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SETTING NATIONAL EXAMINATION PAPERS under the New Curriculum Presentation by Trevor Hall Sept 2006
PARADIGM SHIFTS? Some consistency from the past…. But…. . Not just the same old thing…. .
NORMS-REFERENCED “I got 55% - the class average was 50% and you got only 48%”
CRITERIA-DRIVEN Okay – who was able to do it? Who achieved the assessment standard?
START WITH OUTCOMES THAT TO CONTENT Unfortunately teachers may have tended to ignore these and simply focus on content or topics If exam papers do not reflect the outcomes then this exacerbates the problem
NATIONAL HG ACCOUNTING PAPER 2003 Logical thought Analytical New/unfamiliar Systematic approach Solution of problems Accuracy Sound judgment Accountability Meaningful interp’n of financial information Generally accepted accounting practice Broad general educ’n & economic environ’t Role of Accounting in management Q 1: CLOSE CORP Q 2: PARTNERSHIP Q 3: CLUB Q 4: COMPANY Q 5: RECONCILIATION Q 6: BUDGET Q 7: DEBTORS
HIGH KNOWLEDGE & HIGH SKILLS S K REPORT V&A
STEP 1: OUTCOMES FIRST OUTCOMES
CRITICAL & DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES LEARNING OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT STANDARDS
STEP 2: ASSESMENT STANDARDS ASSESSMENT STANDARDS
APPLIED COMPETENCE REFLECTION CAN I THINK OF HOW TO DO IT BETTER? DO I THEORY UNDERSTAND WHY I AM DOING IT? DO I KNOW HOW TO DO IT? PRACTICE
STEP 3: APPROXIMATE MARKS Q 1 Q 5 50 40 300 Q 2 Q 4 80 60 Q 3 70
STEP 4: BRAINSTORM THE TYPE OF QUESTIONS • • Factual recall? Data response? Evaluation? Open-ended? Problem-solving? Creative? Etc?
STEP 5: COGNITIVE LEVELS BLOOMS TAXONOMY BLOOMS REVISED TAXONOMY CREATING EVALUATING ANALYSING APPLYING UNDERSTANDING REMEMBERING
APPROPRIATE WEIGHTING HIGH= 30% ? MEDIUM = 40% ? LOW = 30% ?
STEP 6: REFLECT ON COs & DOs OUTCOMES
CO 1: CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING
THINKING Critical thinking: Judge the merits of something Creative thinking: Make or devise something new
C 04: CRITICALLY EVALUATE INFORMATION
CO 1: PROBLEM SOLVING Inclusion of real-life problems
DO 2: RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP Inclusion of moral / ethical dilemmas
CO 5: COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY
The provocative question Any learner can find this accessible
STEP 7: CATER FOR THE TEACHING & LEARNING PROCESS Rate of change Lifelong learning Years
LINEAR LEARNING RULE – learning is for kids CHILDHOOD ADULTHOOD ELDERHOOD Launching Working, Doing & Caring Learning Retired
HUDSON’S CYCLICAL MODEL OF RENEWAL: Lifelong learning Phase 1 Phase 2 GETTING READY DOLDRUMS Phase 4 Phase 3 GO FOR IT COCOONING
NEW LEARNING RULES Lifelong renewal CHILDHOOD ADULTHOOD ELDERHOOD
STEP 8: SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS CHALLENGING / PINNACLE = 20% - 30% MODERATE / MAIN BODY = 30% - 50% EASY / APPETISER = 30% - 40%
Is K a barrier to S, V & A? SKILLS KNOWLEDGE VALUES ATTITUDES
ACCESSIBILITY & RELEVANCE Do not use ‘knowledge’ as a barrier Are cognitive levels indicative of degrees of difficulty? Incorporate real-life situations / problems Ask the provocative question
DO NOT FOCUS ON INSIGNIFICANT CONTENT
CATERING FOR ex-HG & ex-SG Topics Degree of difficulty Cognitive levels Every question accessible Differentiation within each question
Catering for ex-Higher & ex-Standard Grade in one question • Explain your own thoughts and feelings on this work of Art. • Who was the artist, and what was he attempting to convey in this work? • How does this work differ from that of other artists of his era?
STEP 9: SET PAPER & MARKING MEMO SIMULTANEOUSLY Traditional memo or rubrics? Must cater for alternative answers Must be accurate
STEP 10: TIME ALLOCATIONS To be tested by each panel member Instructions to be specific
STEP 11: COVER PAGE NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE INSTRUCTIONS: • …. QUESTION MARKS TIME 1 2 3
STEP 12: MODERATION, REFLECTION & QUALITY CONTROL
USER-FRIENDLY Consistent format to each question & across all papers Clean-cut format Sequencing of questions Left / Right pages – minimise turning over Suggested time allocations? Answer book corresponds to question paper?
LANGUAGE Keep language simple Be specific – do not expect candidates to read between the lines Reduce unnecessary verbiage Use subject-specific and commonly-used words Reading test by selected panel members English / Afrikaans combination papers? ? Check translation carefully
EXAMPLE Vusi Ngcobo earns a salary of R 10 000 per month. What deductions will be made from his salary? Expected answer: PAYE, UIF, Medical Aid, Pension Answer provided by a candidate: Vusi is in a senior position in this business
EXAMPLE SA snakes are very poisonous. Illustrate this point by providing two examples. Expected answer: Green mamba, Cobra Answer provided by a candidate:
TECHNICAL MATTERS Totaling of marks – unsettling if wrong Computer skills of the examining panel Copyright Clarity of diagrams Optional questions clearly indicated
CREDIBILITY The paper must stand up to scrutiny and criticism Topical and relevant to the learners of today Must not set at the lowest perceived level Positively influence teaching & learning