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Social Media Marketing 社群網路行銷 Tamkang University 社群網路消費者心理與行為 (Consumer Psychology and Behavior on Social Media) Social Media Marketing 社群網路行銷 Tamkang University 社群網路消費者心理與行為 (Consumer Psychology and Behavior on Social Media) 1022 SMM 04 TLMXJ 1 A (MIS EMBA) Mon 12, 13, 14 (19: 20 -22: 10) D 504 Min-Yuh Day 戴敏育 Assistant Professor 專任助理教授 Dept. of Information Management, Tamkang University 淡江大學 資訊管理學系 http: //mail. tku. edu. tw/myday/ 2014 -03 -10 1

課程大綱 (Syllabus) 週次 (Week) 日期 (Date) 內容 (Subject/Topics) 1 103/02/17 社會網路行銷課程介紹 (Course Orientation of 課程大綱 (Syllabus) 週次 (Week) 日期 (Date) 內容 (Subject/Topics) 1 103/02/17 社會網路行銷課程介紹 (Course Orientation of Social Media Marketing) 2 103/02/24 社群網路商業模式 (Business Models of Social Media) 3 103/03/03 顧客價值與品牌 (Customer Value and Branding) 4 103/03/10 社群網路消費者心理與行為 (Consumer Psychology and Behavior on Social Media) 5 103/03/17 社群網路行銷蜻蜓效應 (The Dragonfly Effect of Social Media Marketing) 6 103/03/24 社群網路行銷個案研究 I (Case Study on Social Media Marketing I) 7 103/03/31 教學行政觀摩日 (Off-campus study) 8 103/04/07 行銷傳播研究 (Marketing Communications Research) 9 103/04/14 社群網路策略 (Social Media Strategy) 2

課程大綱 (Syllabus) 週次 (Week) 日期 (Date) 內容 (Subject/Topics) 10 103/04/21 期中報告 (Midterm Presentation) 11 課程大綱 (Syllabus) 週次 (Week) 日期 (Date) 內容 (Subject/Topics) 10 103/04/21 期中報告 (Midterm Presentation) 11 103/04/28 社群網路行銷計劃 (Social Media Marketing Plan) 12 103/05/05 行動 APP 行銷 (Mobile Apps Marketing) 13 103/05/12 社群網路評量指標 (Social Media Metrics) 14 103/05/19 社群網路行銷個案研究 II (Case Study on Social Media Marketing II) 15 103/05/26 社群網路海量資料分析 (Big Data Analytics of Social Media) 16 103/06/02 端午節 放假一天 (Dragon Boat Festival)(Day off) 17 103/06/09 期末報告 I (Term Project Presentation I) 18 103/06/16 期末報告 II (Term Project Presentation II) 3

Analyzing Consumer Markets • The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target Analyzing Consumer Markets • The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customers’ needs and wants better than competitors. • Marketers must have a thorough understanding of how consumers think, feel, and act and offer clear value to each and every target consumer. Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 4

How consumers think, feel, and act Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing How consumers think, feel, and act Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 5

Model of Consumer Behavior Psychology Marketing Stimuli • Products & Services • Price • Model of Consumer Behavior Psychology Marketing Stimuli • Products & Services • Price • Distribution • Communications Other Stimuli • • Economic Technological Political Cultural • • Motivation Perception Learning Memory Consumer Characteristics Buying Decision Process • Problem Recognition • Information Search • Evaluation of Alternatives • Purchase decision • Post-purchase behavior Purchase Decision • • • Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase amount Purchase timing Payment method • Cultural • Social • Personal Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 6

The Evolution of Marketing Management Marketing Mix Four Ps Modern Marketing Management Four Ps The Evolution of Marketing Management Marketing Mix Four Ps Modern Marketing Management Four Ps Marketing Mix Four Cs Product People Customer solution Place Processes Customer cost Promotion Programs Convenience Price Performance Communication Source: Kotler and Keller (2011) 7

Marketing 4 Ps and 4 Cs Customer Satisfaction Social Media Marketing Four Cs Marketing Marketing 4 Ps and 4 Cs Customer Satisfaction Social Media Marketing Four Cs Marketing New Four Ps Marketing Mix Four Ps Modern Marketing Management Four Ps Product People Customer solution Purpose Place Processes Customer cost Presence Promotion Programs Convenience Proximity Price Performance Communication Partnership Source: Adapted from Kotler and Keller (2011) by Kim Kadlec (2012) 8

What Influences Consumer Behavior? • Cultural Factors • Social Factors • Personal Factors Source: What Influences Consumer Behavior? • Cultural Factors • Social Factors • Personal Factors Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 9

Consumer Behavior • Consumer behavior is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations Consumer Behavior • Consumer behavior is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants. • Marketers must fully understand both theory and reality of consumer behavior. Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 10

Key Psychological Processes • Motivation – Freud, Maslow, Herzberg • Perception – Perception is Key Psychological Processes • Motivation – Freud, Maslow, Herzberg • Perception – Perception is the process by which we select, organize, and interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world • Learning • Emotions • Memory Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 11

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 12

Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs (Maslow, 1943) Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs (Maslow, 1943) Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 13

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: http: //sixstoriesup. com/social-psyche-what-makes-us-go-social/ 14 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: http: //sixstoriesup. com/social-psyche-what-makes-us-go-social/ 14

Social Media Hierarchy of Needs Source: http: //2. bp. blogspot. com/_Rta 1 VZlti. Mk/TPavcan. Social Media Hierarchy of Needs Source: http: //2. bp. blogspot. com/_Rta 1 VZlti. Mk/TPavcan. Ftf. I/AAAAACo/OBGn. RL 5 ar. SU/s 1600/social-media-heirarchy-of-needs 1. jpg 15

Social Media Hierarchy of Needs Source: http: //www. pinterest. com/pin/18647785930903585/ 16 Social Media Hierarchy of Needs Source: http: //www. pinterest. com/pin/18647785930903585/ 16

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Source: http: //www. itinfopoint. com/post/55/factors-affecting-consumer-behavior/ 17 Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Source: http: //www. itinfopoint. com/post/55/factors-affecting-consumer-behavior/ 17

The Social Feedback Cycle Consumer Behavior on Social Media Marketer-Generated User-Generated Awareness Consideration Purchase The Social Feedback Cycle Consumer Behavior on Social Media Marketer-Generated User-Generated Awareness Consideration Purchase Form Opinion Use Talk Source: Evans et al. (2010), Social Media Marketing: The Next Generation of Business Engagement 18

The New Customer Influence Path Awareness Consideration Purchase 19 The New Customer Influence Path Awareness Consideration Purchase 19

Structured Engagement Process on Social Media Engagement Collaboration Creation Curation Consumption Source: Evans et Structured Engagement Process on Social Media Engagement Collaboration Creation Curation Consumption Source: Evans et al. (2010), Social Media Marketing: The Next Generation of Business Engagement 20

Nothing is so practical as a good theory Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Nothing is so practical as a good theory Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 21

Theory • a set of propositions or an abstract conceptualization of the relationship between Theory • a set of propositions or an abstract conceptualization of the relationship between entities. Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 22

Purpose of theory • increase scientific understanding through a systematized structure capable of both Purpose of theory • increase scientific understanding through a systematized structure capable of both explaining and predicting phenomena (Hunt, 1991) Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 23

Theory • a statement of relations among concepts within a set of boundary assumptions Theory • a statement of relations among concepts within a set of boundary assumptions and constraints (Bacharach, 1989) Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 24

Marketing Identifying and meeting human and social needs Source: Kotler and Keller (2011) 25 Marketing Identifying and meeting human and social needs Source: Kotler and Keller (2011) 25

Basis of Marketing Theory Economics Psychological Sociological 26 Basis of Marketing Theory Economics Psychological Sociological 26

Disciplinary Underpinnings of Marketing Theory • • The economics basis of marketing The psychological Disciplinary Underpinnings of Marketing Theory • • The economics basis of marketing The psychological basis of marketing The sociological basis of marketing Cultural aspects of marketing Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 27

Psychological foundations of marketing • • • Motivation Perception Decision making Attitudes Persuasion Source: Psychological foundations of marketing • • • Motivation Perception Decision making Attitudes Persuasion Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 28

Psychological Constructs and Some Associated Marketing Areas Psychological Construct Marketing areas Learning Brand recall, Psychological Constructs and Some Associated Marketing Areas Psychological Construct Marketing areas Learning Brand recall, loyalty Motivation Consumer needs, choice conflicts Perception Product packaging, advertising content Decision making Brand selection, consumer involvement, post-purchase evaluation Attitudes Customer satisfaction, trust, ad influence Personality Consumer segmentation, materialism, addictions Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 29

Motivation • both physiological needs (e. g. hunger, thirst, pain avoidance, security, maintenance of Motivation • both physiological needs (e. g. hunger, thirst, pain avoidance, security, maintenance of body temperature) and psychogenic needs (e. g. achievement, affiliation, status, approval, power) motivate consumer behaviour Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 30

Motivation and Psychological Needs • the waste of money and/or resources by people to Motivation and Psychological Needs • the waste of money and/or resources by people to display a higher status than others’ is clearly linked to the psychological egorelated needs for status, approval and selfconfidence, although it may be influenced in part by extrinsic factors, such as social norms and cultural values Source: Backer & Saren (2009), Marketing Theory: A Student Text, 2 nd Edition, Sage 31

Perception • • Selective attention Selective distortion Selective retention Subliminal perception Source: Kotler and Perception • • Selective attention Selective distortion Selective retention Subliminal perception Source: Kotler and Keller (2011) 32

Overall Model of Consumer Behavior Source: J. Paul Peter and Jerry Olson (2004), Consumer Overall Model of Consumer Behavior Source: J. Paul Peter and Jerry Olson (2004), Consumer Behavior & Marketing Strategy, 7 th edition, , Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin 33

Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 34 Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 34

A GENERIC PURCHASING-DECISION MODEL 1. Need identification 2. Information search – product brokering • A GENERIC PURCHASING-DECISION MODEL 1. Need identification 2. Information search – product brokering • Deciding what product to buy. – merchant brokering • Deciding from whom (from what merchant) to buy products. 3. Evaluation of alternatives 4. Purchase decision and delivery 5. Postpurchase behavior Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 35

Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 36 Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 36

PLAYERS IN THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS • • • Initiator Influencer Decider Buyer User PLAYERS IN THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS • • • Initiator Influencer Decider Buyer User Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 37

Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 38 Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 38

Customer Satisfaction in EC Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 Customer Satisfaction in EC Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 39

TRUST IN EC • Trust The psychological status of willingness to depend on another TRUST IN EC • Trust The psychological status of willingness to depend on another person or organization. Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 40

EC Trust Models Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd EC Trust Models Source: Turban et al. (2010), Introduction to Electronic Commerce, 3 rd edition, Pearson 41

Theories of Information Systems Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Theory Theories of Information Systems Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) • Integration of User Satisfaction and Technology Acceptance (IUSTA) • • 42

TRA (1975) Fishbein, M. , & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: TRA (1975) Fishbein, M. , & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 43

TRA (1989) Davis, F. D. , R. P. Bagozzi and P. R. Warshaw, “User TRA (1989) Davis, F. D. , R. P. Bagozzi and P. R. Warshaw, “User acceptance of computer technology : A comparison of two theoretical models ”, Management Science, 35(8), August 1989, pp. 982 -1003 44

TPB (1985) Ajzen, I. , (1985) “From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned TPB (1985) Ajzen, I. , (1985) “From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior, ” in J. Kuhl and J. Beckmann (Eds. ) Action Control: From Cognition to behavior, Springer Verlag, New york, 1985, pp. 11 -39. 45

TPB (1989) Ajzen, I. , (1989) “Attitude Structure and Behavior, ” in A. R. TPB (1989) Ajzen, I. , (1989) “Attitude Structure and Behavior, ” in A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, and A. G. Greenwald(Eds. ), Attitude Structure and Function, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1989, pp. 241 -274. 46

TPB (1991) Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human TPB (1991) Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179 -211. 47

http: //www. people. umass. edu/aizen/index. html 48 http: //www. people. umass. edu/aizen/index. html 48

TAM (1989) Davis, F. D. , R. P. Bagozzi and P. R. Warshaw, “User TAM (1989) Davis, F. D. , R. P. Bagozzi and P. R. Warshaw, “User acceptance of computer technology : A comparison of two theoretical models ”, Management Science, 35(8), August 1989, pp. 982 -1003 49

TAM 2 (2000) Venkatesh, V. , & Davis, F. D. (2000) “A theoretical extension TAM 2 (2000) Venkatesh, V. , & Davis, F. D. (2000) “A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies”, Management Science, 46(2), pp. 186 -204. 50

UTAUT (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Venkatesh, V. , UTAUT (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Venkatesh, V. , M. G. Morris, G. . B. Davis and F. D. Davis (2003), “User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward A Unified View”, MIS Quarterly, 27(3), pp. 425 -478. 51

Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) (IDT) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) (IDT) (Moore and Benbasat 1991) Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Tompson et al. 1991) (TAM) (Davis 1989) (Compeau and Higgins 1995) Innovation Diffusion Theory Technology Acceptance Model Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Motivation Model (UTAUT) (Davis et al. 1992) (MM) (Venkatesh et al. 2003) Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen 1991) (Taylor and Todd 1995) 52

US (User Satisfaction) Wixom, B. H. , and Todd, P. A. US (User Satisfaction) Wixom, B. H. , and Todd, P. A. "A theoretical integration of user satisfaction and technology acceptance, " Information Systems Research (16: 1), Mar 2005, pp 85 -102. 53

IUSTA (2005) IUSTA (integration of user satisfaction and technology acceptance) Wixom, B. H. , IUSTA (2005) IUSTA (integration of user satisfaction and technology acceptance) Wixom, B. H. , and Todd, P. A. "A theoretical integration of user satisfaction and technology acceptance, " Information Systems Research (16: 1), Mar 2005, pp 85 -102. 54

TAM 3 (2008) Viswanath Venkatesh, Hillo Bala, Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a Research TAM 3 (2008) Viswanath Venkatesh, Hillo Bala, Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a Research Agenda on Interventions, Decision Sciences, Volume 39, Number 2, May 2008, pp. 273 -315. 55

References • Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , References • Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, 14 th ed. , Pearson, 2012 • Dave Evans, Susan Bratton, & Jake Mc. Kee, Social Media Marketing: The Next Generation of Business Engagement, Sybex, 2010 • Lon Safko, The Social Media Bible: Tactics, Tools, and Strategies for Business Success, 3 rd ed. , Wiley, 2012 56