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SOA Part 1 Lecture 5 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava SOA Part 1 Lecture 5 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Lectures at the University of Bratislava/Autumn 2017 03. 10. 2017 Lecture 1 The long Lectures at the University of Bratislava/Autumn 2017 03. 10. 2017 Lecture 1 The long Way from OO to SOA & WEB- Services 17. 10. 2017 Lecture 2 Semantic WEB & SOA-Technological Basis 14. 11. 2017 Lecture 3 SOA-Basing on J 2 EE & SOA-Focus on Business Processes 21. 11. 2017 Lecture 4 B 2 B Frameworks and related Standards 28. 11. 2017 Lecture 5 WEB 2. 0 & GRID & Cloud Computing 2 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 4/1 § Collaboration between organizations is primarily fostered by § sharing Summary of lecture 4/1 § Collaboration between organizations is primarily fostered by § sharing of resources, competencies, and capacities. § Premises for collaborations among different organizations are common § Business Strategies (BS), Business Models (BM), and Business Processes (BP) § Different coalition types (i. e. network, collaboration network) correspond different integration levels (i. e. communication & integration exchange, joint goals & joint responsibilities) § Services may be distinguished in different kinds § Horizontal versus Vertical ones § Enterprise Collaborations versus Enterprise Interoperability Services § Web Services versus Semantic Web Services 3 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 4/2 § Success of Semantic Web Services will be measured § Summary of lecture 4/2 § Success of Semantic Web Services will be measured § defining process areas which positively contribute to the common business § appropriate ontology, appropriate maturity level of organizations will foster it § specific goal could be § how many attempts you need to find the right web service § Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE), Virtual Organizations (VO) and typical examples § Supply Chains (SC) and their actual challenges § ARIS & Biz. Talk § BPEL, BPMN § Steps from ARIS business services via BPEL/BPMN, Visual Studio to executable Biz. Talk applications on respective Biz. Talk servers. § Reference Project 4 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 4/3 § Electronic business is not an invention of the Web Summary of lecture 4/3 § Electronic business is not an invention of the Web § Already in the 80’s a standard for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) was established § Mainly focusing on business data Technological driver of B 2 B frameworks was XML United Nations bodies, OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) and vendors fostered the development of standards Partly standards are focusing on business data § Whereas the others tried to standardize business processes § Between the involved companies of electronic business To the first group belong: § eb. XML which focuses on CPP (Collaboration Partner Profile) and CPA (Collaboration Partner Agreement) § Are in some way a superset of WSDL § c. XML defining structures of purchase orders or order acknowledgment § UBI ended in a standard and is more or less successor of EDI § § 5 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 6/4 § To the second group belong: § Rosetta. Net providing Summary of lecture 6/4 § To the second group belong: § Rosetta. Net providing dictionaries, PIP (Partner Interface Processes), and TPA’s (Trading Partners Agreement) -including 5 modules § OBI entailing a buying organization § Biztalk specifies message formats that encloses documents: provided on MS servers § Bolero. net is running on a server owned by an independent third partyfocusing on trading processes § tpa. ML provides a special language to express agreements between business partners § Two of them are meta frameworks: § § 6 e. CO architecture is an abstract architecture for B 2 B frameworks XCBL is a set of XML building blocks and a document framework 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Today’s Agenda § § 7 Web 2. 0 § Evolution § Overview of ingredients Today’s Agenda § § 7 Web 2. 0 § Evolution § Overview of ingredients § Mash Up § Challenges § Conclusion Cloud Computing § Definition § Service Delivery Levels § Deployment Models § Architecture § Standards 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm § § Saa. S § Origin § Major Trends § Back Ground & Context § Business Strategies § Business Models § Metaphor § Ingredients § Premises § IBM’s View § Methodology Grid Computing § Concern § Relations to other technologies § Space based computing § Standards § Conclusions SOA Bratislava

Evolution of the Web/1 8 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava Evolution of the Web/1 8 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

DNA of Web 2. 0/1 10 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava DNA of Web 2. 0/1 10 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Web 2. 0 /33 Challenges/1 § Security & trust: § Blog authors are engaged Web 2. 0 /33 Challenges/1 § Security & trust: § Blog authors are engaged for writing specific opinions by organizations: i. e. Hotels § Phishing attacks § Emergence of incorrect articles in Wikipedia. § Legal issues: § Clearing of Brands § Liability issues § If a provider assembles new services out of existing ones (mashups) 13 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Web 2. 0 /34 Challenges/2 § Technological issues § For approaches as AJAX there Web 2. 0 /34 Challenges/2 § Technological issues § For approaches as AJAX there are diverse options for implementation § there is not a systematic IDE (Integrated Development Environment) -support. § On the other hand important technologies don’t exist at all or are changing permanently. § In spite of the SOA approach not all integration issues are solved. § And finally the question arises § if the existing web technology is the appropriate and stable platform. 14 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Web 2. 0 /31 Conclusion/1 § Web 2. 0 provides both users and commercial Web 2. 0 /31 Conclusion/1 § Web 2. 0 provides both users and commercial interested ones crucial benefits. § Benefits of users are: § more interactivity, § more powerful user interfaces and applications, § more efficient access of any contents and their composition, § as well as the possibility to have influence on contents § building a new community of common interests. 15 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Web 2. 0 /32 Conclusion/2 § For the commercial provider new instruments for marketing Web 2. 0 /32 Conclusion/2 § For the commercial provider new instruments for marketing and selling are established § as well as diverse business opportunities § and above all the evolution of the web § to an efficient platform for hosting services and applications. § Certainly , there are many challenges - especially: § security and trust § legal issues § and technological issues. 16 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Definition § The notion of what exactly is cloud computing is. . . Cloud Computing/Definition § The notion of what exactly is cloud computing is. . . cloudy -numerous definitions exist. A rather well-founded definition is provided by the US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) § Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, ondemand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources § e. g. , networks, servers, storage, applications, and services § that can be rapidly provisioned and released § with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. § As most other definitions, NIST's definition describes three servicedelivery models for cloud computing 17 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Service Delivery Levels § Cloud Software as a Service (Saa. S) § The Cloud Computing/Service Delivery Levels § Cloud Software as a Service (Saa. S) § The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider's applications running on a cloud infrastructure and accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a Web browser (e. g. , web-based email). § Cloud Platform as a Service (Paa. S) § The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created applications using programming languages and tools supported by the provider (e. g. , java, python, . Net). § Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (Iaa. S) § The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. 18 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Saa. S Layer § The Saa. S layer is regarded as the application Cloud Computing/Saa. S Layer § The Saa. S layer is regarded as the application layer, delivering applications over the browser or composite high-level services. § It's important to mention that cloud computing is not stuck to thinclients. § The smart phone shows that the smart client is used in practice. Therefore, new client technology, running as plug-in in the browsers, § for example Microsoft's Silverlight, Adobe's AIR, Flash, Java FX, Google Chrome, are required to deliver the required user experience. § Prominent examples are, Microsoft online (BPOS) and live, Goggle Apps, Salesforce CRM, § Success. Factors, Apple's App. Store and many more. 19 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Paa. S Layer/1 § The Paa. S layer consists of a platform technology Cloud Computing/Paa. S Layer/1 § The Paa. S layer consists of a platform technology and typical foundation infrastructure services. This could be split up in the platform and service. § The architectural platform aspect can be compared to a typical desktop operating system and infrastructure services to typical network services required in an enterprise environment. § The platform part covers the abstraction for resource management § computation, storage, network § The service part covers services for § directories, search, billing. 20 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Paa. S Layer/2 § Current examples are Windows Azure, Goggle App Engine, Force. Cloud Computing/Paa. S Layer/2 § Current examples are Windows Azure, Goggle App Engine, Force. com. All three offerings can be regarded as Paa. S, but are very different. § Windows Azure is much like an. net operating system open for developing like for an on-premise OS § Google App Engine is intended to allow glue logic in Java and Python for Google Apps § Force. com is a fully proprietary platform with specific programming language and useful services in the CRM domain. § The common advantage of cloud platforms is their focus on scalability, reliability and low operating cost. § Existing applications cannot be transferred from on-premise to cloud platforms; § they typically have to be reengineered in order to gain the benefit of seamless Internet scale. 21 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Iaa. S Layer § The Iaa. S layer covers all the current offerings Cloud Computing/Iaa. S Layer § The Iaa. S layer covers all the current offerings in the virtualization domain. § The market leader is Amazon (Elastic Cloud) § typically offering hosted operating systems like Windows or Linux. § These virtualized offerings allow fast scale of virtualized hardware, but does not scale up applications, if they are not developed for scalability already. § But also the new types of services, called storage services are related to the infrastructure level. § Prominent offerings are: Amazon Simple Storage (S 3), Simple. DB, Windows Azure Storage, Google Storage. § Furthermore, infrastructure services for synchronization are provided. 22 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Deployment Models § § § 23 Private cloud § The cloud infrastructure is Cloud Computing/Deployment Models § § § 23 Private cloud § The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Community cloud § The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations (e. g. SC, CNO) and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e. g. , mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. § On-premises software is installed and run on computers on the premises (in the building) § off-premises software is commonly called "software as a service" or "computing in the cloud. " Public cloud § The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Hybrid Cloud § These deployment models can be mixed as a Cloud Computing/Hybrid Cloud § These deployment models can be mixed as a "hybrid cloud": § the cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique § entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e. g. , cloud bursting). 24 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Service View vs. Architecture View § The big number of different definitions and the Service View vs. Architecture View § The big number of different definitions and the current buzz around cloud computing, leads to different interpretations of cloud computing. § Therefore, a cloud computing reference architecture model is introduced which allows § relating technological and architectural aspects to service view aspects. § Cloud computing novelty comes from the composition of existing technologies combined with new business models for software and service selling. It's not a single new technology. 25 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing Architecture 26 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava Cloud Computing Architecture 26 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/Standards § Cloud computing heavily relies on Web standards (protocols, e. g. SOAP Cloud Computing/Standards § Cloud computing heavily relies on Web standards (protocols, e. g. SOAP and REST, security, e. g. SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language ), OAuth (Open Authorization) , etc. ) § but there are no specific cloud computing standards for elements and processes § such as APIs, the storage, data import and export, and backup. § Furthermore, application portability is difficult, because the platform concepts differ in resource scheduling and resource access and control from current on-premise concepts. 27 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/ Success Factors/1 § § 36 Generic cloud computing aspects § Low price Cloud Computing/ Success Factors/1 § § 36 Generic cloud computing aspects § Low price § Flexible contractual models Relevant factors in Saa. S § Best-of-breed support for the company processes that are mapped § The provider’s economic reliability § Integration and migration interfaces § References and flexible price models 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Cloud Computing/ Success Factors/2 § § 37 Key aspects for Paa. S providers § Cloud Computing/ Success Factors/2 § § 37 Key aspects for Paa. S providers § Size of the community entrusted with developing the technology in question § Simplicity of service deployment § Architecture frameworks that support automatic scaling Key aspects for Iaa. S providers § Leveraging economies of scale § Advantages in price/performance ratio § Availability § Security § Network connection’s bandwidth 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Saa. S (Software as a Service)/2 Overview § § § § § 38 Origin Saa. S (Software as a Service)/2 Overview § § § § § 38 Origin Major Trends Back Ground & Context Business Strategies Business Models Metaphor Ingredients Premises IBM’s View Methodology 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Saa. S (Software as a Service)/1 Origins § Some ideas are coming from the Saa. S (Software as a Service)/1 Origins § Some ideas are coming from the “Big Iron” § also some similar ideas as “Thin Clients” and “Application service providing” are going back to the late nineties § The primary idea of Saa. S is the following § provide the user with application functionality via web clients § instead to force to install the whole application on his PC. 39 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Background and Context Distinguishing ASP from Saa. S Application Hosting Model Software as a Background and Context Distinguishing ASP from Saa. S Application Hosting Model Software as a Service Model Customer pays on delivery of software Customer pays for delivery of functional services Customer responsible for software Provider responsible for software performance Customer responsible to customize Customer responsible to configure software to business requirements Customer pays maintenance to fix Provider fixes software or pays penalty software for failure to meet service levels Customer buys upgrades to keep current Provider ensures currency of solution Source: Summit Strategies, Inc “Software Powered Services: Net-native Saa. S Transforms the ISV Business Model” Feb, 2005 41 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Background and Context A tentative Roadmap towards Saa. S-U Saa. S Subscription Simple Increments Background and Context A tentative Roadmap towards Saa. S-U Saa. S Subscription Simple Increments Today’s (modify CPU/ Models tiered models) (mostly fixed) Variable costs Shared resources Service oriented 2463 Fixed costs Dedicated resources Product oriented IT Plug 42 17. 03. 2018 Hybrid (Fixed & Variable Usage) Value Driven (based on Variable function Usage (Metered) commoditisation) Marginal cost > 0. 0 Value based dynamic pricing Service infrastructure as utility Innovation focused IT Switch Dr. Withalm IT Tap SOA Bratislava

Business Strategies § § § § 43 Intellectual property Bundling Standards Open source Long Business Strategies § § § § 43 Intellectual property Bundling Standards Open source Long tail “Free” FUD (Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt) 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Utility based business models: Issues & Questions Issues Questions Ownership: Market & its Rules Utility based business models: Issues & Questions Issues Questions Ownership: Market & its Rules Who to buy from? Who comprise the Saa. S-U value chain? How many providers, service publishers, intermediaries? Will there be gatekeepers? nothing is owned Pricing and Licensing: value based and dynamic How to determine value? (Customers) How to price SW based on, e. g. How to measure usage? Number of cars built, Number of cars hired, What gets metered? Number of airline passengers, Number of banking deposits, etc (Providers) How to meter based on, e. g. business processes, peak/off peak pricing, tariffs, auctions, location hosting discounts, forecasting & penalties, others? What exactly gets billed? What are the payment and clearance mechanisms? Who gets paid? What are the “guaranteed properties” for SLA between customers and providers/third parties -Availability SLA between providers -Accessibility SLA between third parties Customer expectations and “industry norms” -Reliability Interoperability How to get an invoice? -Security Standards and One meter per “product”, per “service”? How to pay? pay only for what is used “Alignment” between pricing and metering? How many meters? Payment: Oversight and governance -Interoperability -Usability -Others? 44 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Metaphor Electricity § Infrastructure, i. e. cables (network, servers. . . ) § Different Metaphor Electricity § Infrastructure, i. e. cables (network, servers. . . ) § Different kinds of plug-ins (interfaces, no international standards) § Different adapters to appliances (integration of legacy systems) § Different utilities, i. e. high/low voltage § Different business models, i. e. business/private customers 46 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Metaphor AMADEUS – IT Provider in Tourism § Infrastructure § A dedicated network, which Metaphor AMADEUS – IT Provider in Tourism § Infrastructure § A dedicated network, which provides different booking offers (flights, hotels, packages, events. . . ) § TOMA interface is the connector to the utilities § Utilities are different booking offers as § Flights, Packages: are provided by different organizations as airlines, tour operators, hotels. . . § Business models consist of § Access price, which is a fixed price for a period § Booking fee, which is an amount of the whole booking price 47 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Ingredients § Infrastructure containing § Payment services § Maintenance services § Monitoring services § Ingredients § Infrastructure containing § Payment services § Maintenance services § Monitoring services § Building of domain clusters / sub webs § Providing of domain specific services, which are separated in § Basic, horizontal, vertical ones § Services are built on the four cornerstones § Web 2. 0 § Web services, SOA § Semantic Web § Ontology § which induces the separation in domains § Interfaces to make services to be integrated with ERP and legacy systems 48 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Premises § Technological § Eclipse, IBM Websphere, Microsoft Team Foundation Server § Semantic Web Premises § Technological § Eclipse, IBM Websphere, Microsoft Team Foundation Server § Semantic Web languages (OWL, RDF, etc. ) § Domain competency § Especially in Automotive, Healthcare, Energy § Ontology § Basic knowledge how ontology could be established, § which in turn also requires deep domain knowledge. 49 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

IBM’s View Managed Hosting and Support for Saa. S Solution Server Hardware Infra & IBM’s View Managed Hosting and Support for Saa. S Solution Server Hardware Infra & Operations Data centre LAN infra & Operations Internet connectivity & Operations Transition Storage & Tape HW Infra & Mgmt OS Security Mgmt OS Management Service Management & Reporting Application Operations Monitoring (alerting, escalations) Helpdesk Level 2 Customer End-user Helpdesk (Level 1) Application Management Services Governance & Project Management IBM 50 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava ISV

Methodology Saa. S/1 § EI Services which are available on the GSP (Generic Service Methodology Saa. S/1 § EI Services which are available on the GSP (Generic Service Platform) will be provided via the Saa. S concept. § which is an emerging concept for current and future networked enterprises § Saa. S is a model for SW deployment with the following characteristics: § application is hosted as a service provided to customers across the Internet. § application must neither be installed nor run on the customer's own computer § alleviates the customer's burden of software maintenance, ongoing operation, and support. § customers relinquish control over software versions or changing requirements. § conceivably reduce that up-front expense of software purchases § through less costly, on-demand pricing. 51 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S/2 § From the software vendor's standpoint following issues are from importance: Methodology Saa. S/2 § From the software vendor's standpoint following issues are from importance: § it has the attraction of providing stronger protection of its intellectual property § establishing an ongoing revenue stream § may host the application on its own web server § this function may also be handled by a third-party application service provider (ASP). § This way, end users may reduce their investment on server hardware too. 52 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S/3 § Many types of software well suited to the Saa. S Methodology Saa. S/3 § Many types of software well suited to the Saa. S model § where customers may have little interest or capability in software deployment, but do have substantial computing needs. § Such Application areas are for instance: § Customer relationship management (CRM) i. e. Salesforce § Video conferencing § Human resources § IT service management § Accounting § IT security § Web analytics § Web content management § e-mail are § These are the initial markets showing Saa. S success 53 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S/4 § Saa. S solutions were developed specifically to leverage web technologies Methodology Saa. S/4 § Saa. S solutions were developed specifically to leverage web technologies § such as the browser, thereby making them web-native. § Both data design as well as architecture of Saa. S applications are specifically built with a 'multi-tenant' backend § Multi-tenancy refers to a principle in software architecture where a single instance of the software runs on a server, serving multiple client organizations (tenants). § thus enabling multiple customers or users to access a shared data model. § This further differentiates Saa. S from client/server or 'ASP' (Application Service Provider) solutions § because Saa. S providers are leveraging enormous economies of scale § in the deployment, management, support and through the Software Development Lifecycle. 54 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S/5 § A new implementation of the Saa. S vision is expected Methodology Saa. S/5 § A new implementation of the Saa. S vision is expected § supporting the various collaborative business forms, from supply chains to business ecosystems § and becoming for them like a utility, a commodity, the so-called Interoperability Service Utility (ISU) § ISU will not just create a service platform § but mainly a new business concept – the Software-asa-Service Utility (Saa. S-U) model. 55 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S-U/1 § can be seen as a software application delivery model § Methodology Saa. S-U/1 § can be seen as a software application delivery model § where a software vendor develops Web-native software services § hosting and operating them for use by its customers over the Internet. § Customers do not pay for owning the software itself any longer but rather for using it on-demand. § They use it through an API accessible over the Web and often written using Web services. § fits also well with modern SOA architectures § aiming to promote software development in a way that leverages the construction of dynamic software systems § which can easily adapt to volatile user environments and be easily maintained as well. 56 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S-U/2 § SOA enables flexible connectivity of applications by representing every application Methodology Saa. S-U/2 § SOA enables flexible connectivity of applications by representing every application as a service with a standardized interface. § enabling to exchange structured information quickly and flexibly. § This flexibility enables new and existing applications to be easily and quickly combined § to address changing business needs, and the ability to easily combine and choreograph applications § allowing IT services to more readily reflect business processes 57 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S-U/3 Open Issues/1 § § § 58 Are there success stories/lessons learned Methodology Saa. S-U/3 Open Issues/1 § § § 58 Are there success stories/lessons learned in specific domains concerning experience of ISU/Saa. S-U? Saa. S-U will undergo further transformation In business models for Saa. S-U the providing of platforms should be taken into account What’s the borderline between value added services and utility services: concretely is payment an utility service? Do utility services belong to horizontal services? Consider the differentiation between horizontal and vertical services. Assessment respectively certification authorities could be another type of stake holder: especially in the crucial issues as Qo. S (Quality of Service), liability, reliability, SLA (Service Level Agreement). There are doubts that ISU will bring intelligence in the network. Discussions about the different types of metaphors especially concerning the tab: is mixture of cold and warm water really a metaphor for ISU? Distinguish among cost based and market based prices IPR (and patents) also for SW solutions are encouraged by CMMI assessments : could this fact increase prices for ISU 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S-U/3 Open Issues/2 § Legal aspects must be solved § Above all Methodology Saa. S-U/3 Open Issues/2 § Legal aspects must be solved § Above all liability issues § The crucial issue seems to be the Ontology. § Without Ontology UDDI will not work properly. § So no customer will really find the respective services! § It’s also very questionable, if Ontology will be standardized. § Some fears are concerning the quality of services. § Are they again “technical” services at the end of the day? § as we experienced with objects 59 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Methodology Saa. S-U/3 Open Issues/3 § Another hype? § Ontology neither exists nor chance Methodology Saa. S-U/3 Open Issues/3 § Another hype? § Ontology neither exists nor chance to agree on it. § Often on political reasons (i. e. Automotive sector – Odette) § Services don’t meet the expectations of end users. § Neither value proposition nor relevant business models are met. § Interfaces/connectors to ERP/legacy systems are too heavy to be implemented. § Are there enough technicians or business experts available? 60 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/1 Overview/1 § Opaque domain § Is very novel and dynamic § Refining Grid Computing/1 Overview/1 § Opaque domain § Is very novel and dynamic § Refining to a very new technology § Commonly unknown § Enjoys an increased popularity in a small but nevertheless very dedicated circle of software experts § Provides very interesting and novel solutions to traditional problems. 61 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/3 Concern of GC/1 § § 63 High performance computing is prevailing technology Grid Computing/3 Concern of GC/1 § § 63 High performance computing is prevailing technology GC is becoming more and more of high interest and of economic relevance GC is related to § Infrastructure which enables a § Coordinated common usage of any resources in § Dynamic, distributed IT systems An aggregation of multiple organizations to such an infrastructure § Is called a virtual organization (VO). 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/5 Concern of GC/3 § As VO’s generally have a large number of Grid Computing/5 Concern of GC/3 § As VO’s generally have a large number of users and are strong distributed the following issues are of great importance § Fault tolerance § Load balancing § Real time messaging § Clustering § Which in best case are taken over by the underlying layers in a transparent way. 65 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/6 Concern of GC/4 § § 66 IBM’s most important target is usage Grid Computing/6 Concern of GC/4 § § 66 IBM’s most important target is usage of § Needless breached/wasted system resources § The following figures are quoted for idle times § Mainframes 40% § Servers in academic environment 90% § Most PC 95% For comparison only envisage § An airline where 90% of its fleet are on ground § A car manufacturer which 40% of time is not producing § A hotel which is 95% vacant. 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/15 Relations of GC to other technologies/1 § § § 67 All existing Grid Computing/15 Relations of GC to other technologies/1 § § § 67 All existing technologies don’t provide frameworks § For the general mechanisms and services § Which are essential for the distributed usage of resources in VO’s. Systems as CORBA or J 2 EE enable the realization of distributed systems § Intend mainly in local resource management Operations crosswise firewalls as well as real time and multimedia support § Were not intended originally 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/16 Relations of GC to other technologies/2 § The fundamental nature of P Grid Computing/16 Relations of GC to other technologies/2 § The fundamental nature of P 2 P- computing § Server doesn’t exist § Instead a federation of engines work together § Complies totally with the GC paradigm § Real P 2 P applications are nowadays limited to vertical domains § For instance music online exchange server § Is not identified with middleware, general protocols, and functionality. § The project “JXTA” (abbreviation of juxtapose) of SUN provides a set of general P 2 P interfaces and protocols § Which are widely accepted and could be standardized. 68 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/17 Relations of GC to other technologies/3 § § 69 Web-Services (WS) provide Grid Computing/17 Relations of GC to other technologies/3 § § 69 Web-Services (WS) provide dynamic discovery of services § Crossways heterogeneous systems and the automatic generation of the essential § Proxies for the communication basing on defined interfaces WS is a widely accepted industry standard and in that way § Interoperability is guarantied. WS are a central component on the road to a global GC WS don’t provide communication forms § Which raise the abstraction § And in that way facilitate the development of distributed systems. 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/18 Relations of GC to other technologies/4 § That’s why technologies are requested Grid Computing/18 Relations of GC to other technologies/4 § That’s why technologies are requested § Which provide additive essential components § Agent-based computing is one of these. 70 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/28 Agents/SOA/3 § Agents are working and communicating asynchronously and loosely coupled § Grid Computing/28 Agents/SOA/3 § Agents are working and communicating asynchronously and loosely coupled § Providing a significant enlargement § In designing and implementing of systems Loosely coupling leads distributed systems to § More stability and performance § Tasks must not executed synchronously § Starting with an initial action § Instead they may follow the logical process of request and replay Batch process will be eliminated § Replaced by real time behavior § In that way agents represent an equivalent architecture § For dynamic changing systems. § § 71 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/35 Standards/1 § In the context of the GLOBUS project IBM works on Grid Computing/35 Standards/1 § In the context of the GLOBUS project IBM works on the § Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) § Which strives for harmonization of Web Services and GC § Main endeavor of these standardizations are common interfaces § Both for GC and Web Services. 72 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/36 Standards/2 73 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava Grid Computing/36 Standards/2 73 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/38 Conclusion/1 § In the future we will encounter P 2 P-based virtual Grid Computing/38 Conclusion/1 § In the future we will encounter P 2 P-based virtual technologies § i. e. agents and service oriented aspects § Enabling comprehensive services § Difficulties and challenges are coming from paradigm shift § Similar to that of 80’s § When introducing OO. 74 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Grid Computing/41 Conclusion/4 § A breakthrough will only come into sight § If these Grid Computing/41 Conclusion/4 § A breakthrough will only come into sight § If these utility tools are available § MS for instance facilitates the usage of software in providing § Easy to handle user interfaces § Easy attainable software tools for all areas § For example Visual Studio or the. Net framework. 75 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 7/1 § § § 76 Web 2. 0’s main focus is Summary of lecture 7/1 § § § 76 Web 2. 0’s main focus is the different usage of the Web § Social Networks, WIKI, Blogs, Active User, Personalized Web Portals Technically there are different approaches § On the server side SOA applications are prevailing § Search may take place either central or locally via P 2 P or Grid § On the client side AJAX has been established Important challenges which must be overcome § Security and trust, legal issues and technological issues § i. e. is the existing Web technology appropriate and stable? 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 7/2 § Cloud Computing comprises § Different delivery levels as § Summary of lecture 7/2 § Cloud Computing comprises § Different delivery levels as § Saa. S, Paa. S, and Iaa. S, where Saa. S is in the mean time well established § Different Deployment Models as § Private, Community, and Public Cloud 77 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 7/3 § Saa. S origins go back on the one hand Summary of lecture 7/3 § Saa. S origins go back on the one hand to Big Iron and on the other hand to “thin” clients of the late nineties. § Actually Saa. S seems one of the mayor trends within the whole SW industry. § Specific premises, risks, and measures must be considered before Saa. S will be successful § Saa. S also requires specific (not only environment) ingredients § An adequat business model has not really emerged § typical metephor is electricity § distinguishment ASP from Saa. S § Vision of IBM 78 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Summary of lecture 7/4 § Main concerns of Grid Computing are: § Resource sharing Summary of lecture 7/4 § Main concerns of Grid Computing are: § Resource sharing § Personal Computer resources are only used up to 5 % § Operation of VO’s § Relation GC to other technologies § Web Services, Agent based computing (P 2 P), CORBA, and J 2 EE § Web Service and Grid standards are converging § Breakthrogh is dependent on the availability of easy attainable tools. 79 17. 03. 2018 Dr. Withalm SOA Bratislava

Thank you for your attention! SOA Bratislava Thank you for your attention! SOA Bratislava