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So, You Want To Be An Animal Owner Developed by: Holly George, University of So, You Want To Be An Animal Owner Developed by: Holly George, University of California Extension Service Susie Kocher, University of California Extension Service Bruce Miller, Utah State University Melody Hefner, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension NRCS, Bozeman, Mont.

We’ll be covering: Living n What are the legal considerations? Why have animals? What We’ll be covering: Living n What are the legal considerations? Why have animals? What do animals cost, in terms of time and money? What do animals need? What can your land support? the Land www. farmphoto. com

What legal limitations apply to my property? www. burnettepetfarm. com What legal limitations apply to my property? www. burnettepetfarm. com

Legal considerations Living n Zoning Special use permits Covenants, conditions and restrictions (CC&Rs) Local Legal considerations Living n Zoning Special use permits Covenants, conditions and restrictions (CC&Rs) Local ordinances the Land

Zoning Living n Imposed by local government Agricultural, urban, rural, commercial Each zone has Zoning Living n Imposed by local government Agricultural, urban, rural, commercial Each zone has regulations on animals Some may require a permit the Land

Special use permits Living n Required in some zones Require application and environmental review Special use permits Living n Required in some zones Require application and environmental review Require information about your property May be denied or granted with special conditions the Land

Covenants, conditions, and restrictions (CC&Rs) Living n Some neighborhoods restrict animals through CC&Rs the Covenants, conditions, and restrictions (CC&Rs) Living n Some neighborhoods restrict animals through CC&Rs the Land

Local ordinances Living n Right-to-farm ordinances Open-range ordinances the Land www. farmphoto. com Local ordinances Living n Right-to-farm ordinances Open-range ordinances the Land www. farmphoto. com

Your property Living n Zoning CC&Rs Grazing the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont. Your property Living n Zoning CC&Rs Grazing the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont.

Why have animals? www. farmphoto. com Why have animals? www. farmphoto. com

Animal ownership Pros Cons Relaxing Time-consuming Close to nature Hard to get away Teaches Animal ownership Pros Cons Relaxing Time-consuming Close to nature Hard to get away Teaches children skills Costly Fun family activity Middle of night work Supplemental income May be dangerous

Balancing pros and cons Living n the Land Balancing pros and cons Living n the Land

Is it worth it? UNCE, Reno, Nev. Is it worth it? UNCE, Reno, Nev.

Articulating your goals Living n Why do I want a …? What kind of Articulating your goals Living n Why do I want a …? What kind of …. ? How much time do I have to spend with a …. . ? Where would I keep a …? Other options? the Land

What does it cost to keep an animal? Living n the Land USU, Logan, What does it cost to keep an animal? Living n the Land USU, Logan, UT

Animal costs: Horse Living n Initial costs Operational costs the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont. Animal costs: Horse Living n Initial costs Operational costs the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont.

Horse Costs Initial Investment: Animal Equipment Facilities Total $1000 $ 843 $2360 $4203 Annual Horse Costs Initial Investment: Animal Equipment Facilities Total $1000 $ 843 $2360 $4203 Annual Operating Cost: Feed $854 Health care $302 Other $1302 Total $2458 TOTAL First year = $6661 (or $18. 25/day) TOTAL Each year after = ~$2500 (or $6. 85/day)

How much time will it take? Living n Maintaining animals Maintaining equipment Maintaining facilities How much time will it take? Living n Maintaining animals Maintaining equipment Maintaining facilities the Land www. freeyellow. com

Maintaining animals Living n Feeding Exercising Handling the Land www. farmphoto. com www. mmfarms. Maintaining animals Living n Feeding Exercising Handling the Land www. farmphoto. com www. mmfarms. com

How much time does it take to care for a horse? Feeding Containment Manure How much time does it take to care for a horse? Feeding Containment Manure disposal 1 hour/day 2 hours/month 10 -12 hours/month Shoes, vet, etc 10 -12 hours/year Exercising and grooming 6 hours/week minimum

Maintaining facilities Living n Fence maintenance Pasture Irrigation Trailers and trucks Barn/shelter the Land Maintaining facilities Living n Fence maintenance Pasture Irrigation Trailers and trucks Barn/shelter the Land www. agry. purdue. edu/ext

Alternatives to ownership Living n How else can your goals of horse ownership be Alternatives to ownership Living n How else can your goals of horse ownership be satisfied? the Land

Example: riding lessons Cost of lessons 1 lesson/week 2 lessons/week $30/hour $30 $60 Cost Example: riding lessons Cost of lessons 1 lesson/week 2 lessons/week $30/hour $30 $60 Cost of ownership, first year Ride 1 hour/ week Ride 2 hours/ week $18. 25/day $127. 75 $63. 88 Cost of ownership after first year Ride 5 hours/ week Ride 9 hours/ week $6. 85/day $34. 25 $61. 65

www. farmphoto. com Living n Balance the pros and cons before deciding the Land www. farmphoto. com Living n Balance the pros and cons before deciding the Land UNCE, Reno, Nev.

What do animals need? Living n the Land USU, Logan UT What do animals need? Living n the Land USU, Logan UT

Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Land www. farmphoto. com

Feed or forage costs Living n How much forage will my land provide? the Feed or forage costs Living n How much forage will my land provide? the Land www. farmphoto. com

Forage production depends on: Living n Climate and moisture Soil type Your management system Forage production depends on: Living n Climate and moisture Soil type Your management system Irrigation availability the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont.

Annual forage production estimates TYPE OF PASTURE FERTILE POOR SOILS (Tons/acre) Irrigated 2 -4 Annual forage production estimates TYPE OF PASTURE FERTILE POOR SOILS (Tons/acre) Irrigated 2 -4 <2 Non-irrigated 1 -2 0. 5 or less Range/ Woodland 1 0. 5 or less

Forage production estimation Living n Use previous table Use soil survey crop yield report Forage production estimation Living n Use previous table Use soil survey crop yield report Use local production figures (USFS, NRCS, County Agricultural Reports, etc. ) the Land

Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Land www. farmphoto. com

All animals need water Living n Water needs will vary by animal size, reproductive All animals need water Living n Water needs will vary by animal size, reproductive status and weather Average animal needs: § § Beef cow or horse – 12 to 15 gallons/day Pig – 1 to 5 gallons/day Llama – 2 to 5 gallons/day Sheep or goat – 1 to 3 gallons/day These needs may double on hot days the Land

How will you get water to your animals? Living n the Land UCES How will you get water to your animals? Living n the Land UCES

Animal watering considerations Living n Type and location of available water source(s) Site location Animal watering considerations Living n Type and location of available water source(s) Site location and condition Type of grazing system Number of livestock Access to power source Pumping system Flexibility and portability Reliability and maintenance needs Temporary or seasonal water storage Cost, including maintenance Personal preference the Land

Where should I put the water? Living n Locate water source away from shade, Where should I put the water? Living n Locate water source away from shade, food and minerals Consider local regulations Stock watering source should be at least 100 feet from open water sources, wellheads and septic systems the Land

What are my stock watering options? Living n Stream or pond water gaps Springs What are my stock watering options? Living n Stream or pond water gaps Springs Water hauling Water troughs or tanks, with or without automated pumps Nose pumps Automatic waterers the Land

Stream or pond access ramps Living n the Land Stream or pond access ramps Living n the Land

Stream or pond access ramps Adapted from www. agric. gov. ab. ca by A. Stream or pond access ramps Adapted from www. agric. gov. ab. ca by A. Miller NRCS, Bozeman, Mont.

Springs Living n the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont. www. rwrp. umt. edu Springs Living n the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont. www. rwrp. umt. edu

Water hauling USU, Logan, UT www. agry. purdue. edu/ext Water hauling USU, Logan, UT www. agry. purdue. edu/ext

Water troughs or tanks Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. farmphoto. Water troughs or tanks Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. farmphoto. com

Pipeline systems Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext Buried line the Land Surface line Pipeline systems Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext Buried line the Land Surface line

Pipeline system pumping options Living n Gravity-feed systems Solar-powered pumps Windmill pumping systems Gas- Pipeline system pumping options Living n Gravity-feed systems Solar-powered pumps Windmill pumping systems Gas- or diesel-powered pumps the Land

Gravity-feed pumping systems Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. agry. purdue. Gravity-feed pumping systems Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. agry. purdue. edu/ext www. agric. gov. ab. ca

Solar-powered pumps Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. agric. gov. ag. Solar-powered pumps Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. agric. gov. ag. ca

Windmill pumping systems Living n www. agric. gov. ab. ca www. farmphoto. com the Windmill pumping systems Living n www. agric. gov. ab. ca www. farmphoto. com the Land

Gas- or diesel-powered pumps Living n www. agric. gov. ab. ca www. agry. purdue. Gas- or diesel-powered pumps Living n www. agric. gov. ab. ca www. agry. purdue. edu/ex/ the Land

Nose pumps Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext/ the Land www. agric. gov. ab. Nose pumps Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext/ the Land www. agric. gov. ab. ca

Automatic waterers Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. vetmed. ucdavis. edu Automatic waterers Living n www. agry. purdue. edu/ext the Land www. vetmed. ucdavis. edu www. edstrom. com

Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Land www. farmphoto. com

What kind of fence do I want? Living n the Land USU, Logan, UT What kind of fence do I want? Living n the Land USU, Logan, UT

Fencing considerations Living n Balance looks, functionality and economics Safety of animals and people Fencing considerations Living n Balance looks, functionality and economics Safety of animals and people Installed or do-it-yourself Life expectancy Annual maintenance costs the Land

Fencing types Type depends on: Living n § § § § § Purpose Soil Fencing types Type depends on: Living n § § § § § Purpose Soil type Terrain Weather Safety Construction costs Availability of power Maintenance requirements Visual impacts CC&Rs the Land Missoula Conservation District, Mont

Vinyl 3 -rail or 4 -rail Cost § $5 to $7/ft materials § $5 Vinyl 3 -rail or 4 -rail Cost § $5 to $7/ft materials § $5 to $7/ft labor Pros Living n § Visually appealing § Low maintenance § Last many years www. ncvinyl. com Cons § Expensive § 3 -rail may not be best choice for horses the Land USU, Logan, UT

Six-foot-tall chain link Cost § $10 to $12/ft materials § $10 to $12/ft labor Six-foot-tall chain link Cost § $10 to $12/ft materials § $10 to $12/ft labor Pros Living n § § § Security Good for small animals Low-maintenance Long lifetime Can get colors to blend with surroundings Cons § Not typically used with large animals § May not mesh with surroundings § May be regulated by CC&Rs the Land USU, Logan, UT

Privacy wood Cost § $12/ft materials § $12/ft labor Pros Living n § Can Privacy wood Cost § $12/ft materials § $12/ft labor Pros Living n § Can be visually appealing § Good for small animals § Provides a visual block Cons § Not typically used for large animals § Expensive § High maintenance § Often short lifetime the Land USU, Logan, UT

Woven wire Cost § $1. 25 to $2. 25/ft Pros Living n § Readily Woven wire Cost § $1. 25 to $2. 25/ft Pros Living n § Readily available § Good for sheep § Add 1 to 2 strands of barbed wire at top for cattle www. farmphoto. com Cons § Expensive § Requires routine maintenance the Land www. farmphoto. com

4 - to 10 -strand smooth wire Cost § $0. 75 to $1. 30/ 4 - to 10 -strand smooth wire Cost § $0. 75 to $1. 30/ ft, depending on number of wires Pros Living n § 4 - to 5 -strand good for horses § 10 -strand will contain all large livestock and exclude large wildlife § Durable § Can be electrified Cons § Expensive § Requires routine maintenance the Land www. kiwifence. com

4 -strand barbed wire Cost § Varies Pros Living n § Low cost § 4 -strand barbed wire Cost § Varies Pros Living n § Low cost § Easy to install § Fairly low maintenance USU, Logan, UT Cons § Dangerous to people, livestock and wildlife § Not suitable for horses § Not useful for small animals § Can be damaged by large wildlife the Land www. agry. purdue. edu/ext

Wood rail or post Cost § $6/ft materials § $5/ft labor Pros Living n Wood rail or post Cost § $6/ft materials § $5/ft labor Pros Living n § Visually appealing § Handles heavy snowfall § Can be adjusted or small animals by adding mesh Cons § § USU, Logan, UT High maintenance Lifetime? Need additional fencing materials for small animals May need hot wire for livestock the Land

Jackleg Cost § $4. 50/ft Pros Living n § § § NRCS, Bozeman, Mont. Jackleg Cost § $4. 50/ft Pros Living n § § § NRCS, Bozeman, Mont. Good in areas where it is hard to dig or drive posts Visually appealing Durable Handles heavy snowfall Can be adapted to marshy or wet areas Low maintenance Cons § High labor and materials costs during construction § UV stability? the Land

Electric ribbon Cost § § 1½ inch ribbon $. 15/ft Wood post $8 to Electric ribbon Cost § § 1½ inch ribbon $. 15/ft Wood post $8 to $12 T-posts 6’ $7 to $8 Insulators $. 25 to $. 50 each Living n Pros § § USU, Logan, UT Versatile Easy to install and modify Can be used to make existing fence more effective Easier to see than other types of electric fencing Cons § Cost and availability of electricity or solar source § Maintenance § Not a good choice for a permanent fence the Land

Electric fence Cost § Dependent on materials § $1. 50 to $5/ft labor Pros Electric fence Cost § Dependent on materials § $1. 50 to $5/ft labor Pros Living n § § USU, Logan, UT Portable Inexpensive Versatile Can make an existing fence more effective Cons www. agry. purdue. edu/ext § Difficult to see § Dangerous to people (children) and wildlife § Maintenance? the Land

Electric fencing - temporary Cost § Variable Pros Living n § Great for interior Electric fencing - temporary Cost § Variable Pros Living n § Great for interior fencing § Portable - reels § Inexpensive Cons § Can be difficult to see (color variations ease this problem) § Can be dangerous the Land www. agry. purdue. edu/ext

New Zealand electric fencing Living n Cost § 5 -wire fence $1 to $2/linear New Zealand electric fencing Living n Cost § 5 -wire fence $1 to $2/linear ft of fence, depending on number of wires and post spacing Pros § Versatile § Eliminates grounding out on foliage § Reduces fire danger Cons § Powerful shock produced the Land WSU Extension UCES

Prefabricated panels Costs: Metal 2 -inch round tubing panels § 12 feet length, $150. Prefabricated panels Costs: Metal 2 -inch round tubing panels § 12 feet length, $150. 00 § Gates, approximately $185. 00 Cattle and hog panels § 16 feet long by 52 inches high, $28 § 16 feet long by 34 inches high, $24. 50 Pros § § Durable and strong Good for large livestock Panels allow for different configurations Low-maintenance Cons § Expensive § Less visually appealing § Not good for small animals USU, Logan, UT

Poultry netting Cost § 1 -inch hexagonal holes, 48 -inch-high 150 ft rolls, $75 Poultry netting Cost § 1 -inch hexagonal holes, 48 -inch-high 150 ft rolls, $75 Pros Living n § § § Inexpensive Lightweight Can be used with existing fences Good for small animals Good for small wildlife exclusion Cons § Low strength – will stretch and/or collapse by itself § Not effective for large animals or livestock § Needs frequent monitoring and maintenance the Land USU, Logan, UT

There are many other options Living n Field fence roll, 47 inch 4 -strand There are many other options Living n Field fence roll, 47 inch 4 -strand #10 wire No-climb fencing Cost § Varies, based on materials, size and availability of both materials and labor force the Land USU, Logan, UT

Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Land www. farmphoto. com

What kind of shelter do I want for my animals? Living n What kind What kind of shelter do I want for my animals? Living n What kind of shelter do my animals need? the Land

Considerations for shelter Needs to provide adequate shelter for local weather conditions Living n Considerations for shelter Needs to provide adequate shelter for local weather conditions Living n § summer § winter Durable Reasonable maintenance costs Visually appealing COSTS the Land

Shelter Living n Can be simple or elaborate Costs vary widely the Land Motel Shelter Living n Can be simple or elaborate Costs vary widely the Land Motel 7 USU, Logan, UT The Ritz USU, Logan, UT

Pole structures Cost § Relatively low $8 to $15/ft 2 Pros § Low-cost § Pole structures Cost § Relatively low $8 to $15/ft 2 Pros § Low-cost § Easy to install and maintain § Easy to clean Cons § Only provide basic shelter § Consider placement § Less protection than a barn § Noise USU, Logan, UT

Metal buildings Living n Cost § $15 to $30/ft 2 § Concrete floor may Metal buildings Living n Cost § $15 to $30/ft 2 § Concrete floor may be 40% of cost Pros § More protection than pole structures § Can be built on site § Versatile § Low-maintenance § Moderate cost Cons § Not as visually pleasing § May not mesh with surroundings § Summer heat may be a problem § Is a concrete floor good for hooves? the Land USU, Logan, UT

Specialized structures – barns, etc. Living n Cost § $50 to $275+/ft 2 Pros Specialized structures – barns, etc. Living n Cost § $50 to $275+/ft 2 Pros § Convenient § Visually appealing § Designed specifically to meet needs § Can be built to mesh with existing structures and landscape § Increase in property value Cons § Expensive § Constant upkeep needed § Cannot be moved § Resale can be limited the Land NRCS, Bozeman, Mont. USU, Logan, UT

Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Land www. farmphoto. com

Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Animal needs and resources Living n Food Water Space Shelter Health care TLC the Land www. farmphoto. com

So, do you still want to be an animal owner? Living n Now you So, do you still want to be an animal owner? Living n Now you have a clearer picture of the factors involved in animal ownership, and you can make informed choices. Homework: Complete your Animal Ownership Goals Activity Sheets, if you did not finish them in class. They will become part of your permanent record. the Land