and to my wife. We are here to discuss in a frank and candid manner questions which will be of interest to you. …………… n “There is a gentleman down in the front who evidently disagree with me. If he will ask a single question, I will try to give an answer. That is the democratic way and the way we should proceed. He is asking a question and he is entitled to courtesy. ” 37

2 Discussion・話し合い Democratic Discussion  n      民主的な論議 n Problem–solving Discussion  問題題解決の論議 n  (John Dewey’s Reflective   2 Discussion・話し合い Democratic Discussion  n      民主的な論議 n Problem–solving Discussion  問題題解決の論議 n  (John Dewey’s Reflective   n   Thinking)        n    ジョン・デユーイの反省的思考 n n   38

John Dewey’s Reflective Thinking for Problem Solving. n n n n n   ジョン・デユーイの問題解決のための反省思考 1. John Dewey’s Reflective Thinking for Problem Solving. n n n n n   ジョン・デユーイの問題解決のための反省思考 1. Defining the problem 問題を定義する 2. Analyzing the problem     現状分析と問題の因果関係を分析する 3. Suggesting every possible solution       あらゆる可能な解決策を提案する 4. Selecting the best solution       最善策の選択 5. Carrying out the plan for the best    solution (Implementing) 実行 39

Subject: Sexual Harassment n n (1) Defining the problem: mental/physical and        sexual bullying/offense/teasing/attack Subject: Sexual Harassment n n (1) Defining the problem: mental/physical and        sexual bullying/offense/teasing/attack (2) Analyzing the problem: gender discrimination in a       male dominated society /infringement of human n      rights n (3) Possible solutions: n        organized protest and bringing it to the court      n       education for human rights and egalitarian society n       social and public education, organized protest n       through women’s network   (4) Selecting the best solution:       organized protest and public education       n (5) Suggesting way of carrying out the solution: n    Public Education, education at school, home and       n     working places n 40

3 Debate聴衆を説得するために 相手を論破する討論・討議 VTR8 n  with valid evidence  信頼できる証拠、事実 n  Logical Rebuttal     n  (Refutation) n 3 Debate聴衆を説得するために 相手を論破する討論・討議 VTR8 n  with valid evidence  信頼できる証拠、事実 n  Logical Rebuttal     n  (Refutation) n  論理的な反駁・反証 n 41

Research Paper on Asia Pacific War n n n n n 1. Academic Approach Research Paper on Asia Pacific War n n n n n 1. Academic Approach Narrow down the subject (Asia Pacific War) into your own topic. Collect relevant information and select necessary information to organize your own opinion in your research paper. Be an expert of your topic/issue and discuss the causes and effects of the facts. The following three factors are necessary in your research paper. Defining the Issue/Problems Analyzing causes and effects of the issue Your own interpretation and Opinion (Critical 42 Thinking)

(Ex. ) Your topics will be n n n n n Great East Asia (Ex. ) Your topics will be n n n n n Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Tripartite Pact made with Germany and Italy Japan’s Modernization and Japanese Imperialism Japanese Emperor and Asia Pacific War Japanese People and Asia Pacific War Kamikaze Commando (Special Attack Corps) 1910 Japan Annexed Korea 日韓併合 1931 Japanese Kwantung Army seized Manchuria 1932 Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo 満州国 1933 Japan withdraw from League of Nations 1937 - 1945 War with China 日中戦争 1938 Nanking Massacre 南京虐殺 1940 Tripartite Pact made with Germany and Italy 1941 Japan attacked US (Pearl Harbor) Pacific War 1942 Battle of Midway 1945 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan’s unconditional surrender GHQ, Occupation Troops, Allied Nations, 43 Douglas Mac. Arthur and Emperor

2. Format of Research Paper n n n 1. Quality, originality and critical thinking, 2. Format of Research Paper n n n 1. Quality, originality and critical thinking, not quantity is the aim. 2. The research paper must be more than 800 wordsexcluding appendices and other diagrams, charts and diagrams. 3 Research paper must be presented with academic format/style making effective use of diagrams, charts and tables with clear sources—either your own or properly attributed--in communicating key elements and concepts of the topic. 4 All sources (including web research) must be clearly referenced in the text. 5 All references must be sourced, otherwise students will be penalized for plagiarizing others’ work. Plagiarism is fatal which includes failure of your class. 44