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SOMALILAND AN INTRODUCTION By Ministry of Energy
SOMALILAND Ø Somaliland is situated in the eastern horn of Africa (08 o 00’. – 11 o. 30’ N) &(42 o 30’ 49 o 00’ E) Ø It shares borders with Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia
SOMALILAND Ø Somaliland is about the size of England & Wales with an area of 137, 600 Km 2 Ø The population of Somaliland is estimated at 2. 0 million Ø The average population growth is 3. 1% and the population density is approximately 15 persons pr. Km 2
The map SOMALILAND SOMALIA
The Map of Somaliland
General Information Ø Languages: Somali is the official language. English & Arabic are also widely spoken. Ø The capital is Hargeisa with a population of 0. 3 million. Ø The other main towns are: Burao, Borama, Berbera (main port), Erigabo and Las Anod.
A Brief History Somaliland was under British rule from 1884 until June 26 th 1960. The country was then known as British Somaliland. It was a Protectorate. Ø Independence was gained June 26 th 1960. Somaliland was admitted to the UN and was recognized by 35 countries in the first week prior to joining the former Italian Somalia on July 1 st to form the Somali Republic. Ø
A Brief History (contd. ) The union between the Somalia & Somaliland did not work and led to a civil war between 1980 and 1991. Ø After the collapse of the Somali Republic, the people of Somaliland decided to withdraw from the union with Somalia and reinstate Somaliland’s sovereignty. An internationally monitored referendum on the constitution confirmed the people’s wish to re-gain their independence. Ø
Political System The country is a REPUBLIC. Ø The LEGISLATIVE assembly is composed of two chambers: Ø Ø An ELDER’S Chamber: The ‘GURTI’ Ø An elected House of REPRESENTATIVES An elected PRESIDENT Ø An elected VICE PRESIDENT Ø A cabinet of Ministers nominated by the President and APPROVED by the legislative assemblies. Ø An INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY Ø
The Economy Ø The backbone of the economy is livestock. Ø Remitances from Somalilanders living abroad play also a big role in the economy.
THE CURRENCY SOMALILAND SHILLING 1 US $ = 7000 SL. SH
Main Roads Map
Petroleum Industry Status Ø Not more than 20 wells drilled (some of them as early as 1940’s) Ø Live oil seeps exist in block 32 south east of Berbera Ø The former government gave concessions to some western companies in the late 80’s. Ø A force majuere was declared after the break of the war in Somaliland
The Concessions ( as per. 1991) M 10 A M 11 30 32 35 27 33 28
Somaliland’s Current Oil Policy Ø The conditions that brought about the force majeure do not exist anymore. Ø Re-negotiate new concessions with interested parties (including the old concession holders)
Hydrocarbons Potential Ø The sedimentary cover of Somaliland includes post-Triassic continental and marine strata which accumulated in basins related to the disintegration of the Gondwanaland. Among these, the Berbera and Ahl Mado basins are the most important basins stratigraphically and hydrocarbon potential.
Hydrocarbon Plays (courtesy M. Ali) l Primary Exploration Interest: Pre-rift Jurrasic Eocene sequences Secondary Exploration Interest: Oligocene-Miocene syn-rift sequences of the gulf of Aden
Source rocks Jurassic: Numerous excellent quality sources rocks of jurassic age are known along the coastal margin, including Bihendula area SE of Berbera(Shales in Daghani formation and Wanderer limestone)in Dagah Shabelle 1. Cretaceous: The late Cretaceous Shales of Jesomma formation contain good source potential. Paleocene-Eocene: In Daba Qua-1 agood potential source rock(Auradu limestone) which had TOC of 3% was encountered.
Reservoir Rocks Numerous reservoirs are possible within the presyn and post-rift rocks of the Gulf of Aden. Reservoir rocks for the pre-rift sequence invlude both carbonates(Palaeogene and Cretaceous-Jurassic)and sandstones(cretaceous and basal jurassic). Reservoir rocks in post-rift sequences are pricinpally sandstones with secondary carbonate reservoirs
Traps l The primary structural traps are rollover anticlines associated with major growth faults that become listric above the pre-rift section. Stratigraphic are also important, particularly in the offshore areas.
Seals l Seals are comprised by interbeded shales for the pre-rift sequence, and with Eocene anhydrites also forming a regional seal.
Two Promising Basins Berbera Basin Ahl Mado Basin
Hydrocarbons Potential (contd. ) Ø Based on published and unpublished data, the geology of these basins proves that oil and gas have been generated with favorable reservoirs, as well as structural and stratigraphic traps. Moreover, continuation of these basins across the gulf, matching the hydrocarbon-producing Marib. Hajar and Say'un-Al Masila basins of Yemen, raises the hydrocarbon prospect of Somaliland. ABSTRACTS (AAPG) EASTERN SECTION 2000 MEETING
Eocene & Paleocene Source Rocks (Journal of Petroleum Geology – April 1992) Somaliland 1)No Source (or no data) 2) Fair-Poor 3) Good-Excellent
Cretaceous Source Rocks Potential (Journal of Petroleum Geology – April 1992) Somaliland 1)No Source (or no data) 2) Fair-Poor 3) Good-Excellent
Current Activities Ø Somaliland is actively seeking international E&P companies to invest in the energy sector. Ø The government signed a long term agreement with TGS-NOPEC to carry out non-exclusive seismic surveys offshore. This includes the marketting of new and legacy data as well.
Waa Mahadsantiin Thank you