- Количество слайдов: 39
Smart Grid & Integration of Renewable Energy Resources
What is Smart Grid ? w The Smart Grid is a combination of hardware, management and reporting software, built atop an intelligent communications infrastructure. w In the world of the Smart Grid, consumers and utility companies alike have tools to manage, monitor and respond to energy issues. w The flow of electricity from utility to consumer becomes a two-way conversation, saving consumers money, energy, delivering more transparency in terms of end-user use, and reducing carbon emissions.
What is Smart Grid ? w Modernization of the electricity delivery system so that it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements – from the central and distributed generator through the high-voltage network and distribution system, to industrial users and building automation systems, to energy storage installations and to end-use consumers and their thermostats, electric vehicles, appliances and other household devices. w The Smart Grid in large, sits at the intersection of Energy, IT and Telecommunication Technologies. 3
Pillars of Smart Grid w Transmission Optimization w Demand Side Management w Distribution Optimization w Asset Optimization
SMART GRID IN TRANMISSION 5
Technology Integration & Grid Management Need for development of Smart Grid having features likeØ Phasor Measurement Technique Ø Wide Area Measurement (WAM) Ø Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Ø Adoptive Islanding Ø Self healing Grids Ø Probabilistic and Dynamic Stability Assessment Ø Distributed and autonomous Control 6
Benefits of PMU Ø Time synchronized sub-second data Ø Dynamic behavior observing Ø Directly provides the phase angles (State Estimation to State Measurement) Ø Improve post disturbance assessment Ø High data rates and low latency due to computation 7
SCADA Vs PMU SCA DA T Open Close elem ON I ~ TI S V P Q Hz KV MW MVAR Hz TA EE T S A AD NT E etry AT M try me Several Seconds to a Minute EM R milli secs SC ME E to sec le Te SU A AT T S Network model State Estimator • Traditionally developed for accommodating old information technology regime (Slow communication, data without time stamp) • Made possible for all round development in technologie 8 LD&C_SCADA
Overview of Smart Grid 9
Smart Grid in Power Sector • Asset Management • HVDC and UHVAC etc. w Transmission w Distribution • Advance Metering Infrastructures • Asset Management etc. • Self Healing Grids w System Operations • WAMS • Adaptive Islanding etc. 10
Smart Grid in Distribution
Smart Grid in Distribution w Distribution Automization w Demand Optimaization - Selective Load Control w Operation –Islanding of Micro-grids
Distribution Automization/Optimization w Managing Distribution Network Model w Outage management and AMI Integration w DMS & Advanced Switching Applications w Integrated Voltage / VAR Control
Demand Optimization ØDemand Response – Utility ØDemand Response – Consumer ØDemand Response Management System ØIn Home Technology enabling
Demand Optimization Ø Smart Metering – Ø Automatic, Time of Use, Consumer Communication & Load Control Ø Communications : Automated Metering Infrastructure (AMI) – LAN, WAN, HAN Ø DRMS (Demand Response Management) Ø In Home enabling technology – Demand in three category: • Immediate, Deferrable, Storable – Customer aggregation & De-aggregation required for Peak shifting
Demand Optimization: Advanced Web Portal Ø Energy Usage Information Ø Utility Communication Ø Consumer Enrollment in DR programs Ø In Home Technology- Availability & Purchase , Device Provisioning
Control Center with Service Oriented Architecture (BUS) w Having – – – – GIS (geo-spatial Information Systems), AMI, SAP (ERP), OMS (Outage management System), DMS (Distribution Management System), EMS (Energy Management System), DRMS (Demand Response management System). w Model manager synchronizes GIS data with OMS, DMS & EMS.
Expectation of Technology & Solution Partners Ø To associate and collaborate with Smart Grid players in other parts of globe Ø Develop local expertise to manufacture and provide support services Ø Development of CIM Ø Application Development in India Power Sector Context.
Why Smart Grid? w Integrate isolated technologies : Smart Grid enables better energy management. w Proactive management of electrical network during emergency situations. w Better demand supply / demand response management. w Better power quality w Reduce carbon emissions. w Increasing demand for energy : requires more complex and critical solution with better energy management
Drivers of Smart Grid w Increasing demand: w High Aggregate Technical & Non Technical, Losses: 18%62% w Ageing assets…transformers, feeders etc. , w Grid to carry more power: Need for, Reliability and greater Security w Billing and collections: Profitability of distribution companies w Energy mix: Need for Renewable to reduce carbon footprint
Implementation leads to …. . w w w Deliver sustainable energy Increased efficiency Empower consumers Improve reliability Smart Grid
New Technologies for…. . w Energy Storage to support a Resilient Smart Grid (Comparing & evaluating cost competitiveness of: Compressed air, pumped hydro, ultra capacitors, flywheels, battery tech, fuel cells. ) w Smart Grid & Electric Vehicle Integration (How can electric Vehicle optimize the use of renewable energy resources, improve efficiency)
Wind Generation Potential in INDIA
Wind Power Potential The wind power potential on a national level, base data collected from 10 states considering only 1% of land availability, is around 46, 092 MW. Wind Speed: 6. 0 m/s Wind Speed: 6. 4 m/s Wind Speed: 7. 0 m/s Wind Speed: 7. 5 m/s Wind Speed: 8. 0 m/s
Estimated Wind Power Potential India Gross Potential (MW) State Andhra Pradesh 9063 Gujrat 7362 Karnatka 7161 Kerala 1026 Madhya Pradesh 4978 Maharashtra 4519 Orissa 1520 Rajasthan 6672 Tamil nadu 4159 West Bengal 32 Total 46092
Map showing the solar radiation acro India
Solar Power Potential w If tropical India were to convert just 1% of the 5, 000 trillion kilowatt-hour of solar radiation (or, simply, sunlight) it receives a year into energy, the country will have enough to meet its energy needs. w In most parts of India, clear sunny weather is experienced 250 to 300 days a year. The annual global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200 k. Wh/sq. m. The equivalent energy potential is about 6, 000 million GWh of energy per year. w The highest annual global radiation is received in Rajasthan and northern Gujarat.
Challenges Faced by Smart Grid w Present Infrastructure is inadequate and requires augmentation to support the growth of Smart Grids. w Most renewable resources are intermittent and can not be relied on (in its present form)for secure energy supply w Regulatory Policies to deal with consequences of Smart Grid; like off peak, peak tariffs and other related matters. w Grid Operation : Monitoring & control
POWERGRID’S INITIATIVES IN IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES 30
POWERGRID’s Initiative towards Smart Grid w Pilot Project in Northern Region w Intelligent Monitoring & Control of the Interconnected Electric Power Grid Using Wide Area Measurements (WAM) for Western Region
NR Pilot Project ØPMUs (Phasor Measurement Units ) with GPS system to be installed at four substations of Northern Region and PDC at NRLDC, Delhi. (PMU Locations: Moga- 400 KV, Kanpur- 400 KV S/s, Vindhyachal- HVDC, Dadri- HVDC ) ØTo use Phasor Measurements data for better situational awareness and technology evaluation using minimal hardware & software ØUse of existing fibre communication link Ø Project implementation plan: 4 Month from date of award
Status of Project w The Project is awarded to M/s SEL on 11/01/10 w The completion is likely by May’ 2010
Intelligent Monitoring & Control of the Interconnected Electric Power Grid Using Wide Area Measurements (WAMs) for Western Region
Intelligent Monitoring & Control of WR Electric Power Grid Using Wide Area Measurements (WAMs) w The Project is approved by CSIR & Funded by CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) under New Millennium India Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI) w Along with POWERGRID other members of the consortium are: – TCS-Leader – IIT Mumbai – Tata Power Company Limited (Tata Power)
Wide Area Measurements (WAM) Project Highlights w Project Duration – 3 Years – Implementation Completion 2 Years and testing in last one year.
Integration of Renewables w Net Zero – Energy / Water / Waste w Green Community – Self Sufficient & Reliant w Judicial Mix of various Technologies and Options for different use – Use or Supply – Draw or Store – Storage Options w Type of Use – Heating /Cooling – Illumination / Ventilation – Machine Operations – Appliance Powering ( Computers / Printers / Copiers / Faxes) – Domestic Appliances
Integration of Renewables w Chioce of Current – – AC or Dc AC – DC DC – AC DC – DC w Switches and Disconnectors w Availability of Domestic DC Appliances - Power Packs w Connectivity to Grid – Size of Plant, Distance to Consumers w Control Strategy and Methodology – availability of softwares