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Section 1 Getting Things Ready In this unit, you will learn: 3 2 1 Section 1 Getting Things Ready In this unit, you will learn: 3 2 1 • to keep track of customers • about the ways to find new customers and business partners • to write a business liaison letter

Section 1 Getting Things Ready Section 1 Getting Things Ready

Section 1 Getting Things Ready commodity: (syllanums) comprehensive: (n. ) consolidate: (n. ) distribute: Section 1 Getting Things Ready commodity: (syllanums) comprehensive: (n. ) consolidate: (n. ) distribute: (n. ) illustrate: (n. ) manufacturer: (v. ) promotion: (v. ) goods 货物 product 产品 comprehension consolidation distribution illustration manufacture promote

Language Study ★ keep … informed of: keep (sb. ) known about (sth. ) Language Study ★ keep … informed of: keep (sb. ) known about (sth. ) 使知道; 使了解 e. g. Please keep us informed of any new development. ★ keep track of: 与某人保持联系;跟踪 e. g. It is very important for a company to keep track of its customers and know their demands and feedbacks.

Section Two Things to Do Activity One Listen and Write business promotion customer trade Section Two Things to Do Activity One Listen and Write business promotion customer trade fair company leaflet take advantage of advertise potential approach manufacturer

Section 2 Things to Do Background Information Establishing business relations The establishment of business Section 2 Things to Do Background Information Establishing business relations The establishment of business relations is very important for a company for it needs extensive business connections to maintain or expand its business activities. They not only do everything possible to consolidate their established relations with companies having previous business but also develop and revitalize(使…复活) their trade by searching for new connections from time to time. There are different channels for you to find new customers and business partners.

Section 2 Things to Do Warm-up Activity Now work in pairs and think of Section 2 Things to Do Warm-up Activity Now work in pairs and think of as many channels as you can that are associated with establishing business relations. How to build business relations with your customer? Suppose you are running a company selling online game softwares. How to find your potential customers and business partners? Reaching your customers by e-mail, paying a visit, posting business cards or company leaflets Business Channels

Section 2 Things to Do Warm-up Activity Now work in pairs and think of Section 2 Things to Do Warm-up Activity Now work in pairs and think of as many channels as you can that are associated with establishing business relations. How to build business relations with your customer? Reaching your customers by e-mail, paying a visit, posting business cards or company leaflets … Advertisements Business Channels Trade fairs and exhibitions Of all the channels, which one do you think is the most effective one? Why? The Internet

Section 1 Getting Things Ready Activity 2: Read the passage in Section 2 and Section 1 Getting Things Ready Activity 2: Read the passage in Section 2 and complete the following paragraph. When you have started your own business, you need to find new customers and business partners to establish business relationships. You can try searching for new customers and groups partners by reaching every possible organizational 1) _______, families, or communities, by making advertisements, and by opportunities taking trade fair 2) _______. Besides, you can get much Internet helpful information from the 3) ____ which will be a great relationships help for you to start new business 4) _____. When you have established new business relationships you need to keep track of your customers or partners to further consolidate the relationships and try your efforts to keep the long lasting relationships 5) _______.

Read and Think Building Business Relationships When you have started your own business, one Read and Think Building Business Relationships When you have started your own business, one important thing is to build business relationships. You will have to find new customers and business partners. There are several ways you can try. 1. General comprehensive searching By comprehensive searching, we mean you can try searching for new customers and partners by reaching every possible organizational groups, families, or communities. You can try reaching them by e-mails, paying a visit, posting business cards or company leaflets. 2. Advertising approach By advertising approach, we mean you can try reaching

Read and Think your target customers through making advertisements. You can make advertisements in Read and Think your target customers through making advertisements. You can make advertisements in newspapers, on the internet, or through promotion activities. You can distribute advertisements to your target customers and attract them to your site of product promotion in a target region, where you can introduce and illustrate your products. 3. Trade fair opportunities Another effective approach to finding new customers and business partners is to take good advantage of trade fair opportunities. Various trade fairs are held in China every year, such as China Import and Export Fair (Canton Fair), China International Consumer Goods Fair, China International Small

Read and Think and Medium Enterprises Fair etc. These trade fairs provide you with Read and Think and Medium Enterprises Fair etc. These trade fairs provide you with great opportunities to find potential customers and business partners. Besides, you can make good use of the internet in finding your business partners. You can find a great deal of trade information such as information about commodities, manufacturers, buying demands etc. You can also find useful information about various expositions, trade fairs, and industryrelated conferences that you can attend. On the other hand, you can distribute information of your products and services so that those who are interested can know about you and contact you. These are all opportunities you can grasp to start new business relationships.

Read and Think When you have established business relationships with your customers or business Read and Think When you have established business relationships with your customers or business partners, you need to keep track of them to further consolidate the relationship. Keep them informed of your products and services. Get feedbacks from your customers regularly. Expand your partnership areas. Try finding mutual benefits for both sides. By doing so, you can keep long lasting business relationships. And success is over there waving to you! (362 words)

1. General comprehensive searching 1. By comprehensive searching, we mean you can try searching 1. General comprehensive searching 1. By comprehensive searching, we mean you can try searching for new customers and partners by reaching every possible organizational groups, families, or communities. (general comprehensive searching) By …, we mean …: 是指…, …指的是… This is a structure used to indicate a definition or explanation. Translation: 广泛联系,意即你可以通过联系到每一个可能的家庭、 社团、或组织机构来寻找新的客户和业务伙伴。  e. g. 网络营销是指通过万维网进行销售和促销。 By Internet marketing, we mean using the world wide web for sales and promotion. e. g. 顾客满意度调查指的是对顾客对他们所买的物品的满意情况 进行调查。 By customer satisfaction survey, we mean studies to find out if buyers are satisfied with what they have bought.

1. General comprehensive searching 2. You can try reaching them by e-mails, paying a 1. General comprehensive searching 2. You can try reaching them by e-mails, paying a visit, posting business cards or company leaflets. (general comprehensive searching)  Translation: 你可以通过发电子邮件、亲自上门拜访、 邮寄名片或公司彩页等方式联系他们。  e. g. 你可以尝试用一种不同的方法来完成这项任务。 You can try using a different way to finish the task.  e. g. 我们可以尝试通过减员来削减生产成本。 We can try cutting our production cost by reducing our staff/workforce.

2. Advertising approach 3. You can distribute advertisements to your target customers and attract 2. Advertising approach 3. You can distribute advertisements to your target customers and attract them to your site of product promotion in a target region, (where you can introduce and illustrate your products). (advertising approach) target: anything aimed at目标 e. g, Our target this year is to enter the European market. where …: Here where introduces a non-restrictive attributive clause. “where”此处引导非限定性定语从句,修饰 target region, 起到补充 说明作用。 Translation: 你可以把广告派发给你的目标客户并且吸引他们到目 标区域的产品推介点,在那儿你可以介绍和演示你的产品。

2. Advertising approach 3. You can distribute advertisements to your target customers and attract 2. Advertising approach 3. You can distribute advertisements to your target customers and attract them to your site of product promotion in a target region, (where you can introduce and illustrate your products). e. g. 你可以策划一个产品发布(release)会,人们可以得到 更详细的产品信息。 You can plan a product realese conference, where people can get more detailed product informtion. e. g. 你可以参加各种交易会,在那里你可能遇到潜在的合 作伙伴。 You can attend various trade fairs, where you can meet

3. Trade fair opportunities 4. Another effective approach to finding new customers and business 3. Trade fair opportunities 4. Another effective approach to finding new customers and business partners is to take good advantage of trade fair opportunities. (trade fair opportunities) approach to + n. /v-ing: way of doing sth. ……的方法是……  Translation: 另一个寻找新客户和业务伙伴的有效方法是充分利用 商品交易会的机会。 e. g. 另一有效的保住你现有顾客的方法是使他们高兴。 Another effective approach to keeping your existing customers is to make them happy. e, g. 另一有效的营销方式是创建一个产品的品牌形象。 Another effective marketing approach is to create a brand image of your product.

3. Trade fair opportunities 5. On the other hand, you can distribute information of 3. Trade fair opportunities 5. On the other hand, you can distribute information of your products and services so that those who are interested can know about you and contact you. (trade fair opportunities)  Translation: 此外,你可以利用网络发布你的产品及服务信息,寻 找你的业务伙伴。 e. g. 另一方面,你需要制定营销计划,以便你的营销更有效。 On the other hand, you need to make a marketing plan so that your marketing will be more effective. e, g. 另一方面,你必须确保产品质量,这样顾客会对你的产品满 意并进一步购买你的产品。 On the other hand, you must guarantee your product quality so that your customers will be satisfied with your product and buy it.

Conclusion 6. By doing so, you can keep long lasting business relationships. (last paragraph) Conclusion 6. By doing so, you can keep long lasting business relationships. (last paragraph)   By + v-ing, you can …: You can … by means of doing sth 通过(做某事)你可以…… e. g. 通过打广告,你可以吸引更多的人购买你的产品。 By advertising, you can attract more people to buy your product. e. g. 通过了解顾客需求,你可以改进你的产品和服务。 By understanding the need of your customers, you can improve your products and services.

Translation 建立业务关系 在开创自己的业务时,最重要的就是创建业务关系。你必 须找到新的客户和业务伙伴。下列几种方法你可以一试。 1. 广泛联系,意即你可以通过联系到每一个可能的家庭、社 团、或组织机构来寻找新的客户和业务伙伴。你可以通过发 电子邮件、亲自上门拜访、邮寄名片或公司彩页等方式联系 他们。 2. 广告宣传,意即你可以通过做广告寻找到你的目标客户。 你可以在报纸上、网络上、或通过促销活动进行广告。你可 以把广告派发给你的目标客户并且吸引他们到目标区域的产 品推介点,在那儿你可以介绍和演示你的产品。 Translation 建立业务关系 在开创自己的业务时,最重要的就是创建业务关系。你必 须找到新的客户和业务伙伴。下列几种方法你可以一试。 1. 广泛联系,意即你可以通过联系到每一个可能的家庭、社 团、或组织机构来寻找新的客户和业务伙伴。你可以通过发 电子邮件、亲自上门拜访、邮寄名片或公司彩页等方式联系 他们。 2. 广告宣传,意即你可以通过做广告寻找到你的目标客户。 你可以在报纸上、网络上、或通过促销活动进行广告。你可 以把广告派发给你的目标客户并且吸引他们到目标区域的产 品推介点,在那儿你可以介绍和演示你的产品。 back

Translation 3. 商品交易会 另一个寻找新客户和业务伙伴的有效方法是充分利用商 品交易会的机会。每年在中国都会举办各种交易会,如中国 进出口交易会(广州)、中国国际消费品交易会、中国国际 中小企业博览会等。这些交易会给你提供大量机会寻找到潜 在的客户和业务伙伴。 此外,你可以很好地利用网络寻找你的业务伙伴。通过 网络你可以找到大量商业信息,如有关产品、制造商、购买 需求等信息;你也可以找到有关各种博览会、交易会、以及 你可能参加的与行业相关的会议等有价值的信息。另一方面, 你可以在网络上发布你的产品和服务信息,以便有兴趣的客 户可以了解到你并与你联系。这些都是你可以抓住的建立新 Translation 3. 商品交易会 另一个寻找新客户和业务伙伴的有效方法是充分利用商 品交易会的机会。每年在中国都会举办各种交易会,如中国 进出口交易会(广州)、中国国际消费品交易会、中国国际 中小企业博览会等。这些交易会给你提供大量机会寻找到潜 在的客户和业务伙伴。 此外,你可以很好地利用网络寻找你的业务伙伴。通过 网络你可以找到大量商业信息,如有关产品、制造商、购买 需求等信息;你也可以找到有关各种博览会、交易会、以及 你可能参加的与行业相关的会议等有价值的信息。另一方面, 你可以在网络上发布你的产品和服务信息,以便有兴趣的客 户可以了解到你并与你联系。这些都是你可以抓住的建立新 的业务关系的良好机会。 back

Translation 与你的客户或业务伙伴建立了业务联系之后,你必须与他们 保持联系以进一步巩固你们的关系:不断让他们了解到你的 产品和服务;定期从客户那里获取反馈;拓展你们的合作领 域;试图达到双赢。通过这样做,你可以保持长期的业务关 系,而成功就在不远处向你挥手。 back Translation 与你的客户或业务伙伴建立了业务联系之后,你必须与他们 保持联系以进一步巩固你们的关系:不断让他们了解到你的 产品和服务;定期从客户那里获取反馈;拓展你们的合作领 域;试图达到双赢。通过这样做,你可以保持长期的业务关 系,而成功就在不远处向你挥手。 back

Read and Think Task 1 Test your problem-solving ability. Find out useful information about Read and Think Task 1 Test your problem-solving ability. Find out useful information about how an exporter can set up business relationships overseas. Generally, exporters can obtain information about prospective customers overseas through the following channels: 1. Banks in the buyer's country 2. Chambers of Commerce in foreign 3. Consulates stationed abroad 4. Various trade associations 5. Trade directory 6. Newspaper and advertisement

Read and Think Having obtained the name and address of the prospective customers, the Read and Think Having obtained the name and address of the prospective customers, the exporter may set out to send letters, circulars, catalogues, and price lists to the parties concerned. Such letters should tell the reader how his name is obtained and give him some details about the exporter's business, for example, the range of the goods handled and in what quantities.

Read and Think Task 2 Tell whether the following statements are true or false. Read and Think Task 2 Tell whether the following statements are true or false. Write T for True and F for False. 1. Building business relationships is not so important for one’s business. F 2. Making advertisements is one way to find new customers and business partners. T 3. Trade fairs provide great opportunities to find potential customers and business partners. T 4. You can use the internet to find helpful trade information. T 5. You can not use the internet to distribute information of your products and services. F 6. Keeping track of your customers and business partners is important for keeping a long lasting business relationship. T

Read and Think Task 3 Give brief answers to the following questions. 1. What Read and Think Task 3 Give brief answers to the following questions. 1. What is important when you have started your business? v To build business relationships. . 2. What is meant by “advertising approach”? v By advertising approach, we mean you can try reaching your target customers through making advertisements. 3. How many trade fairs are mentioned in the text? What are they? v Three. They are China Import and Export Fair, China International Consumer Goods Fair, and China International Small and Medium Enterprises Fair.

Read and Think 4. What kind of trade information can we find on the Read and Think 4. What kind of trade information can we find on the internet? v We can find a great deal of trade information such as information about commodities, manufacturers, buying demands etc. 5. What else can we do on the internet besides finding business partners? v We can distribute information of our products and services so that those who are interested can know about us and contact us. 6. What else should we do after we have established a business relationship? v We should keep track of our customers and business partners.

Read and Think Task 4 Match A with B 1 - d 2 -g Read and Think Task 4 Match A with B 1 - d 2 -g 3 -j 4 -i 5 -b 6 -h 7 -a 8 -f 9 -c 10 -e

Read and Think Task 5 Fill in the blanks with the right words or Read and Think Task 5 Fill in the blanks with the right words or phrases. Change the form where necessary. promotion customers take advantage of potential demand target approach feedback contact search for 1. Nowadays people often _____ information on the internet. demand 2. There is a high _____ for skilled workers in the manufacturing business. 3. She is quite satisfied with her employees who have already target reached their sales ______. promotion 4. We are doing a special ______ of our new products.

Read and Think feedback 5. We need more _______ from the consumers in order Read and Think feedback 5. We need more _______ from the consumers in order to improve our goods. 6. The manager believed that Africa is a _____ market for potential their new products. 7. Many stores _______ the holidays to promote their take advantage of goods. 8. The company views “______ satisfaction” as first rule of customer its service. Contact 9. _______ me tomorrow to discuss more details of our marketing plan. approach 10. We all appreciate her ______ to the problem.

Section 3 Things to Write Task 1 Study the following tips for writing. When Section 3 Things to Write Task 1 Study the following tips for writing. When writing a letter to establish a business relationship, usually you should include the following: 1. Source of information: where and how you know of the company or its products; 2. Your interest: what is your interest in the company or its products; 3. Information of your company: products, services; 4. What you can offer: what special offers or service you can give to the other company; 5. Wish for the future: your wish to establish a business relationship.

Section 3 Things to Write Task 2 Study the following language for writing. Section 3 Things to Write Task 2 Study the following language for writing.

Section 3 Things to Write Task 3 Study the following model for witing. December Section 3 Things to Write Task 3 Study the following model for witing. December 29, 2005 Dear Sir or Madam, We have seen the advertisement of your products on television. We are very interested in your models of cell phones. Will you please send us a copy of your catalogue and current price list for your products? We are the leading mobile phone seller in this city, and we have branches in five regions. If the quality of your products is satisfactory and the prices are reasonable, we’ll place regular and large orders. Source of information Your interest Information of your company What you can offer

Section 3 Things to Write If possible, we would like to establish a regular Section 3 Things to Write If possible, we would like to establish a regular business relation with you. And we sincerely hope that we can cooperate to our mutual benefits in the future. Wish for the future Sincerely yours, Wang Yue Sales Manager DF Cell Phone Sales Co. , Ltd.

Section 3 Things to Write Sentence patterns: We have seen the advertisement of your Section 3 Things to Write Sentence patterns: We have seen the advertisement of your products in Guangzhou Daily. We are very interested in your cell phones. We would appreciate it very much if you could send us a catalogue of your products. We would consider placing large and regular orders. If you place regular orders for large quantities, we can offer you a special discount. We are enclosing a catalogue of our latest summer products. If possible, we would like to establish a regular business relationship with you. We look forward to your early reply.

Section 3 Things to Write Section 3 Things to Write

Section 3 Things to Write Task 2 Complete the company profile by translating the Section 3 Things to Write Task 2 Complete the company profile by translating the Chinese given in brackets into English. December 24, 2006 Dear Sir or Madam, know about your company from Guangzhou Daily I 1) _______________________ (从《广州日 报》获知有关贵公司的信息). And I am writing to ask if you have some 2) toy products we are interested in ____________ (我们所要的玩具商品) and whether they are in offer us a reasonable price stock. Would you please 3) ______________ (给我们提供合 理的价格)? If possible, we would like to 4) establish a business relationship with you __________________ (与贵公司建立贸易关系). We 5)__________________ (盼早日收到您的回复) are looking forward to your early reply . Sincerely yours, Wang Gang Manager China Office Equipment Imp. & Exp. Co. Ltd

Reply v 1. Response to the enquiry 感谢对方的来信 v 2. Offering for the enquiry Reply v 1. Response to the enquiry 感谢对方的来信 v 2. Offering for the enquiry 报价 vprice, quantity, packing, delivery/shipment … v 3. Giving assurance and hope 给予保证并表 达希望对方下订单的期望

Sample v July 3 rd, 2007 v Dear Sir or Madam, v Thank you Sample v July 3 rd, 2007 v Dear Sir or Madam, v Thank you for your letter of June 30, 2007 and we are pleased to offer you the following: v Commodity: Green Beans v Quantity: 200 metric tons v Price: $200 per metric ton CFR Antwerp v Packing: in ordinary second-hand gunny bags(旧麻袋) v Shipment/Delivery: in September, 2007 v Payment: by L/C v We are sure that these goods will meet your requirements, and we look forward to your early order. v Yours sincerely, v Peter Kevin v Manager

Reply 常用句型 v Thank you for your letter of January 1 st. v 感谢贵方…的来信。 Reply 常用句型 v Thank you for your letter of January 1 st. v 感谢贵方…的来信。 v I am very pleased to offer you the following. v 我方很高兴报价如下。 v I’ve sent the samples to you as requested in your last letter. v 贵方上次来信要求的样品,我方已经寄出。 v Enclosed is our new/latest catalogue. v 附件是我们新的产品目录。

Reply v If you order in large quantity, we will offer you a … Reply v If you order in large quantity, we will offer you a … discount. v 如果贵公司能大量订购我方的产品,我方将给与…折扣。 v We are looking forward to your early reply. v 我们期盼您的早日回复。 v If there is anything else that you would like to know, please do not hesitate to contact us. v 贵公司若有所需求,请跟我公司联系。

Reply Applied Writing v 说明:就下列内容写一封信给张大良先生感谢他 12月20日来询问 有关全自动洗衣机的情况, v 答复如下: v 型号:Model FH-151 A型 v Reply Applied Writing v 说明:就下列内容写一封信给张大良先生感谢他 12月20日来询问 有关全自动洗衣机的情况, v 答复如下: v 型号:Model FH-151 A型 v 价格:每台$162 v 交货日期;收到订单 50日内 v 付款日期:装运后40日内 v 若订购 150台以上,可享受 25%的数量折扣。 v 另附洗衣机使用说明,若还需其他信息,请随时与我方联系。 v Words for reference: v 装运:shipment 数量折扣:quantity discount v 使用说明:operating instructions

v 22 Dec. , 2008 v Dear Mr. Zhang Daliang, v Thank you for v 22 Dec. , 2008 v Dear Mr. Zhang Daliang, v Thank you for your letter of Dec. 20, and we are pleased to offer you the following: v Commodity: Automatic Washing Machine v Model: FH-151 A v Price: $162 each v Delivery: within 50 days after receipt of/receiving your order v Payment: within 40 days after shipment

If you order more than 150 machines, we can offer you a 25% quantity If you order more than 150 machines, we can offer you a 25% quantity discount. Enclosed is the operating instructions of the washing machine. If there is anything else you would like to know, please do not hesitate to contact us. We are looking forward to your early reply. Sincerely yours, Gao Xiaoming

Section 4 More Things to Do Task 1 Read the passage and fill in Section 4 More Things to Do Task 1 Read the passage and fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the box below. Clients source services complaints Accordingly improving positive competitive Position most conduct cooperation Effective Ways to Keep Track of Customer Satisfaction As the economic market environment becomes more and more 1) competitive _____, many companies come to realize the importance of keeping track of customer satisfaction, or how their customers services are responding to their products and 2) _____. They know that no matter the feedback is 3) _______ or negative (负面的), positive their willingness to recognize it and respond actively can help clients transform (转变) one-time buyers into lifelong 4)______.

Section 4 More Things to Do Then how can a company best track customer Section 4 More Things to Do Then how can a company best track customer satisfaction? Here are some effective ways to help companies obtain the most valuable customer data (资料) source and make the 5) of it. 1. Establish several “streams” of customer satisfaction data. According to customer satisfaction experts, the most effective systems collect data both formally and informally. In other words, it can be helpful to ask for customers’ casual (不经意的) suggestions and responses in addition to the “official” types of complaints feedback, such as surveys or formal 6) .

Section 4 More Things to Do 2. Develop constant (持续的) feedback collection systems. conduct Section 4 More Things to Do 2. Develop constant (持续的) feedback collection systems. conduct Many firms 7) a once-a-year survey and think that they’ve got customer satisfaction covered, but experts say that this does not cover the whole picture. They suggest that companies should create a system for constant feedback, such as setting up a comment form on the website. 3. Actively ask for new ideas and suggestions for improvement. source Believe it or not, the customers can be a very important 8) ______

Section 4 More Things to Do of business intelligence. Their unique perspective allows clients Section 4 More Things to Do of business intelligence. Their unique perspective allows clients ( improving 客户) to generate (产生) ideas for 9) service quality and expanding service areas in ways one might never have imagined. 4. Act on customer feedback. All the customer satisfaction data won’t help if a company doesn’t transform it into action and accordingly adjust company practices and policies 10) . After all, the customer is always right! (304 words)

Section 4 More Things to Do Task 2 Choose the answer that best completes Section 4 More Things to Do Task 2 Choose the answer that best completes each sentence. 1. This passage is mainly about _____. A) how to build business relationships B) effective ways to keep track of customer satisfaction C) the importance of customer feedback D) the relationship between company and customer

Section 4 More Things to Do 2. Which of the following is true about Section 4 More Things to Do 2. Which of the following is true about the once-a-year survey? A) It can not find out all about the customer satisfaction. B) It is of no use for tracking customer satisfaction. C) It helps get constant feedback from customers. D) It generates constant opinions from employees.

Section 4 More Things to Do 3. In the passage “setting up a comment Section 4 More Things to Do 3. In the passage “setting up a comment form on the website” is cited as an example of _____. A) getting feedback from experts B) company development C) communication with customers D) creating a system for constant feedback

Section 4 More Things to Do 4. The phrase “get the most out of” Section 4 More Things to Do 4. The phrase “get the most out of” in the passage most probably means _____. A) get much information from B) make the best use of C) have many customers from D) improve the business of

Section 4 More Things to Do 5. What should a company do with customer Section 4 More Things to Do 5. What should a company do with customer feedback according to the passage? A) The company should present a report to its customers. B) The company should give feedback to its customers. C) The company should adjust its practices and policies accordingly. D) The company should enter it into the customer databank.

Focus on Grammar 过去完成时 英语中过去完成时表示以过去的一个时间为基点,在此之前 发生的事情,其动词形式表现为had + 过去分词。 过去完成时主要有以下几点用法: 1. 表示过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成的动作或存 在的状态。句中常用by, before, when, Focus on Grammar 过去完成时 英语中过去完成时表示以过去的一个时间为基点,在此之前 发生的事情,其动词形式表现为had + 过去分词。 过去完成时主要有以下几点用法: 1. 表示过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成的动作或存 在的状态。句中常用by, before, when, until等词引导时间状 语。例如: When I finally found the conference room, the meeting had already started. 当我最重找到会议室时,会议已经开始了。 2. 表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或状态持续到过去某个 时间或持续下去,常与for, since等词连用。例如: The sales had increased a lot when I left the company. 我离开公 司的时候,销售有了很大增长。

Focus on Grammar 3. 用于并列句中,表示某动作早于另一过去动作发。 例如: He had finished the development of a new Focus on Grammar 3. 用于并列句中,表示某动作早于另一过去动作发。 例如: He had finished the development of a new product ahead of time and began producing it last month.他提前完成了新产 品的开发,并于上月开始生产了。 4. 某些动词的过去完成时表示过去未实现的希望、计划 或打算。常用的动词hope, expect, suppose, think, want, wish等。例如: We had hoped that we could enter the European market, but we failed. 我们曾希望打入欧洲市场,但未能如愿。

Focus on Grammar Task 1 Study the following English sentences and translate the Chinese Focus on Grammar Task 1 Study the following English sentences and translate the Chinese sentences into English. 1. By five o’clock yesterday, we had got more than 100 application letters. 到去年年底,这家公司已经开了30多家分公司了。 By the end of last year, the company had opened more than 30 branches. 2. He said that he had already sent the business letter. 她说他们已经签署了合同。 She said that they had already signed the contract.

Focus on Grammar 3. I had just written an important report when my computer Focus on Grammar 3. I had just written an important report when my computer crashed. 我刚到公司就开始下雨了。 The manager told Mary that she was going to finish the task in a week. 4. They had hoped they could improve their sales this year. 他本希望能到这家公司当营销经理。 I didn’t know if he would apply for this position. 5. Things had greatly improved when I left the company. 当我得到这个消息时,货已经卖完了。 She said she was going straight home after work.

Focus on Grammar Task 2 Correct the errors in the following sentences. 1. He Focus on Grammar Task 2 Correct the errors in the following sentences. 1. He was satisfied with the meeting. She has achieved all her goals. has achieved – had achieved 2. He was greatly relieved that he would finally sign the contract. would sign – had signed 3. She found that she forgot to bring her report with her. forgot - had forgot(ten) 4. I knew a lot about business because I have been a partner in another company. have been – had been 5. When I arrived at the company, the interview has already finished. has … finished - had … finished

Career English Reading and Speaking Higher Education Press Career English Reading and Speaking Higher Education Press

Section 1 Getting Things Ready ★ conference: 一般是正式的、规模较大的会议 an international conference meeting: 一般是非正式、规模可大可小的会议 class Section 1 Getting Things Ready ★ conference: 一般是正式的、规模较大的会议 an international conference meeting: 一般是非正式、规模可大可小的会议 class meeting congress: “议会”,也指立法机关的“会议” the National People's Congress summit: 领导人参加的“峰会” a summit in Moscow seminar: 学术上的“研讨会” a graduate seminar session: 常指立法机关的某一届会议。 a session of the UN