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SEX SENSATIONAL. . . SEDUCTIVE. . . DESTRUCTIVE? ? ?
First comes love. . . Then comes marriage. . . Then comes pushing the baby carriage. . .
Where do babies come from? What were you told? ? ?
Let’s be anonymously honest. . . knowledge came Most of my early “sexual” from my: A. Mother B. Father C. Siblings D. Friends E. Movies/books/magazines
I feel like that my sexual attitudes have been affected mostly by: A. My peers B. My parents C. My religious or spiritual beliefs D. My own sense of self respect E. My environment and society
In my lifetime, I have had sexual intercourse with: A. No one B. Only one person C. 2 -3 people D. 4 -5 people E. More than 5
In the past month, I have had sexual intercourse with: A. No one B. Only one person C. 2 -3 people D. 4 -5 people E. More than 5
I have had participated in oral sex at some point in my life: A. B. C. Yes No Can’t remember
I consider oral sex “sex” A. B. C. Yes No Not sure
When I have been sexually engaged alcohol or marijuana or some other drug was part of the scene. A. B. Yes No
The most common type of protection that I use when sexually active is: A. B. C. D. E. Birth control pills Patch Condoms Other I am not sexually active
I think that practicing abstinence is just for virgins. A. B. Yes No
I have personally experienced some type of sexually transmitted disease. A. B. C. Yes No Don’t know for sure
If I were to become pregnant as a single person or if I were to get someone pregnant, I would most likely take the following option: A. B. C. D. Keep the baby and raise it myself Keep the baby and let a relative help raise it Put the baby up for adoption Get an abortion
In case we lose sight of the real “purpose” of sex. . . here are some factual reminders
Sensational Sexual Reproductive Facts about the Male l l l Beginning around age 12 to 13 testosterone causes the beginning of sperm production in the testicles suspended from the body in the scrotum so that the temperature is kept lower than body temperature. A healthy young male will produce about 100, 000 sperm each day!!! One thousand sperm per second!!! A single ejaculation may contain up to 500 million sperm!
Sensational Reproductive Facts about the Female Typically around age 11 to 14 estrogen will cause the breasts to begin forming, hips will widen and menstruation and ovulation will begin l The menstrual cycle occurs about every 28 days as the uterus continually prepares to nurture a fertilized egg l A woman will typically menstruate 400 times in a lifetime usually until her 40’s or 50’s when menopause sets in l
More female fascinating facts Each month about 14 days before the next menstrual cycle a ripened egg from one or both ovaries is released (ovulation) l Females do not continue to produce new eggs l An unborn baby girl will have about five million eggs in her ovaries l By early teenage years, she will have about 300, 000 eggs. . . Still more than needed for the 400 ovulations l
Females often have irregular cycles making ovulation unpredictable and meaning she could become pregnant almost any time she has intercourse l The released egg in the fallopian tube must be fertilized by the sperm within 24 hours l The millions of sperm racing to fertilize the egg can actually live for 3 to 5 days l
The “Race” for life http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=jvan. NDQhl. YI&feature=r elated http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=a. RQa_LD 2 m 4&feature=related
BINGO – Conception!! When the head of a single winning sperm penetrates the egg the chemical composition changes immediately making it impossible for other sperm to penetrate l The 23 chromosomes from the sperm and the egg are instantly joined together and the child’s genetic makeup determined l A sperm carrying a Y chromosome = boy l A sperm carrying an X chromosome = girl l
Signs of Pregnancy Home tests are fairly reliable if done correctly. They are designed to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). l Missed menstrual period l Slight bleeding l Nausea l Breast tenderness l Increased urination l Sleepiness, fatigue, increased emotion l
Fabulous Fetal Facts 12 hours after conception the tiny single cell (smaller than a grain of salt) divides into two cells and continues to do so every 12 -15 hours l About 5 to 8 days after conception the fertilized egg will plant itself inside the rich uterine lining – now about 200 cells l Days 10 to 14 – misses first menstrual period l
Day 21 – the heart begins to beat l 4 weeks – Embryo is ¼ inch long. The brain and backbone are forming with blood pumping to the liver l 5 to 6 weeks – Embryo is just over ½ inch. The skeleton is complete and the eyes, nose, and mouth have formed. The arms and legs are very short at this stage, but ten fingers are now developing l 8 weeks – Every organ is now functioning and the embryo is called a fetus (Latin for young one) 1 ½ inches long, . 5 ounce l
6 week old embryo
“Hand of Hope”
l l l 10 -12 weeks – 3 inches long, moves tiny legs and arms. It sleeps, awakens, sucks its thumb, gets the hiccups & urinates. It makes facial expressions. End of first trimester 4 months – 4 inches long, actively kicks, swims, & turns somersaults. Hands can now grasp each other and fingernails begin to appear. The eyes have now closed and won’t open again until 7 months. It is now obvious whether boy or girl Mother is beginning to look pregnant
10 Weeks & 13 Weeks
5 months – pregnancy halfway over, mother begins to feel movements, outer ear is fully formed and the fetus responds to sound. It has colored hair on its head and eyebrows l 6 months – now weighs over 1 pound with a chance of survival if born (Second trimester ends at 26 weeks marks beginning of third trimester) l 7 months – now weighs over 2 pounds & will gain about. 5 pound per week, recognizes voices l
8 months – the delicate skin begins to thicken. The baby is now about 18 inches long and weighs almost 4 pounds l 9 months – baby moves to head down position and movements are more restricted, average baby weighs about 7 pounds and is 20 inches long l
Prenatal Care Regular checkups l Blood Tests l Diagnostic Tests for abnormalities l Ø Ø • Ultrasonography Amniocentesis Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Triple marker screen (TMS) Nutrition Ø Eating for two is true Vitamin B Folic Acid to prevent neural tube defects • Activity & Exercise (Kegel exercises to Ø strengthen the pelvic floor)
l Avoiding Drugs Ø Teratogen – an agent or influence that causes physical defects in a developing fetus First trimester most critical period Smoking – increased risk of miscarriage, chromosomal damage, infant death Caffeine – increase risk of miscarriage Getting drunk once during pregnancy can cause fetal brain damage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – result of high level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy – small head & body, unusual facial characteristics, congenital heart defects, joint problems, mental impairment & abnormal behaviors Ø Ø Ø
Childbirth l First Stage – average of 13 hours Ø Cervical effacement and dilation to 10 centimeters Contractions last about 30 sec. and occur every 15 -20 min. Small amount of bleeding and amniotic sac may rupture Transition – stronger and more frequent contractions 6090 sec. every 1 -3 min. ; dilation is complete; typically lasts for 30 -60 min. Ø Ø Ø • Second Stage – involves the actual delivery Ø Intense pushing/bearing down with contractions forcing baby through the pelvic area and vagina with the head “crowning” at the vaginal opening
l As the baby is squeezed through the pelvis, cervix and vagina the fluid in the lungs is forced out and as the baby emerges the chest expands and fills with air for the first time The umbilical cord is not cut until it stops pulsating The baby is wet and covered with a milky substance • Third Stage l l 5 -10 min. when the placenta is expelled Ø Baby is assessed with an Apgar score 5 min. after birth on a scale of 0 -10 with 7 -10 being normal Breastfeeding is recommended for at least first 6 months. Currently 60% of mothers breastfeed. Ø
Now that we’ve reviewed the facts on where babies come from. . . What if? The comes before
So what after a positive pregnancy test are the options? ? ? Marriage – increasingly less of a selected option; one-third of teenage marriages end in divorce after 5 years l Single Parenting – as statistics point out an increasingly acceptable option; increases likelihood of being economically disadvantage; many negative implications for the child; often imposes on extended families l
Consider this. . . In 2004 1. 5 million babies were born to unwed mothers l 55% of births for ages 20 -24 were to unwed mothers l Almost 28% for ages 25 -29 l Of unwed births 24% were from teens l Two-thirds of girls ages 15 -19 say it’s okay for an unwed woman to have a child l
Adoption – a very positive option demonstrating strength and sacrificial love “It’s nice to know that if you’re not ready to be a mom. . . Someone else is!” • Abortion – controversial option made legal in 1973 by the Supreme Court with Roe vs. Wade l Ø As of May 2005, in Georgia there is a mandated 24 hour waiting period after being informed by a physician of gestational stage, options, consequences and parents/legal guardians of minors must be informed prior to abortion
Abortion Stats l At current rates, about 40% of American women will have had at least one abortion by the time they are 45 years old! l The typical American woman having an abortion is age 20 -30, has a previous birth, has never been married, is poor, lives in a metropolitan area, and is Christian!
Abortion Methods l Suction curettage (vacuum aspiration) Ø Ø 6 th to 12 th week of pregnancy Used in 90% of abortions • Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) Ø Used in earliest stage of pregnancy • Medical Abortion Ø Ø Drug – mifepristone (UR-486) Given 49 days following last menstrual period under medical supervision (a second dose two days later) Can take between a few hours to several weeks l Dilation and Evacuation (D & E) Ø Commonly used after 12 th week of pregnancy Involves surgery and aspiration Partial birth abortion is a type of D & E Ø Ø Ø
Seductive Sex Music lyrics l Movies/TV l Magazines l Advertisements/Commercials l Clubs l Internet l Sports heroes l Movie stars l Fashion l
A Quick Glance at Sexy TV The latest Kaiser Family Foundation survey reveals: • 70% of shows have sexual content • Average of 5 sex scenes per hour • 68% talked about sex • 35% demonstrated sexual behaviors • 11% involved intercourse This Fall 2008 16 of the lead roles in prime time TV will be homosexual or bisexual
• How easy is it to get caught up in the “sex” trap? ? • Are we playing with “fire”? ? • Walking through a dangerous mine field? ? • De-sensitization = Destruction
The truths about the totally non-sexy, dark side of sex l l l 18 million Americans get an STD each year, 25% of them are teens Nearly 2/3 rds of all people who acquire STDs are under 25 20% of all Americans age 12 and older have genital herpes (estimate). By age 24, at least one in three sexually active people are estimated to have an STD. Up to 85% of those infected with certain STDs are asymptomatic (no signs – no symptoms – contagious)
UWG Statistics from 2009 l l l 74% reported engaging in sexual intercourse within the past year 16% used alcohol the last time they had intercourse 46% considered it a “great risk” to consume alcohol prior to sex 50% considered it a “great risk” to regularly engage in unprotected sex with a single partner 79% considered it a “great risk” to regularly engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners
Playing with sex is like playing with Playing with sex and alcohol is like playing with Be careful. . . You might blow up your future!
What is “Friends With Benefits”? Are the “benefits” worth the risks? Maybe we should be looking for “Friends With Brains”. . . A better FWB!!!
Recent Survey of College Students You all THINK you are more sexually active than your really ARE! l 34% of the men report being virgins l 18% of the women report being virgins l 76% report no sex or sex with one partner over the past 12 months while 82% THINK others have had 2 or more partners.
Is Oral Sex. . . Sex? Acceptable? l Trends? l Risks? l Bill Clinton & Monica Lewinsky
More College Survey Reports l 45% reported having had oral sex one or more times in previous 30 days l 93% thought the typical student had oral sex one or more times in the previous 30 days
Common Curable STDs CLAMYDIA – most common bacterial STD; 3 million infected yearly GONORRHEApus producing bacteria; 650, 000 people infected each year in US Can scar female organs & leave infertile; can cause male infertility but normally cured with medication 75% of females & 50% of males are asymptomatic; symptoms, if present, are discharge & painful burning while urinating Can scar female & leave infertile; can cause male to be infertile but normally cured with medication; can cause septic arthritis Often asymptomatic at first but both males and females usually will develop a discharge of pus, severe pain, and burning while urinating
PID – not an STD Also scars female but the most common complication; one million females a year develop PID organs and leaves infertile; increases chances of tubal pregnancy SYPHILIS – 3 stages over several years; 70, 000 yearly Can cause permanent damage and death if left untreated Annoying itch and CRABS/ skin irritation SCABIES – pubic lice/mites Affects only females; asymptomatic can result in severe abdominal pain & pain during intercourse Stage 1: painless sore Stage 2: rash, fever, fatigue, Stage 3: permanent damage to heart, brain, organs Intense itching in the pubic area resulting in small sores that ooze pus
Common Incurable STDs HERPES – 45 million with 1 million new infections each year No cure; Infected babies die or have serious problems; Condoms cannot be counted for prevention May be asymptomatic; common to have painful blisters in genital area on and off for life HEPATITIS B – 750, 000 infected with 77, 000 new cases per year No cure; vaccine for prevention; most common cause of liver cancer; kills 5, 000 Americans a year May be asymptomatic; but may have yellowing of the eyes & skin, nausea, vomiting & dark urine
HPV – Human Papilloma Virus; most common; 20 million with 5. 5 mil. per year AIDS – caused by HIV(human immunodefiency virus); 1 million infected in US; 40 million-World No cure; over 4, 900 women die each year from HPV associated cancer; warts are highly contagious; little or no protection from condoms No cure; considered by many to be the perfect “killing” machine Many are asymptomatic, but some will develop genital warts A person may look and feel healthy for years, but will be infected and contagious for life; enlarged lymph nodes, red/purple blotches on skin, prone to infections, eventual death
HIV Infection and AIDS Since the outbreak in the 1980’s 60 million people worldwide have been infected with 20 million deaths l About 10 people are infected every minute – 5 million per year- half of them between ages 15 -24 l 85% of cases are from heterosexual contact l 2. 2 million children are living with AIDS with 15 million children as AIDS orphans l
Did you know. . l l l Only Men, Women & Children get AIDS! 50% of all new infections of HIV occur in young people 13 -24 Over 40 million people around the world are living with AIDS today, half of them are women & girls 20 -25% of HIV positive mothers will pass the virus to their children, with medication that can drop to less than 4% 400, 000 -500, 000 HIV-infected persons may be untested, untreated or both
HIV/AIDS Quick Facts l l l Virus attacks the immune system by invading the cell converting its own genetic material into DNA taking over the CD 4 cells essential for immunity Virus replicates itself while inhibiting the natural function of the CD 4 cells Primary infection stage (first weeks after infection with large amount of HIV in bloodstream – greatest infection stage with majority not knowing they are infected and tests at this stage show negative)
Chronic Asymptomatic Stage – 2 yrs. to 20 yrs. with an average of 11 yrs. – still transmittable l Transmitted by: l l Blood & blood products l Semen l Vaginal & cervical secretions l Breast milk l For more information read in text pgs. 328 -336
l Sexual contact risks l l l Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse Oral-genital contact Presence of lesions, blisters or inflammation from other STDs in genital, anal, or oral areas increases risk 2 -9 times Present in pre-ejaculatory fluid Sharing of sex toys Exposure to infected blood l l l Sharing of needles used to inject drugs Tattooing and body piercing All US blood/blood products are thoroughly screened for HIV now
HIV Testing Home test kits (FDA approved) $40 -60 l Physician/Clinic- health center, public health department: blood test: ELISA followed by Western blot to confirm, Orasure using oral fluid, HIV RNA assay l False-negatives are common because it may take 1 month to 6 months for antibodies to appear l CDC HIV testing website: www. hivtest. org l
HIV Treatment l l l l No known cure for HIV infection Antiviral Drug combinations: HAART – highly active antiretroviaral therapy PEP(Postexposure Prophylaxis) – preventive therapy for 28 days within 72 hours of exposure; used for health care workers, rape, high risk exposures Important for prenatal treatment Could take 20+ pills a day with serious side effects Avg. cost per year = $14, 000 -35, 000 No current vaccine developed but microbicide being developed to act as a chemical condom
STD Website Resources http: //herpes-coldsores. com/std l www. afraidtoask. com l www. hivtest. org l www. cdc. npin. org l http: //hivinsite. ucsf. edu l www. unaids. org l www. who. int/topics/en l
Real Life Protection Rates Pregnancy HIV HPV Emotional Scars Withdrawal 74% None Condom 85% None Birth Control Pills 91% None Method
Real Life Protection Rates, con’t. Method Pregnancy HIV HPV Emotional Scars Norplant 98% None Depo. Provera 99% None 100% Abstinence
What form of protection do you prefer? No protection l Limited protection l Guaranteed protection l Abstinence is the only guaranteed protection!
What if I have been or currently am engaged in casual/premarital sex? l l l It is never too late to regain control! You can learn to control your sex drive so that it does not control you and your life! Get tested! Get treated! Get on track with your life goals and priorities! Rewrap your “virginity” and redefine your boundaries! If you know you are going to continue to be sexually active protect yourself and your partner as wisely and effectively as possible!
Self Control is a Sign of Strength. . . Be. . . STRONG FOCUSED MOTIVATED DETERMINED SELF CONFIDENT HIGHLY DISCIPLINED RESPECTFUL OF OTHERS ABLE TO WITHSTAND RIDICULE ABLE TO WITHSTAND TEMPTATION ABLE TO WITHSTAND PEER PRESSURE CONCERNED FOR THE WELL BEING OF OTHERS
UWG Health Services Contraceptives: condoms & morning after pill – free; nominal fees for birth control pills, diaphragm rings, injections & patches l Pregnancy testing-free l HIV & syphilis testing-free l Chlamydia testing - $35 l Herpes - $8 l Sexual Assault Intervention l 770 -839 -6452 l www. westga. edu/~health l
General Website Resources American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists www. acog. org • American Society for Reproductive Medicine www. asrm. org • Center for Young Women’s Health www. youngwomenshealth. org • Dr. Drew – frequently asked questions www. dr. Drew. com • Generational Health www. generationalhealth. com • La. Leche League International www. lalecheleague. org l
Male Health Center www. malehealthcenter. com l The March of Dimes www. modimes. org l National Institute of Child Health & Human Development www. nichd. nih. gov l Sexuality Information & Education Council of US www. siecus. org l Nova/Odyssey of Life www. pbs. org/wgbh/nova/odyssey/clips l Visible Embryo http: //visembryo. com l
Abortion Law Homepage http: //hometown. aol. com/abtrbng l Association of Reproductive Health Professionals www. arhp. org l Emergency Contraception Web Site & Hotline www. not-2 -late. com 888 -NOT-2 -LATE l It’s Your Sex Life www. itsyoursexlife. com l National Adoption Information Clearinghouse http: //naic. acf. hhs. gov l Planned Parenthood Federation of America www. plannedparenthood. org l
National Right to Life Committee www. nrlc. org l National Abortion & Reproductive Rights Action League www. naral. org l Reproductive Health Online www. reproline. jhu. edu l U. S. Food and Drug Administration: Mifepristone www. fda. gov/cder/drug/infopage/mifepristone l Additional resource used for slides: Morris, M. 2004. Teens Sex and Choices.