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Specification section 3. 1
3. 1 Scale of Production One-off Production One off production is where ONE SINGLE item is designed and made at a time. These items are most often produced to suit a customer’s individual requirements. Each of these products is UNIQUE and, more often than not, a long time would have been spent designing and making it. For this reason, items produced by this method are EXPENSIVE to buy. ONE-OFF production would not be suitable for factories and is more likely to be found in smaller establishments where the emphasis is placed on the HAND MADE and QUALITY aspects of a product.
3. 1 Scale of Production One-off Production Advantages of ONE OFF production • Each piece is made to the exact customer requirements • Job Satisfaction for workers is high • Quality of products is very high Disadvantages of ONE OFF production • The product are very expensive • The work is very time consuming
3. 1 Scale of Production Batch Production BATCH production is used where several of the same product are made. When the required number has been produced, production stops. Another batch of the same product can be made at a later date if the DEMAND for the product is there. All items made in a BATCH are the SAME. Therefore production is SPEEDED UP and the cost of labour is REDUCED. This results in the final product being less expensive for the customer.
3. 1 Scale of Production Batch Production Advantages of Batch production • Workers may specialise to some degree • Labour costs are reduced resulting in cheaper products • Production is faster Disadvantages of Batch production • The work less interesting and repetitive • More space required for working and storage • Quantities of raw material must be stored
3. 1 Scale of Production Mass Production MASS production is where products are made CONTINUOUSLY. Usually an assembly line is organised and, as the product moves along it, parts are added until the final product is complete. These assembly lines can be manned by people, but the work is very REPETITIVE and often these lines are AUTOMATED. As this method of production relies on machinery, the INITIAL COST of setting up this process can be VERY HIGH. As long as there is sufficient CUSTOMER DEMAND for the product it is worth buying the machines to make them.
3. 1 Scale of Production Mass Production Advantages of Mass production • The final product is inexpensive • The quality of the product is consistent • Assembly lines can run continuously • Production is fast Disadvantages of Mass production • The work is repetitive and boring • Large initial investment is required • Machinery breakdown can halt production • There is a loss of traditional skills
3. 1 Scale of Production Just-In-Time Production (JIT) JUST IN TIME production is where products are manufactured JUST IN TIME for them to be sold. This prevents having money tied up in large stocks of any product which is waiting to be sold. The raw materials and parts needed to make the final product are ordered and delivered JUST IN TIME for them to be used. So large stock of raw materials and parts are not needed either. This method of production can save a lot of money being tied up, but any mistakes in delivery of raw materials or parts could hold up the whole production process.
3. 1 Scale of Production Just-In-Time Production Advantages of Just-In-Time production • Money is used very efficiently • Warehouses are not needed for storage • No waste or excess stock • Finished product should be cheaper to buy Disadvantages of Just-In-Time production • Very dependant on efficient ordering system • Production halted if material or parts not delivered on time • Company must work closely with suppliers