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Soil and Water Needs Irrigated Agriculture • • Review Steps 1, 2 and 3 and reports Overview/Discuss Project Themes Develop Project Themes into Project Ideas Draft Project Ideas in Working Groups Discuss Project Ideas at Plenary Redraft Project Ideas Finalize Project Ideas at Plenary
Identify list of needs • • • A long wish-list of needs identified Decide how to group these needs Identified groups, called project themes Recognize need for inter-disciplinarity For convenience chose conventional disciplinary themes ? ? • These themes became synonymous with Project Ideas
Wrap-up meeting to identify Project themes Narrow down needs into project themes Take account of several issues: • Geographic dispersion of problem, agroecological zones, irrigated vs. rainfed sectors • Other projects to rehabilitate irrigation systems, distribute/provide fertilizer, treat soil and water together • Success and failure of previous projects • Research to development continuum • Don’t reinvent the wheel • Is the technology sustainable?
What are Project Ideas? • They were the main output of the NA process • Each Project Idea a written statement of 400 to 1, 000 words • Statement varied somewhat but always included: – Problem statement – Objectives – Timeframe for implementation: • QUIPS • GRIPS
QUIPs and GRIPs • QUIP = Quick impact project: Once approved these can be rapidly implemented and show a measurable impact in six months. • GRIP = Gradual impact project: Once approved they can start rapidly but take 1 - 5 years to show measurable impact. • Rapid Impact Project = RIP!
Prioritize project themes • Consider report recommendations and other new information from workshop • Consider what the consortium can achieve, what is best done by others • Consider comparative advantages of consortium members and what can be achieved with new alliances • Elect theme writers
Recommendations of 1 st draft report • Building a GIS • Repair of the conveyance system with priority given to areas with high potential areas to contribute to food security • Introduction of water harvesting techniques • Introduction of watershed management techniques • Research on irrigation planning based on maximum water saving • Revision and enforcement of the 1981 water law • Basin wide evaluation of surface and groundwater resources • Campaign to involve the community in artificial recharge and the conjunctive use of GW • Generation of off farm income • Appropriate institutional arrangement for water resources management
Recommendations contd. • Training opportunities for farmers, sector managers and technical staff • Strengthening of Colleges Engineering and Agriculture in regional universities • Mass media campaign to educate farmers about on-farm water management • Training of extension service agents • Determination of suitable irrigation and nutrient schedule for different crops • Credit and capital availability • Introducing raised bed and furrow irrigation • Improving nutrient management practice
Recommendations contd. • Determination of potential yields of wheat based on temperature and solar radiation regime using crop model • Development of interdisciplinary research program to identify, quantify, and address constraints to crop productivity
Integrated watershed management Cross-cutting themes: Capacity building, Land degradation, Institutions & policy Tillage/soil management, ICT Irrigated Reparation Irrigation systems Water use efficiency Diversification of Production systems Integrated nutrient management Rainfed Water harvesting Supplemental irrigation Drought coping strategies Diversification of Production systems Integrated nutrient management
Summary of Soil & Water Priority Themes: • Improve existing irrigation systems and introduce modern systems • Improving irrigation water use efficiency • Improve soil & crop management practices – Crop diversification • Nutrient Management • Assessment and management of salt affected soils and groundwater (at least 4 Provinces) • Strengthening of community institutions for water management • Research and extension capacity development
Reparation of Irrigation Systems • Stabilization of river banks (stream bank erosion) – – – • Improve existing systems – – • Huge task! Erosion of the canals by sediments (from land riverbanks) Engineering of diversions to reduce maintenance Plantings on sides of streams to reduce erosion Is information available on river flows (hydrographs)? Snow pack Delivery systems vs. use after delivery to the farm Water Law Irrigation scheduling Functioning, but low efficiency Introduce new systems – Evaluate comparison of flatland agriculture with raised beds (furrow irrigation is not currently in use) • • • Mechanical weed control Impact disease pressures Reduced population / less seed Equipment required / market based economy Need to test now – Sprinkling, drip, furrow irrigation, improved surface irrigation systems – Water retention systems (Small systems and large dams and reservoirs)
Water Use Efficiency • Utilization of drainage water • Weather stations to provide basic information for scheduling of irrigation – Proper locations, what kind, security, equipment/instruments required – Manual or automated – Data logging, analysis • Irrigation scheduling management – Farmers don’t know how to decide when to irrigate, how much to apply – Water availability/use upstream vs. end of the system – Systems are available but could be improved • Options of what to do with shortage of water – Change cropping pattern – Reduce land area irrigated – Reduce amount of water used per unit of land area • Increase efficiency of water use by the crops – Increased efficiency will increase the amount of water available for use downstream
Integrated nutrient management • • Fertilization with animal manure Increasing productivity of crops – – • Leaching of nutrients due to course texture of soil – – – • • Are the yields as low as being reported? Better estimation of crop yields Better characterization of soil fertility status Degree of leaching and its impact is a researchable area both with respect to nutrient loss and water use efficiency Leaching of N not observed in Pakistan, may be N volatilization P should not be leaching Balanced fertilizer Use Banding instead of broadcast fertilization Weed control Timing of application Micronutrients Crop response to levels of nutrient application Soil, plant, water, fertilizer analysis laboratory – Fertilizer is expensive, credit is a problem, need to apply proper amount
Diversification of Production Systems • Crops and crop rotation – Diversification -- Continuous wheat is a problem • Increase cereal crop yield without using more land or water • Demonstration plots with farmer participation to try new options (wheat in farmers fields, other crops at NGO research station or community level, farmers will rent land) – Intercropping (i. e. vegetables with maize; clover with wheat) – Land limitation for other crops (research needed on most efficient sustainable crop rotations) • Currently 2 years wheat, 1 year maize or rice • Red Kidney Beans and chickpeas – some in rotation – Economic viability – Matching crop requirements with environments (country is extremely diverse) – Winter varieties of legumes – Optimize income – reduce risk – Farmers need to know management techniques for many crops (not just grains)
Diversification of Production Systems • Horticultural crop – – – – – Soil – horticulture needs not yet addressed Fertilization – requirements are different Short term interventions – existing tree species Pruning, pest control Zn deficiency Protection of waterways with horticultural crops Benefit to the communities Training at the community level Trees vs. vegetables Transportation of vegetables (identify regions to target close to population, water availability) Impact of drought (tillage, residue management) Protected environments Kitchen gardening Research on effect of temperature Re-establishment of orchards (re-allocation of water required? ) Nurseries for seedling production (private sector, NGOs, ministerial? ) Introduce new varieties? (need to be cautious, but this may be a window of opportunity) Storability and transportability of cultivars Water use management What lessons were learned from the current drought? Apples, apricots lost – not pistachio. Species not adapted?
Land Degradation • Soil Salinity in Helmand, Ghazni, Faryab and Shaberghan – – – Survey of salt affected soils in both provinces Evaluation of groundwater quality/quantity Irrigation systems for delivery of water Salt tolerant plants and Halophytes Development of sustainable biosaline production systems – Germplasm (salt tolerant plants) • Water Erosion • Wind Erosion
Tillage and Land Management • Currently no mechanization, use oxen for plowing, tractors also rented. More mechanization in the North. • Helmand different than other regions. • No till systems can increase organic matter and conserve moisture, but requires equipment. Part of integrated nutrient management.
Research & Extension Capacity Building • • • At one time were 7 Ph. D’s in MOAL, now 1 MS. Personnel training vs. MIS – Human Capacity and Information Capacity – Data analysis required to set priorities, capacity to do analysis should be local – Need to identify how much training is required and who can do it. Limit to short or medium term training on specific topics (watershed approach) – – – – • • On the job, interdisciplinary training (farmer school field) Participatory research techniques, analytical techniques Soil fertility, integrated nutrient management On farm water management Design of convence systems Land degradation Decision Support Systems, initial screenings (Straw Man) Train the trainers – MOAL Research Department, Extension workers, NGOs, Ministry of Rural Development, Fertilizer and other input distributors – NGOs may be temporary, MOAL is permanent, but top people currently with NGOs. – Trainees can be asked to commit to work with extension workers or projects related to the training after there return – Infrastructure required following training Soils Department at University is closed, no professors
Institutions and Policy • Macro – Convince MOAL to develop programs at the watershed level – Water policy, water law, water allocation • Micro – Strengthening of local institutions for water management – Primarily handled by the community (i. e. cleaning of canals every year; need help with repairs) – Rebuild community action (social system / technical system) • Building (or supporting) institutions within the community • Charging for the delivery of water to cover cost and encourage efficiency