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Shanghai Jiao Tong University Object Oriented Analysis and Design Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) 上海交通大学软件 Shanghai Jiao Tong University Object Oriented Analysis and Design Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) 上海交通大学软件 程中心

Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 2

Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 3

Context, Composition and State w Services are most often designed to ignore the context Context, Composition and State w Services are most often designed to ignore the context in which they are used § It does not mean that services are stateless they are rather context independent ! § This is precisely my / the definition of “loosely coupled” • Services can be reused in contexts not known at design time w Value can be created by combining, i. e. “composing” services § Book a trip versus book a flight, car, hotel, … Object Oriented Analysis and Design 4

Service Interfaces w Non proprietary § All service providers offer somewhat the same interface Service Interfaces w Non proprietary § All service providers offer somewhat the same interface w Highly Polymorphic § Intent is enough w Implementation can be changed in ways that do not break all the service consumers § Real world services interact with thousands of consumers § Service providers cannot afford to “break” the context of their consumers Object Oriented Analysis and Design 5

Intents and Offers w Service consumer expresses “intent” w Service providers define “offers” w Intents and Offers w Service consumer expresses “intent” w Service providers define “offers” w Sometimes a mediator will: § Find the best offer matching an intent § Advertise an offer in different ways such that it matches different intent w Request / Response is just a very particular case of an Intent / Offer protocol Object Oriented Analysis and Design 6

Service Orientation and Directories w Our society could not be “service oriented” without the Service Orientation and Directories w Our society could not be “service oriented” without the “Yellow Pages” w Directories and addressing mechanisms are at the center of our service oriented society w Imagine § Being able to reach a service just by using longitude and latitude coordinates as an addressing mechanism? § Only being able to use a service if you can remember its location, phone or fax number? Object Oriented Analysis and Design 7

Service Orientation is Scalable w Consumers can consume and combine a lot of services Service Orientation is Scalable w Consumers can consume and combine a lot of services since they don’t have to know or “learn” how to use a service w Service providers can offer their services to a lot more consumers because by optimizing § The user interface § Access (Geographical, Financial, …) § They were able to provide the best quality of service and optimize their implementations Object Oriented Analysis and Design 8

Connectivity Drives the Emergence and Convergence of Technologies Internet LAN Web 1980 XML 1990 Connectivity Drives the Emergence and Convergence of Technologies Internet LAN Web 1980 XML 1990 WS 2000 SOA 2010 Office Workflow EAI BPM EDI B 2 B Business Integration WS Mainframe Client / Server Web/Portal Object Oriented Analysis and Design 9 J 2 EE. NET ?

Connectivity Enables Global Processes and Information Access Internet LAN Web 1980 1990 LAN WAN Connectivity Enables Global Processes and Information Access Internet LAN Web 1980 1990 LAN WAN XML WS 2000 SOA Web Information Global Local Business Processes Object Oriented Analysis and Design 10 2010

So… w Today, the value is not defined as much by functionality anymore but So… w Today, the value is not defined as much by functionality anymore but by connectivity § However, we need a new programming model w Why SOA today? § We are reaching a new threshold of connectivity and computing power Mainframe Object Oriented Analysis and Design Client Server 11 Web SOA

Shift To A Service-Oriented Architecture From w Function oriented w Build to last w Shift To A Service-Oriented Architecture From w Function oriented w Build to last w Prolonged development cycles w w Application silos Tightly coupled Object oriented Known implementation Source: Microsoft (Modified) 12 Object Oriented Analysis and Design To w Coordination oriented w Build to change w Incrementally built and deployed w w Enterprise solutions Loosely coupled Message oriented Abstraction

Why? The Value of SOA w A Fundamental Assumption: Business Processes Rule w The Why? The Value of SOA w A Fundamental Assumption: Business Processes Rule w The Evolution of Application Architecture w Enterprises Today w Service-Oriented Enterprises: An Idealized Picture w Service-Oriented Enterprises: The Reality w Why SOA Makes Sense: Technical Benefits w Why SOA Makes Sense: Business Benefits Object Oriented Analysis and Design 13

A Fundamental Assumption: Business Processes Rule w Everything enterprise IT does is in the A Fundamental Assumption: Business Processes Rule w Everything enterprise IT does is in the service of some business process w Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is about making business processes: § Better § Easier to change § Cheaper to create Object Oriented Analysis and Design 14

Why SOA Makes Sense: Technical Benefits w Building business processes is faster and cheaper: Why SOA Makes Sense: Technical Benefits w Building business processes is faster and cheaper: § Existing services can more easily be reused § Apps can expose their services in a standard way w Applications can be exposed more easily to diverse clients: § Windows clients, ASP. NET/JSP, etc. Object Oriented Analysis and Design 15

Why SOA Makes Sense: Business Benefits w Business people understand services § So IT Why SOA Makes Sense: Business Benefits w Business people understand services § So IT people can talk with them more easily w Business processes become explicit § So they can more easily be understood and improved w Applications or business processes might be more easily outsourced § Because they’re well-defined and discrete Object Oriented Analysis and Design 16

Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 17

Service Oriented Architecture w Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an approach to loosely coupled, protocol Service Oriented Architecture w Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an approach to loosely coupled, protocol independent, standards-based distributed computing where software resources available on the network are considered as Services w SOA is believed to become the future enterprise technology solution that promises the agility and flexibility the business users have been looking for by leveraging the integration process through composition of the services spanning multiple enterprises Object Oriented Analysis and Design 18

What is SOA ? n. A Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a way of designing What is SOA ? n. A Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a way of designing a software system and its surrounding environment to provide services either to end-user applications, to executable business processes or to other services through published and discoverable service interfaces. n Benefits: l Loose coupling among interacting software agents l A mechanism for integrating software components on dissimilar platforms l l Supports non-intrusive reuse of software components in ways not specifically predicted at development time Can enable easier insourced/outsourced development by breaking systems down into smaller chunks Object Oriented Analysis and Design 19

The Service Oriented Architecture Company A Application A Service Broker Discover Application B Object. The Service Oriented Architecture Company A Application A Service Broker Discover Application B Object. A ------------------------------------------------------- Service Interface n New? No n Rocket science? Not really n A change in thinking? Most definitely! n Can you run right out and buy one? Well…. . Object Oriented Analysis and Design Company B Publish 20 Object. B -----------------------

The SOA Model Object Oriented Analysis and Design 21 The SOA Model Object Oriented Analysis and Design 21

Not Quite Zen, But… Applications or Services n It’s an architectural concept, not a Not Quite Zen, But… Applications or Services n It’s an architectural concept, not a shrink-wrapped product… n Services Requestor Services Locator …with immense industry support in the form of standards and products, and momentum is growing Services Broker Services Provider Object Oriented Analysis and Design 22

Services & SOA w Service is an entity that provides some capability to its Services & SOA w Service is an entity that provides some capability to its clients by exchanging messages. Operations are defined in terms of message exchanges w A service oriented architecture (SOA) is one in which all entities are services and any operation visible to the architecture is the result of message exchange Object Oriented Analysis and Design 23

What is SOA ? w Encapsulates enduring services of agency mission w Leverages highly What is SOA ? w Encapsulates enduring services of agency mission w Leverages highly cohesive, loosely coupled components w Provides network discovery endpoint w Establishes a contract through an interface w Decoupled from underlying implementation Object Oriented Analysis and Design 24

Service-Oriented Architecture w Provides services to consumers via standards-based, published, and discoverable interfaces w Service-Oriented Architecture w Provides services to consumers via standards-based, published, and discoverable interfaces w Elevates abstraction level for code re-use § Applications can bind to services that evolve and improve over time § No modifications are required to the applications that consume them w Provides a clear model to integrate software systems § Inside the enterprise, and § Across organizational boundaries w Provides the foundation for global-class, connected applications Object Oriented Analysis and Design 25

Paradigm Shift w Paradigm shift away from the allencompassing software application to the ‘software-as-a-service’ Paradigm Shift w Paradigm shift away from the allencompassing software application to the ‘software-as-a-service’ model w Represents a major change in the underlying platform to one that supports interoperability of software w Focus is away from one program = one application to one application made up of a collection of software modules Object Oriented Analysis and Design 26

Service Oriented Architecture w Software is no longer seen as an application to execute Service Oriented Architecture w Software is no longer seen as an application to execute but as a service to consume w Analogy to the electric grid Object Oriented Analysis and Design 27

Characteristics w The software components in a SOA are services based on standard protocol Characteristics w The software components in a SOA are services based on standard protocol w Services in SOA have minimum amount of interdependencies w Communication infrastructure used within an SOA should be designed to be independent of the underlying protocol layer w Offers coarse-grained business services, as opposed to fine-grained software-oriented function calls w Uses service granularity to provide effective composition, encapsulation and management of services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 28

Service Granularity w Service granularity refers to the scope of functionality a service exposes. Service Granularity w Service granularity refers to the scope of functionality a service exposes. Finegrained services provide a small amount of business-process usefulness, such as basic data access. Coarse-grained services are constructed from fine-grained services that are intelligently structured to meet specific business needs Object Oriented Analysis and Design 29

Service Granularity Coarsergrained Looser coupling required Add order Release order Order process manager G Service Granularity Coarsergrained Looser coupling required Add order Release order Order process manager G r a n u l a r i ty Looser coupling desired Add order header release order item Order process manager Looser coupling ? Address manager Location. Validate Location component Finer- Postcode component grained Object Oriented Analysis and Design 30

Service Composition Object Oriented Analysis and Design 31 Service Composition Object Oriented Analysis and Design 31

Service Management w There are three levels of service management § Management of the Service Management w There are three levels of service management § Management of the services and their interfaces § Management of the underlying system § Management of the interaction between the services and the underlying system Object Oriented Analysis and Design 32

SOA Metamodel SOA is a form of enterprise architecture and can be represented using SOA Metamodel SOA is a form of enterprise architecture and can be represented using models. SOA metamodel is a model that contains the following three models. Object Oriented Analysis and Design 33

Differences: SOA vs. Existing Model Driven Architecture (MDA) w SOA is an alternative model Differences: SOA vs. Existing Model Driven Architecture (MDA) w SOA is an alternative model to the more traditionally tightly-coupled object-oriented models like Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) w In SOA individual services can be build with object-oriented designs but the overall design of SOA is service-oriented Object Oriented Analysis and Design 34

Differences (cont. ) w SOA today differs in the usage of a more generic Differences (cont. ) w SOA today differs in the usage of a more generic standard-based interface language XML (e. Xtensible Markup Language) used in Web Services Definition Language (WSDL) compared to the older Interface Definition Language (IDL) found in CORBA w SOA is based on the concept of using services that can communicate through standard protocols like SOAP allowing a more loosely coupled architecture. In older models objects were more tightly coupled due to the usage of vendor specific communication standards Object Oriented Analysis and Design 35

Differences (cont. ) w IBM’s MQseries is yet another messageoriented middleware system but it Differences (cont. ) w IBM’s MQseries is yet another messageoriented middleware system but it lacks the organized workflow definition required for the services to interoperate w SOA supports the composition of coarsegrained services from fine-grained services to provide a business solution in an easily deployable and usable manner w For interoperability of services spanning multiple enterprises, SOA should provide service level agreements and operational policies Object Oriented Analysis and Design 36

Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Outline w The Service Oriented Society w Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) w Web Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 37

Web Services and SOA w Web Services are an open standards-based way of creating Web Services and SOA w Web Services are an open standards-based way of creating and offering SOAs w Web Services are able to exchange structured documents that contain different amounts of information, as well as information about that information, known as metadata. In other words, Web Services can be coarse grained. Such coarse granularity is one of the most important features of SOAs Object Oriented Analysis and Design 38

What Is A Web Service ? w New Buzz Word In IT Application Domain What Is A Web Service ? w New Buzz Word In IT Application Domain w New Application Wave After Web & HTTP w From Information Sharing To Application Sharing – “Services” Making The Internet A Great Asset w Web-Enable Features: Simplicity & Ubiquity w Next Generation Of Distributed Computing Platform – Based On Open Standards, Independent On Specific Platforms & Protocols, More Interoperability Than Middleware Platforms, Like RMI, Jini, CORBA, DCOM, … w Linking Applications Without Changing Applications, WS Wrapper w Based On Existing Technology Infrastructure w XML, HTTP Object Oriented Analysis and Design 39

Web Services Architecture w Standards + Smart Messaging w Three Key Aspects: w Wire/Messaging Web Services Architecture w Standards + Smart Messaging w Three Key Aspects: w Wire/Messaging Stack XML -- Common Data Exchange Format HTTP -- Run Everywhere On The Internet SOAP – XML-Formatted Envelopes, RPC/HTTP w Definition/Description Stack XML Schema WSDL – Web Service Description Language Business Process Orchestration w Discovery Stack Registry UDDI – Universal Description, Discovery and Integration Object Oriented Analysis and Design 40

Web Services Definitions w W 3 C w A software system identified by a Web Services Definitions w W 3 C w A software system identified by a URI, who’s public interfaces and bindings are defined and described using XML. w SUN w …Software components that can be spontaneously discovered, combined and recombined to provide a solutionto a users problem or request Object Oriented Analysis and Design 41

Web Services Definitions w IBM w “Web services are a new breed of Web Web Services Definitions w IBM w “Web services are a new breed of Web application. They are self-contained, selfdescribing, modular applications that can be published, located, and invoked across the Web services perform functions, which can be anything from simple requests to complicated business processes. Once a Web service is deployed, other applications (and other Web services) can discover and invoke the deployed service” Object Oriented Analysis and Design 42

Web Services Definition w Self-Describing, Self-Contained, Modular Applications That Can Be Mixed and Matched Web Services Definition w Self-Describing, Self-Contained, Modular Applications That Can Be Mixed and Matched With Other Web Services (IBM) w A Service Available Via The Internet That Complete Tasks, Solve Problems, Or Conduct Transactions (HP) w A Web Service Is A URL-Addressable Software That Performs Functions and Provides Answer, Supported By A Lightweight Standard SOAP Communication Protocol and UDDI Directory Object Oriented Analysis and Design 43

Web Services Definition w 5 Key Characteristics of Web Services (SUN): w Accessibility Via Web Services Definition w 5 Key Characteristics of Web Services (SUN): w Accessibility Via The Web w Exposure Of A XML Interface w Ability To Be Located Via A Registry w Use Of XML Messages Over Standard Web Protocols w Support Of Loosely Coupled Connection Between Systems Object Oriented Analysis and Design 44

Web Services Definition w Web Services Are A New Breed Of Web Applications. They Web Services Definition w Web Services Are A New Breed Of Web Applications. They Are Self-Contained, Self-Describing, Modular Applications That Can Be Published, Located, and Invoked Across The Web Services Perform Functions That Can Be Anything From Simple Requests To Complicated Business Process. Once A Web Service Is Deployed, Other Applications (And Other Web Services) Can Discover A Deployed Service. Object Oriented Analysis and Design 45

Benefits Of Web Services w Ease Of Integration – Enables Applications, Machines, Business Processes Benefits Of Web Services w Ease Of Integration – Enables Applications, Machines, Business Processes To Work Together In A Revolutionary Way w Accessibility – A Great Step Toward Simple Access To Software Over The Internet, Any Time, Any Place and Any Means/Devices w Dynamic Business Interoperability & Integration w Efficient & Agile Application Development – Reusable Resources w Service-Oriented Development – New Paradigm w Software As A Service -- New Business Model Web Services Providers (WSP) w WS as An e-Services Mean For Business Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 46

Web Services Application Infrastructure w Three Kinds Roles May Be Distinguished: w Service Providers Web Services Application Infrastructure w Three Kinds Roles May Be Distinguished: w Service Providers Wrap Business Functionality Or Applications As A Web Service With SOAP, WSDL, Register & Publish It Onto Broker Using UDDI w Service Brokers UDDI Registry w Service Requesters Using UDDI Search & Discover The Desired Service From Broker, Send SOAP Requests As Specified In WSDL and Get SOAP Response From Providers Object Oriented Analysis and Design 47

From Hype To Reality w WS Standards & Products Are Still In Their Infancy From Hype To Reality w WS Standards & Products Are Still In Their Infancy w Age-Old Problems Still Exist: Like Data Mapping, Transactional Integrity, Trust & Security etc. There Is Still Not An Acceptable Complete Security Model For Web Services w WS Needs Costs and Some Performance Trade. Off XML Messages Are Rather Large Additional Development Works w Learning Curve For Adopting New Technologies Take Time For WS To Proliferate & Accept, Especially For Experiences In Loosely-Coupled, Asynchronous Service Architecture How To Test & Debug A WS System w Licensing & Charging Models To Be Resolved Object Oriented Analysis and Design 48

WS Applications Development Strategy w Customer-Centric Development Strategy – Closely Aligning Business Objectives w WS Applications Development Strategy w Customer-Centric Development Strategy – Closely Aligning Business Objectives w What Services The Customers Need Most, Different From Previous ? w Design/Plan From Outside In, Implement From Netting It Out w Wrap Rather Than Replace w Don’t Think Of An Entire Legacy System As A Single Web Service, Select Core, Fine Grained Functions As Web Services w Not Take A Pure WS Development For A Complete Application w Learn WS Basic By Pilot Experiments Object Oriented Analysis and Design 49

WS Technology Categories w WS Development And Assembly Environments w WS Deployment Environments w WS Technology Categories w WS Development And Assembly Environments w WS Deployment Environments w UDDI And Directory Services w Service Infrastructure Services w Adaptive Business Process Environments Object Oriented Analysis and Design 50

Web Services Server w Standards Compliance & Tools Support w Cape. Clear Cape. Connect Web Services Server w Standards Compliance & Tools Support w Cape. Clear Cape. Connect w Lucin SAL Server w SQLData System SOAP Server w The Mind Electric Glue Platform w Bowstreet Business Web Factory w Tech. Metrix Web Services Directory Object Oriented Analysis and Design 51

The Web Services Stack Service Publication/Discovery UDDI Service Description WSDL XML Messaging SOAP Transport The Web Services Stack Service Publication/Discovery UDDI Service Description WSDL XML Messaging SOAP Transport Network Object Oriented Analysis and Design 52 HTTP, SMTP, MQSeries, etc.

WS Standards Stack w w w Foundation Standards: XML SOAP UDDI WSDL Higher Level WS Standards Stack w w w Foundation Standards: XML SOAP UDDI WSDL Higher Level Standards: WSFL, XLANG, WSCL, XPDL, WSCI, eb. XML BPSS, BPML, DAML-S w Accessory Standards: WSCM, WSIA, WSRP, WSIL, WSUI, WSXL, XAML, XKMS, BTP, XACML, SAML, XML Encryption, XML Digital Signature, HTTP-R, WSSecurity, WS-Routing Object Oriented Analysis and Design 53

SOAP w Simple Object Access Protocol Developed By W 3 C w XML Formatted SOAP w Simple Object Access Protocol Developed By W 3 C w XML Formatted Messaging – Common Exchange w RPC Via HTTP Transmitted Over Any Transport Layer w Text-Based SOAP Format Reach Any Devices w SOAP Elements: w HTTP Header w SOAP Envelope: w SOAP Header w SOAP Body Object Oriented Analysis and Design 54

UDDI w Universal Description, Discovery, And Integration w To Help Publish, Locate and Dynamically UDDI w Universal Description, Discovery, And Integration w To Help Publish, Locate and Dynamically Discover Web Services w Registry Support w Too Ambitious Some Enterprise Users Only Concern Private & Custom Directory (LDAP? ) w Full-Featured Discovery Functions Remain To Be Developed: e. g. Search, Bidding, and Service Negotiation etc. Object Oriented Analysis and Design 55

WSDL w Web Services Description Language w Described By Service Providers, As An Interface WSDL w Web Services Description Language w Described By Service Providers, As An Interface For Application Interaction w Define: w What Service Can Do w Where It Resides w How To Invoke It w Types, Message, Operations, Port Type, Binding, Port, Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 56

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) w A Central Challenge In Enterprise IT Applications – Overcomes Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) w A Central Challenge In Enterprise IT Applications – Overcomes Islands of Information & Applications w Old EAI Solutions – Point-To-Point, Hard-Coded, Proprietary, Expensive Solutions, Based On A Set of Specific Methods or Technologies, Rather Than Standards: User Interface Integration Data Integration Business Process Integration Methods Or Function Integration w Enterprise Nervous System (ENS) Network+App. Infrastructure + Standards Supporting EAI Object Oriented Analysis and Design 57

Web Services –Next Logical Extension Of EAI Barrier To Entry w Low w OS Web Services –Next Logical Extension Of EAI Barrier To Entry w Low w OS & Language Independent, Not Vendor-Lock w Based On Open Standards, Standardizing EAI “Middleware For Middleware” w Loosely Coupled, Not Rely On Specific APIs w Easy & Inexpensive Implementation w Wide Industry Support w Support Reuse w Dynamic Integrate On The Fly w Smart Messaging Technologies XML/HTTP Facilitate Data Exchange, Transmission, & Transformation (XSLT– XML Stylesheet Language Transformation) w An Affordable, Flexible, Attainable EAI Solution w An Emerging EAI Strategy For Everyone Object Oriented Analysis and Design 58

WS—EAI Killer/Replacement ? w WS Is Not EAI Itself, Just An Enable Technology For WS—EAI Killer/Replacement ? w WS Is Not EAI Itself, Just An Enable Technology For EAI w EAI Does More Than Connections w WS Needs Much Works: More Mature, Transactional Integrity, Process Support w EAI Vendors Begin To Embrace WS w WS vs EAI–Partners > Rivals 80: 20 Rule w WS-EAI Application Strategy: Startling From Internal EAI -- Primary App. Expand To B 2 Bi – Immense Impacts By 2004 Bake-In Strategy Wrap App. As Services w Invest WS, Double In Standardized – For Future Object Oriented Analysis and Design 59

WS Integration Solutions w IONA’s Orbix End 2 Anywhere (E 2 A) w Cape WS Integration Solutions w IONA’s Orbix End 2 Anywhere (E 2 A) w Cape Clear’s Cape. Studio -- Integrated WS Environment Cape. Connect – WS-Based Platform For EAI w Help Enterprise Lowering Total Cost Of Integration Object Oriented Analysis and Design 60

Web Services And Business Process Management w WS & BPM: Two Rapidly Emerging Technologies Web Services And Business Process Management w WS & BPM: Two Rapidly Emerging Technologies For Business Applications w They Are Highly Complementary w BPM Needs a Simple, Open, Lightweight, Low Cost, and Ubiquitous Integration Infrastructure, instead of Current Proprietary, Expensive and Complex Integration/ Middleware Technologies w WS Needs a Flow Choreography Standard To Give Full Play To Its Application Value As a Supplement To Its Bottom Layer Of WS Standard Stack w WS vs BPM: Form vs Content Object Oriented Analysis and Design 61

Business Process Management & Automation w BPM/BPA, Driven By Business, Is The Kernel Content Business Process Management & Automation w BPM/BPA, Driven By Business, Is The Kernel Content of e-Business w Streamlining Business Operations, Making Information Available Where & When Needed To Improve Business Efficiency & Competitiveness w Embodying Modern Management Idea Aiming At Effective Team Coordination On a Flat Organizational Structure w Web-Based e-Process Implementation Object Oriented Analysis and Design 62

BPM & Web Services w WS’s Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) & Integration (SOI) Provide A BPM & Web Services w WS’s Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) & Integration (SOI) Provide A Lightweight Integration Framework For BPM w Two Kinds Of Scenarios In BPM-WS Connection: w A Underlying Business Process Is Supported As A Web Service w An Activity In A Process Is Implemented Via Web Services. A Business Process Can Be A Set Of Concerted Web Services. w Dynamic BP Selecting Best Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 63

Main Features Of BP Standards For Web Services w Collaboration-Based Process Modeling w Workflow Main Features Of BP Standards For Web Services w Collaboration-Based Process Modeling w Workflow Management w Transaction Management w Security & Reliability w Exception Handling w Service Interface w Audit Trail w Trading Partner Agreement (TPA) w Execution Object Oriented Analysis and Design 64

Candidate BP Standards w IBM WSFL (Web Services Flow Language) FDML (Flow Definition Markup Candidate BP Standards w IBM WSFL (Web Services Flow Language) FDML (Flow Definition Markup Language) w HP WSCL (Web Services Conversation Language) w Microsoft XLANG w BEA-MS-IBM BPEL 4 WS 1. 0 (Business Process Execution Language For Web Services) w Wf. MC XPDL (XML Process Definition Language) w SUN-BEA-SAP-Intalio WSCI 1. 0 (Web Service Choreography Interface) w OASIS-UN/CEFACT eb. XML BPSS (Business Process Specification Schema) w BPMI BPML 1. 0 (Business Process Modeling Language) Object Oriented Analysis and Design 65

BPM Via Web Services w Process-Supported Services: Service: WSDL Process: WSFL/WSCL w Activity-Invoked Services: BPM Via Web Services w Process-Supported Services: Service: WSDL Process: WSFL/WSCL w Activity-Invoked Services: Invocation: SOAP+UDDI Service: WSDL Interface: WSCI w ALL Based On XML Messaging w BPM & WS Integration Will Facilitate BP Integration (BPI) Over A Common Internet Protocol, and Enable Enterprises To Extend Their Internal Processes As Services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 66

7 Principles Of Web Services Business Process Management w Plan For A Virtual Enterprise 7 Principles Of Web Services Business Process Management w Plan For A Virtual Enterprise – Anticipate More Complete Integration w Be Aware Of The Hidden Integration Foil: Heterogeneity w Describe Business Process Succinctly w Leverage Standards w Anticipate Change With Adaptive Infrastructure w Think Integration Platform, not Integration Applications w Focus On Granularity – Having Large Grain Interfaces: Think Faxes, Not Phone Calls Object Oriented Analysis and Design 67

We Are Not There Yet w Even A Good Prospect, Many Details Must Be We Are Not There Yet w Even A Good Prospect, Many Details Must Be Worked Out Beforehand w A Common Standard On BP For WS w Solve Some Critical Inhibitors For Practical Applications, e. g. Transaction on WS: BPEL 4 WS BTP (Business Transaction Protocol) XAML (Transaction Authority Markup Language) Trading Partner Agreement (TPA): eb. XML CPP (Collaboration Protocol Profile) w CPA (Collaboration Protocol Agreement) Object Oriented Analysis and Design 68

Need For Web Services Process Integration w Current WS Is Weak In Process Integration Need For Web Services Process Integration w Current WS Is Weak In Process Integration For Inter-Enterprises (e. g. B 2 B) Due To Its Shortcomings In Security, Transaction Handling, Process Coordination etc. “Inside The Firewall” w Recent Progress: 2002 w WSEL 4 WS WS-Coordination, WS-Transaction, Compensators, BP Control & Integration A Language Combines WSFL & XLANG w WSCI Message Exchange Within A Process & Among Web Services w Vendors’ Push vs Standards Bodies Object Oriented Analysis and Design 69

What is it ? … Where Do Web Services Play? Services are a great What is it ? … Where Do Web Services Play? Services are a great way to realize SOA, w Web within limits w BUT, despite what the press might have you believe… § Web Services are only ONE way to accomplish the goal § If not implemented correctly – and in the right context – Web Services can create new problems § Some challenges that Web Services are still struggling with have already been solved in other technologies w SOA can be implemented using more than just Web Services… including some technologies you probably already have Object Oriented Analysis and Design 70

New Architectures that Support SOA w Built upon interrelated, distributed peer-level software modules § New Architectures that Support SOA w Built upon interrelated, distributed peer-level software modules § Sun’s Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J 2 EE) • Open Net Environment (Sun ONE) § IBM’s Web Sphere built on J 2 EE § Microsoft’s. NET Object Oriented Analysis and Design 71

. NET and the SOA Development Model w Design and Development § IDE (Visual . NET and the SOA Development Model w Design and Development § IDE (Visual Studio. NET) w Deployment § Application and assembly packaging scheme • Assemblies § ASP. NET automatically places files in Web server folders § Web services – automatically generates supporting resources (WSDL, SOAP, UDDI publication) w Execution § Supported by the. NET Framework • CLR and MSIL • IIS support for Web services Object Oriented Analysis and Design 72

The Web Services Landscape w The J 2 EE world § BEA – Web. The Web Services Landscape w The J 2 EE world § BEA – Web. Logic Server • http: //www. bea. com/products/weblogic/server § Iona – XMLBus • http: //www. xmlbus. com/ § Macromedia – JRun • http: //www. macromedia. com/software/jrun § Sun – Sun ONE Application Server • http: //wwws. sun. com/software/products/appsrvr/home_ap psrvr. html § IBM – Web. Sphere • http: //www. ibm. com/websphere Object Oriented Analysis and Design 73

The Web Services Landscape w Other languages and environments § SOAP: : Lite • The Web Services Landscape w Other languages and environments § SOAP: : Lite • Perl interface to the SOAP. Both client and server • http: //www. soaplite. com/ § SOAPPy • Python interface to the SOAP. Both client and server • http: //sourceforge. net/projects/pywebsvcs § e. SOAP • A C++ library that provides a SOAP engine for embeddeding systems • Available on w RTEMS, e. Cos, QNX w Microsoft Windows - NT/2000/98/ME w Linux • http: //www. embedding. net/e. SOAP Object Oriented Analysis and Design 74

The Apache e. Xtensible Interaction System (AXIS) w A very flexible SOAP engine from The Apache e. Xtensible Interaction System (AXIS) w A very flexible SOAP engine from Apache § Open and pluggable architecture § Design to cope with various deployment configuration • From very simplistic to highly sophisticated configurations w The Java Web Services facility (JWS) § Drop-in development • Simplest and quickest way to deploy a Java-base Web Service • Rename source file from xxx. java to xxx. jws • Drop xxx. jws into JWS directory Object Oriented Analysis and Design 75

IBM Web. Sphere – SOA Connection w IBM formally announced the major release of IBM Web. Sphere – SOA Connection w IBM formally announced the major release of Web. Sphere v 6. 0 in 2004, also called Vela, as an integral building block for SOA w A completely rewritten JMS (Java Message Service) engine to be compatible with J 2 SE 1. 4 and improve the performance of the embedded messaging w Made it easier in Version 6 to connect applications to an ESB (Enterprise Service Bus), a key piece of its overall SOA strategy w Contains a wizards-based drag-and-drop environment designed to automate the more laborious steps involved in development and deployment w Improving its support for Web services standards, such as J 2 EE 1. 4, SOAP, WSDL, WS-Security, and WSTransactions, and WS-I Basic Profile 1. 1 Object Oriented Analysis and Design 76

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) IBM Web. Sphere Web Container presentation layer process layer Business Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) IBM Web. Sphere Web Container presentation layer process layer Business Logic Container service layer data logic layer integration layer Data Container back office value chain Supports multiple, simultaneous interfaces Maps systems to the processes of your business Delivers reusable business transactions Applies business logic to your corporate data Integrates with the rest of your enterprise Leverages the back office enterprise systems “By 2006, the service-oriented architecture (SOA) — Web and non-Web — will be the mainstream practice for enterprise software engineering (0. 7 probability). ” Source: Gartner Object Oriented Analysis and Design 77

Versata’s Role Versata can have a dramatic impact On your organization’s ability to deliver Versata’s Role Versata can have a dramatic impact On your organization’s ability to deliver Large, distributed Web. Sphere applications Versata needs to be an essential part of your Java application infrastructure If you want to maximize your return of using The Java Service Oriented Architecture For application development, execution and ongoing management Object Oriented Analysis and Design 78

Productivity Issue of Implementing a SOA presentation layer process layer 50% Automated / 50% Productivity Issue of Implementing a SOA presentation layer process layer 50% Automated / 50% Manual Java IDEs, HTML & Java Editors, & JSP Wizards: Dreamweaver, JBuilder, VA Java, Vignette, Visual Cafe… Workflow Servers: File. Net, In. Concert, Home-grown approaches service layer 20% Automated / 80% Manual data logic layer 20% Automated / 80% Manual Java IDEs, Wizards, & Frameworks: JBuilder, VA Java, Visual Cafe… THE BUSINESS LOGIC GAP: There’s still so much to manage by hand, and this is the hardest part! integration layer Integration & EAI Vendors: Web. Methods, Mercator, Vitria, Tibco, IBM MQSeries, WRQ… back office value chain Enterprise Application: SAP, People. Soft, Siebel, home-grown solutions… Object Oriented Analysis and Design 79

The Need for Versata There is need to complement the capabilities of your Java The Need for Versata There is need to complement the capabilities of your Java IDE and App. Server with a software product that enables you to effectively address business logic development, execution, and management of the layers in the Java Service Oriented Architecture Object Oriented Analysis and Design 80

Versata Fills the Business Logic Gap presentation layer process layer 97% Automated / 3% Versata Fills the Business Logic Gap presentation layer process layer 97% Automated / 3% Manual service layer 97% Automated / 3% Manual data logic layer 97% Automated / 3% Manual HTML, Java, & JSP Wizards: Dreamweaver, JBuilder, VA Java, Vignette, Visual Cafe… Process Design, Management, & Execution: Versata Logic Server Automation of Business Transactions: Versata Logic Server Enforcement of Business Logic Across Data Sources: Versata Logic Server integration layer Integration & EAI Vendors: Web. Methods, Mercator, Vitria, Tibco, IBM… back office value chain Enterprise Application: SAP, People. Soft, Siebel, home-grown solutions… Object Oriented Analysis and Design 81

Versata Changes the Way Business Logic is Created, Executed, Reused & Changed Requirement Transfer Versata Changes the Way Business Logic is Created, Executed, Reused & Changed Requirement Transfer funds from checking account to savings Process: Customer Balance = Sum of Unpaid Orders Reject When Account Balance > Credit Limit Deploy Logic – Rules & Models Request Transfer Execute Business Logic Specify WHAT, Not HOW Declare Business Logic Cross-Object Synchronization Logic Sequencing Transfer Funds Customer Transaction Account Logic Optimization Logic Reuse Logic Chaining Versata achieves its productivity and manageability through declarative business logic Object Oriented Analysis and Design 82

Declarative Approaches Aren’t New First Generation Second Generation SQL Business Logic Relational Database Servers Declarative Approaches Aren’t New First Generation Second Generation SQL Business Logic Relational Database Servers Versata Logic Server SQL Execution – Create, Read, Update, Delete Business Logic Execution – Constrain, Validate, Compute, Approve… Database Servers Business Logic Servers Object Oriented Analysis and Design 83

The Power of Declarative Business Logic Analysis produces requirement - “Customer Balance is the The Power of Declarative Business Logic Analysis produces requirement - “Customer Balance is the sum of unpaid Orders” AUTOMATION TRADITIONAL Design Start breaking down into: Transaction Mapping for REUSE • Increase Balance when inserting Order • Decrease Balance when deleting Order • Adjust Balance if Order is Paid • Adjust Balance if Item Amount changes Architecture (Partitioning - thin client) Object Design - Multi-object dependencies Just enter 1 Rule: Transaction Mapping • Automated, Sequenced Architecture • Automated Partitioning Object Design • Automated multi-object dependencies Construction Write 100 - 250 lines of 3 GL or 4 GL code Automated code creation, compile, deploy Testing Test 100 - 250 lines of 3 GL or 4 GL code Test Transaction Maintenance e. g. Add “Include Freight on Order Calculation” Change the rule Re-test transaction Re-design Re-code Re-test Object Oriented Analysis and Design 84

The Power of Declarative Business Logic Power One Rule replaces 1 page of Java The Power of Declarative Business Logic Power One Rule replaces 1 page of Java Coverage 97% Average Automation Live Stats from our Customers Object Oriented Analysis and Design 85

The Versata Logic Server Object Oriented Analysis and Design 86 The Versata Logic Server Object Oriented Analysis and Design 86