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S 1 Literacy: Building the Basics S 1 Literacy: Building the Basics

Personal Pronouns Me, myself and I Personal Pronouns Me, myself and I

Personal Pronouns In this lesson we are going to: • Learn about personal pronouns Personal Pronouns In this lesson we are going to: • Learn about personal pronouns • Learn how to use personal pronouns in autobiographical writing

Personal Pronouns A noun is a word that is a person, place or thing. Personal Pronouns A noun is a word that is a person, place or thing. A pronoun can be used in place of a noun A personal pronoun is used in place of a noun that is a person or thing. Emma loves chocolate. She could eat it all day. Personal pronouns are used so that you don’t have to repeat the same words in your writing.

Personal pronouns for people include… I they him she her he us you me Personal pronouns for people include… I they him she her he us you me them we

Personal pronouns for things include… it they them Personal pronouns for things include… it they them

The following sentences do not use personal pronouns. Rewrite each sentence using a personal The following sentences do not use personal pronouns. Rewrite each sentence using a personal pronoun. 1. Mike turned the fire on because Mike was cold. 2. Jane loves football, Jane plays football after school. 3. The rain poured down, the rain made a tremendous noise. 4. The car broke down because the car ran out of petrol. 5. Amir loves Saira, Amir bought Saira a ring.

Check your answers 1. Mike turned the fire on because he was cold. 2. Check your answers 1. Mike turned the fire on because he was cold. 2. Jane loves football, she plays it after school. 3. The rain poured down, it made a tremendous noise. 4. The car broke down because it ran out of petrol. 5. Amir loves Saira, he bought her a ring.

Check your sentences with your teacher Did you remember to change the noun for Check your sentences with your teacher Did you remember to change the noun for a personal pronoun?

Personal Pronouns In autobiographical writing personal pronouns are used all the time as the Personal Pronouns In autobiographical writing personal pronouns are used all the time as the author is writing about themselves. ‘I remember when I was seven, scoring a last minute goal…’

Key Skills Types of Nouns Key Skills Types of Nouns

Nouns Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise common and proper nouns • Nouns Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise common and proper nouns • Writing: To learn how to use different types of nouns effectively

What Are Nouns? Nouns are words for a person, place, thing or idea. E. What Are Nouns? Nouns are words for a person, place, thing or idea. E. G: The The sneaky thief empty street sharp knife terrible truth

Spot the Noun Underline, circle or highlight the nouns in the following sentences: 1. Spot the Noun Underline, circle or highlight the nouns in the following sentences: 1. The plumber fixed the leaking tap. 2. The village was not on the map. 3. The present was hidden in the wardrobe. 4. English is my favourite subject. 5. Mr Jones was reading the “Radio Times” on the train to Bristol.

Check Your Understanding How did you do? Give yourself one mark for each correctly Check Your Understanding How did you do? Give yourself one mark for each correctly identified noun then add up your score out of twelve. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plumber fixed the leaking tap The village was not on the map The present was hidden in the wardrobe English is my favourite subject Mr Jones was reading the “Radio Times” on Times the train to Bristol

Common Nouns and Proper Nouns Common nouns are used for general persons, places or Common Nouns and Proper Nouns Common nouns are used for general persons, places or things. E. G: author, city, car Proper Nouns are used for particular persons, places or things. E. G: Charles Dickens, Cardiff, Nissan

Sort these nouns into Common Nouns and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns Steven Sort these nouns into Common Nouns and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns Steven table Jupiter book tree France dog Rover Hull City F. C. planet car hut bricklayer Globe Theatre

Speaking and Listening Feedback : Read your lists out to a partner or the Speaking and Listening Feedback : Read your lists out to a partner or the rest of the class. Explain why you have chosen particular nouns, say how you decided which are proper and which are common. What do all the Proper Nouns have in common?

Noun Detective Insert capital letters and underline the Proper Nouns in the following paragraph Noun Detective Insert capital letters and underline the Proper Nouns in the following paragraph : as the train pulled out of waverley station michael opened his new book, great expectations by charles dickens. it was a gift from sarah, a going away present, something to keep him company on the long journey south to london.

Noun Detective Insert capital letters and underline the Proper Nouns in the following paragraph: Noun Detective Insert capital letters and underline the Proper Nouns in the following paragraph: As the train pulled out of Waverley Station Michael opened his new book, Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. It was a gift from Sarah, a Dickens Sarah going away present, something to keep him company on the long journey south to London

Spelling Singular to Plural Nouns Spelling Singular to Plural Nouns

Singular to Plural Nouns Objectives: • To learn key spelling rules when changing nouns Singular to Plural Nouns Objectives: • To learn key spelling rules when changing nouns from singular to plural.

Singular to Plural Nouns The easiest way to change singular to plural nouns is Singular to Plural Nouns The easiest way to change singular to plural nouns is to add an ‘s’. For example, car becomes cars, hat becomes hats and computer becomes computers. However, there are exceptions: If the noun ends in s, sh, ch or x then you must add ‘es’ Change the following singular nouns into plural: Box ash hand church wasp bus

Words that end in -y If a word ends in y with a vowel Words that end in -y If a word ends in y with a vowel before it, just add –s. –s If a word ends in y with a consonant before it, change the y to ies Can you change the following singular nouns into plurals? city butterfly monkey donkey lady day puppy pony Sunday toy

Words that end in -y If a word ends in y with a vowel Words that end in -y If a word ends in y with a vowel before it, just add –s. –s If a word ends in y with a consonant before it, change the y to ies Can you change the following singular nouns into plurals? cities butterflies days puppies monkeys toys donkeys ponies ladies Sundays

Words ending in f or fe For words ending in –f or –fe often Words ending in f or fe For words ending in –f or –fe often we just add –s But sometimes we change the –f and add –ves Words which end in –ff just add -s Change these words into plurals (you can use a dictionary if you wish) cliff wolf half knife loaf shelf thief wife dwarf

Words ending in f or fe For words ending in –f or –fe often Words ending in f or fe For words ending in –f or –fe often we just add –s But sometimes we change the –f and add –ves Words which end in –ff just add -s Change these words into plurals (you can use a dictionary if you wish) cliffs wolves halves knives loaves shelves thieves wives dwarves

Words ending in -o For words ending in a vowel plus –o add –s Words ending in -o For words ending in a vowel plus –o add –s For most other words ending in –o add –es Turn the following words into plurals: • Tomato • Potato • Domino • Stereo • cuckoo • hero

Words ending in -o For words ending in a vowel plus –o add –s Words ending in -o For words ending in a vowel plus –o add –s For most other words ending in –o add –es Turn the following words into plurals: • Tomatoes • Potatoes • Dominoes • Stereos • cuckoos • heroes

Exceptions The following words are exceptions to the rules. The only thing you can Exceptions The following words are exceptions to the rules. The only thing you can do is learn them as they are. • • Radios Volcanoes Teeth Mice Pianos Sheep Children Cacti

Key Skills Verbs Key Skills Verbs

Verbs Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise verbs • Writing: To learn Verbs Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise verbs • Writing: To learn how to use verbs effectively to improve our sentences

What Are Verbs? Verbs are words for an action – “a doing word”. The What Are Verbs? Verbs are words for an action – “a doing word”. The verb is the most important word in a sentence because without it that sentence would not make sense. E. G: Ben dashed home The verb ‘dashed’ tells the reader what the subject of the sentence (Ben) is doing.

Spot the Verb Underline, circle or highlight the verb in the following sentences: 1. Spot the Verb Underline, circle or highlight the verb in the following sentences: 1. Nat kissed his grandmother. 2. The flowers grew in the garden. 3. Daisy read her book. 4. Diane loves ice cream. 5. Joe scored a goal. 6. The cat caught the mouse.

Check Your Understanding How did you do? Give yourself one mark for each correctly Check Your Understanding How did you do? Give yourself one mark for each correctly identified verb then add up your score out of six. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nat kissed his grandmother. The flowers grew in the garden. Daisy read her book. Diane loves ice cream. Joe scored a goal. The cat caught the mouse.

Using Effective Verbs On the next slide you will be asked to place verbs Using Effective Verbs On the next slide you will be asked to place verbs into a range of sentences. • Before you begin, make sure you: • Use a word which makes sense in the sentence • Use better vocabulary. Avoid boring verbs: for example ‘walk’ may be replaced by ‘stagger’, ‘said’ could be substituted for ‘screeched’. • Use a verb that creates a specific image and a particular mood for the reader.

Using Effective Verbs Place verbs into the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Using Effective Verbs Place verbs into the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The sea _____ against the rocks. Lucy _____ her toy out of the pram. The gymnast ____ across the floor. “Please, help me, ” I _____. The striker _____ the ball past the goal keeper.

Constructive Criticism Speaking and Listening Speaking: Read your sentences out to a partner or Constructive Criticism Speaking and Listening Speaking: Read your sentences out to a partner or the rest of the class. Explain why you have chosen particular verbs, say how they improve the sentence. Listening: Listen to the sentences being read out. Has the reader improved the sentences by adding verbs? If you think they have say why. How could they improve it further? For whole class discussion choose another reader, for paired work swap roles.

Different Verbs can also be a state of being. Such being verbs derive from Different Verbs can also be a state of being. Such being verbs derive from the verb to be. There are many forms such as: am, are, is, was, were, will be, was being, and would have been. E. G: Dad will be home soon The verb in this sentence is ‘will be’.

Verb Detective Underline or highlight the verbs in the following paragraph: Michael tip-toed silently Verb Detective Underline or highlight the verbs in the following paragraph: Michael tip-toed silently into the abandoned cottage. It was dark so he reached for the light switch. He flicked the switch. Nothing. He heard a noise in the distance. A howl? A shiver ran through his body like an electric current. He groped his way to the window and drew back the tatty curtains. It was there staring back at him.

Verb Detective Did you spot all the verbs? Michael tip-toed silently into the abandoned Verb Detective Did you spot all the verbs? Michael tip-toed silently into the abandoned cottage. It was dark so he reached for the light switch. He flicked the switch. Nothing. He heard a noise in the distance. A howl? A shiver ran through his body like an electric current. He groped his way to the window and drew back the tatty curtains. It was there staring back at him.

Key Skills Adverbs Key Skills Adverbs

Adverbs Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise adverbs • Writing: To learn Adverbs Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise adverbs • Writing: To learn how to use adverbs effectively to improve our sentences

What Are Adverbs? Adverbs are words that tell us more about a verb. Adverbs What Are Adverbs? Adverbs are words that tell us more about a verb. Adverbs tell us how, when or where the how action (verb) took place. E. G: The river flowed rapidly In this sentence the verb is ‘flowed’. The adverb, ‘rapidly’, tells us how the river flowed.

What Are Adverbs? Adverbs of time tell us when the action (verb) took place. What Are Adverbs? Adverbs of time tell us when the action (verb) took place. E. G: The train arrived late In this sentence the verb is ‘arrived’. The adverb, ‘late’, tells us when the train arrived.

What Are Adverbs? Adverbs of place tell us where the action (verb) took place. What Are Adverbs? Adverbs of place tell us where the action (verb) took place. E. G: My sister marched in front In this sentence the verb is ‘marched’. The adverb, ‘in front’, tells us where she marched.

Spot the Adverb Underline, circle or highlight the adverbs in the following sentences: 1. Spot the Adverb Underline, circle or highlight the adverbs in the following sentences: 1. Jenny turned over in her sleep. 2. Artemis ran blindly along the corridor. 3. She screamed desperately for help. 4. The sun shone beautifully this morning. 5. We arrived yesterday but will be leaving soon.

Check Your Understanding 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How did you do? Give yourself Check Your Understanding 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How did you do? Give yourself one mark for each correctly identified adverb then add up your score out of six. Jenny turned over in her sleep. Artemis ran blindly along the corridor. She screamed desperately for help. The sun shone beautifully this morning. We arrived yesterday but will be leaving soon

Using Effective Adverbs On the next slide you will be asked to place adverbs Using Effective Adverbs On the next slide you will be asked to place adverbs into a range of sentences. • Before you begin, make sure you: • Use a word which makes sense in the sentence • Use better vocabulary. Avoid boring adverbs such as ‘loudly’, ‘fast’ or ‘scarily’. • Use an adverb that creates a specific image and a particular mood for the reader.

Using Effective Adverbs Place adverbs into the following sentences: 1. Mrs Clarke searched _____ Using Effective Adverbs Place adverbs into the following sentences: 1. Mrs Clarke searched _____ for a stick of chalk. 2. Becky was writing _____ when the fire alarm rang. 3. They behaved _____ in a dangerous situation. 4. We should be arriving in Glasgow _____. 5. The surgeon fought _____ to save the man’s life.

Constructive Criticism Speaking and Listening Speaking: Read your sentences out to a partner or Constructive Criticism Speaking and Listening Speaking: Read your sentences out to a partner or the rest of the class. Explain why you have chosen particular adverbs, say how they improve the sentence. Listening: Listen to the sentences being read out. Has the reader improved the sentences by adding adverbs? If you think they have say why. How could they improve it further? For whole class discussion choose another reader, for paired work swap roles.

Adverb Detective Divide your page into three columns. Read the adverbs on the next Adverb Detective Divide your page into three columns. Read the adverbs on the next slide then decide which category they fit into. The first three have been done for you. How? bravely When? tomorrow Where? here

Adverb Detective How, when or where? bravely directly tomorrow here cosily soon yesterday generously Adverb Detective How, when or where? bravely directly tomorrow here cosily soon yesterday generously out reluctantly later over now stupidly badly secretly near often in next loudly

Key Skills Effective Adjectives Key Skills Effective Adjectives

What Are Adjectives? Adjectives describe a noun. They are used to add description and What Are Adjectives? Adjectives describe a noun. They are used to add description and mood to a piece of writing. E. G: I fell into the river becomes I fell into the raging river. • The adjective ‘raging’ adds description to the sentence. It helps the reader get a clear picture of what is being described. The reader can now imagine the scene vividly: a rapidly flowing river. • The adjective also adds tension to the sentence. The word ‘raging’ makes the river sound fast flowing and dangerous. This makes the sentence more exciting for the reader.

Spot the Adjective Underline, circle or highlight the adjectives in the following sentences: 1. Spot the Adjective Underline, circle or highlight the adjectives in the following sentences: 1. The vicious dog ran straight for me. 2. The angry sea crashed against the black rocks. 3. The fragile, old lady peered through the smashed window. 4. My new bike landed in the muddy pond. 5. A lonely star shone in the purple sky.

Check Your Understanding How did you do? Give yourself one mark for each correctly Check Your Understanding How did you do? Give yourself one mark for each correctly identified adjective then add up your score out of ten. 1. The vicious dog ran straight for me. 2. The angry sea crashed against the black rocks. 3. The fragile, old lady peered through the smashed window. 4. My new bike landed in the muddy pond. 5. A lonely star shone in the purple sky.

Using Adjectives On the next slide you will be asked to place adjectives into Using Adjectives On the next slide you will be asked to place adjectives into a range of sentences. • Before you begin, make sure you: • Use a word which makes sense in the sentence • Use better vocabulary. Avoid boring adjectives such as ‘big’, ‘interesting, or ‘scary’. • Use an adjective that creates an image and a particular mood for the reader.

Using Adjectives Place adjectives into the following sentences: 1. The _____ wind blasted the Using Adjectives Place adjectives into the following sentences: 1. The _____ wind blasted the _____ castle walls. 2. The _____ child threw its _____ toy onto the floor. 3. A _____ woman crept out of the back door of the _____ house. 4. I sat there _____ in the _____ examination hall. 5. The _____ striker smashed the ball past the _____ goal keeper.

Constructive Criticism Speaking and Listening Speaking: Read your sentences out to a partner or Constructive Criticism Speaking and Listening Speaking: Read your sentences out to a partner or the rest of the class. Explain why you have chosen particular adjectives, say how they improve the sentence. Listening: Listen to the sentences being read out. Has the reader improved the sentences by adding adjectives? If you think they have say why. How could they improve it further? For whole class discussion choose another reader, for paired work swap roles.

Key Skills CAPITAL LETTERS Key Skills CAPITAL LETTERS

Capital Letters Objectives: • Reading: To understand why authors use Reading capital letters. • Capital Letters Objectives: • Reading: To understand why authors use Reading capital letters. • Writing: To learn how to use capital letters Writing for a range of purposes.

When do we use capital letters? Capital letters are used for a number of When do we use capital letters? Capital letters are used for a number of reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. The first letter of the first word of a sentence. A proper noun. The first spoken word in direct speech. The word ‘I’. For example: It was a cold December morning when I heard the cry of “Help!” coming from the woodshed. Can you give reasons why capital letters are used here?

Initials and Acronyms Capital letters are also used for initials and acronyms. I know Initials and Acronyms Capital letters are also used for initials and acronyms. I know what initials are but what’s an acronym? An acronym is a word formed from the initials or other parts of several words such as ASDA (Associated Dairies) or NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)

Initials and Acronyms How many initials and acronyms do you know? In pairs, spend Initials and Acronyms How many initials and acronyms do you know? In pairs, spend five minutes thinking of as many as you can and feed back your thoughts to the class. Can you think of more than 10? Here’s a few clues to help you get started…

Initials and Acronyms How many initials and acronyms did you get? NASA NATWEST OXFAM Initials and Acronyms How many initials and acronyms did you get? NASA NATWEST OXFAM INTERNET NASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATWEST stands for National Westminster Bank Nat West OXFAM stands for Oxford Committee for Famine Relief Ox Fam INTERNET stands for International Network Inter Net

A Capital Idea Rewrite this passage inserting capital letters. my friend jack is flying A Capital Idea Rewrite this passage inserting capital letters. my friend jack is flying over from the u. s. a to spend christmas with us in scotland. i haven’t seen him since i was seven so we’ve got lots of catching up to do. his parents jane and tom are staying with my auntie mary who lives in glasgow but jack is allowed to stay at our house, 63 cranberry road. we have arranged to collect them from the airport at eleven a. m on wednesday morning, that’s in two days time.

A Capital Idea Rewrite this passage inserting capital letters My friend Jack is flying A Capital Idea Rewrite this passage inserting capital letters My friend Jack is flying over from U. S. A to spend Christmas with us in Scotland. I haven’t seen him since I was seven so we’ve got lots of catching up to do. His parents, Jane and Tom, are staying with my Auntie Mary who lives in Glasgow but Jack is allowed to stay at our house, 63 Cranberry Road. We have arranged to collect them from the airport at eleven AM on Wednesday morning, that’s in two days time.

Key Skills Conjunctions Key Skills Conjunctions

Conjunctions In this lesson we are going to: • Learn what a conjunction is Conjunctions In this lesson we are going to: • Learn what a conjunction is • Learn how to use conjunctions to join short sentences together

Conjunctions are words which join short sentences together. For example: I went to bed. Conjunctions are words which join short sentences together. For example: I went to bed. I was very tired. Becomes: I went to bed because I was very tired. The two sentences have been joined together by the word because. In this sentence because is the conjunction.

Highlight the conjunctions in the following sentences 1. I ran home because I was Highlight the conjunctions in the following sentences 1. I ran home because I was late. 2. I cheered when we scored a goal. 3. Michael likes swimming but Julia likes tennis. 4. I could walk or I could catch the bus. 5. I went to the cinema while you were shopping. 6. I went to Nazma’s house but she was out.

How many did you get right? 1. I ran home because I was late. How many did you get right? 1. I ran home because I was late. 2. I cheered when we scored a goal. 3. Michael likes swimming but Julia likes tennis. 4. I could walk or I could catch the bus. 5. I went to the cinema while you were shopping. 6. I went to Nazma’s house but she was out.

Can you use a conjunction from the box below to make the two short Can you use a conjunction from the box below to make the two short sentences into one? 1. I had a party. It was my birthday. 2. I was six. I broken my arm. 3. It was snowing. We made a snowman. 4. I could have chips. I could have pizza. 5. Sarah held the ladder. Amy climbed onto the roof. or because while so when

Can you use a conjunction from the box below to make the two short Can you use a conjunction from the box below to make the two short sentences into one? 1. I had a party because it was my birthday. 2. I was six when I broken my arm. 3. It was snowing so we made a snowman. 4. I could have chips or I could have pizza. 5. Sarah held the ladder while Amy climbed onto the roof. or because while so when

Conjunctions Remember, a conjunction is a word that can join two short sentences together. Conjunctions Remember, a conjunction is a word that can join two short sentences together. I was six when I broke my arm.

Conjunctions game Click below to play the ‘Conjunctions Game’. Conjunctions game Click below to play the ‘Conjunctions Game’.

Creating Sentences The Main Clause Creating Sentences The Main Clause

The Main Clause Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise the main clause The Main Clause Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise the main clause within a sentence. • Writing: To learn how to use the main clause to create secure sentences.

What is the main clause? All sentences contain a clause. A clause is a What is the main clause? All sentences contain a clause. A clause is a group of words which contain a verb or verb phrase. Every sentence has a main clause. The main clause is the main idea of the sentence and makes sense by itself as a simple sentence. For example: My wife is a doctor. This is a main clause and a simple sentence.

What are complex sentences? More complex sentences are formed by adding a subordinate clause What are complex sentences? More complex sentences are formed by adding a subordinate clause to the main clause. Subordinate clauses add information to the main clause but do not make sense on their own. For example: My wife, who is younger than me, is a doctor. who is younger than me is a subordinate clause as it adds more information to the sentence but does not make sense on its own.

The Main Clause Read the following sentences. Can you identify the main clause? The The Main Clause Read the following sentences. Can you identify the main clause? The moon, shining like a light, was directly overhead. The stolen car sped up the hill, chased by two police cars. The flowers, that had bloomed in the spring, were fading fast.

The Main Clause Read the following sentences. Can you identify the main clause? The The Main Clause Read the following sentences. Can you identify the main clause? The moon, shining like a light, was directly overhead. The stolen car sped up the hill, chased by two police cars. The flowers, that had bloomed in the spring, were fading fast.

The Main Clause Highlight the main clause in the following sentences: 1. Daniel, who The Main Clause Highlight the main clause in the following sentences: 1. Daniel, who was the bravest of the group, knocked on the door. 2. We found ourselves in a weird room, the walls covered in strange scribbles. 3. As he carried his plate into the kitchen, Amir tripped over the carpet. 4. After a long day at school I had an appointment with the dentist. 5. Before opening the door, I took a deep breath. 6. Sarah, the best netball player in the school, has been picked to play for England.

Check Your Understanding 1. Daniel, who was the bravest of the group, knocked on Check Your Understanding 1. Daniel, who was the bravest of the group, knocked on the door. 2. We found ourselves in a weird room, the walls covered in strange scribbles. 3. As he carried his plate into the kitchen, Amir tripped over the carpet. 4. After a long day at school I had an appointment with the dentist. 5. Before opening the door, I took a deep breath. 6. Sarah, the best netball player in the school, has been picked to play for England.

Creating Sentences The Subordinate Clause Creating Sentences The Subordinate Clause

The Subordinate clause Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise the subordinate clause The Subordinate clause Objectives: • Reading: To learn how to recognise the subordinate clause within complex sentences. • Writing: To learn how to use the subordinate clause to create complex sentences.

What Are Complex Sentences? Complex sentences are sentences made up of more than one What Are Complex Sentences? Complex sentences are sentences made up of more than one clause. A clause is a group of words which contain a verb or verb phrase. Every sentence has a main clause. The main clause is the main idea of the sentence and makes sense by itself as a simple sentence. For Example: My wife is a doctor. This is a main clause and a simple sentence.

What are complex sentences? Complex sentences are formed by adding a subordinate clause to What are complex sentences? Complex sentences are formed by adding a subordinate clause to a main clause. Subordinate clauses add information to the main clause. For example: My wife, who is younger than me, is a doctor. who is younger than me is a subordinate clause as it adds more information to the sentence but does not make sense on its own. To achieve Level 5 you must be able to use subordinate clauses in your sentences.

The subordinate Clause Read the following complex sentences. Can you identify the subordinate clause? The subordinate Clause Read the following complex sentences. Can you identify the subordinate clause? The moon, shining like a light, was directly overhead. The stolen car sped up the hill, chased by two police cars. The flowers, that had bloomed in the spring, were fading fast.

The subordinate Clause Read the following complex sentences. Can you identify the subordinate clause? The subordinate Clause Read the following complex sentences. Can you identify the subordinate clause? The moon, shining like a light, was directly overhead. The stolen car sped up the hill, chased by two police cars. The flowers, that had bloomed in the spring, were fading fast.

Highlight The Subordinate Clause 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Steven, Highlight The Subordinate Clause 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Steven, a year younger than me, was not allowed to go. The room was filled by a strange noise that echoed through my head. Mum sat on the sofa, while the children played on the floor. The new pupil smiled shyly as she was introduced to the class. The sun, which was now directly overhead, was incredibly hot. The present, wrapped in silver paper, was under the Christmas tree. We looked up in surprise when we heard Aisha’s scream. I knew I was nearly home because the car was slowing down. Mr Carol, who teaches English, is our new Deputy Head.

Check Your Understanding 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Steven, a Check Your Understanding 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Steven, a year younger than me, was not allowed to go. The room was filled by a strange noise that echoed through my head. Mum sat on the sofa, while the children played on the floor. The new pupil smiled shyly as she was introduced to the class. The sun, which was now directly overhead, was incredibly hot. The present, wrapped in silver paper, was under the tree. We looked up in surprise when we heard Aisha’s scream. I knew I was nearly home because the car was slowing down. Mr Carol, who teaches English, is our new Deputy Head.

From Simple to Complex Sentences Add a subordinate clause 1. The wind, ___________, blew From Simple to Complex Sentences Add a subordinate clause 1. The wind, ___________, blew through the abandoned house. 2. The old man, _________, slowly opened his front door. 3. I walked home, ____________. 4. __________, the little girl burst into tears. 5. The sun, _____________, shone into my bedroom window. 6. The car, __________ , struggled up the hill.

From Simple to Complex Sentences Add a Subordinate Clause 1. Chelsea, ______________, scored in From Simple to Complex Sentences Add a Subordinate Clause 1. Chelsea, ______________, scored in the last minute. 2. The old man opened his front door, __________. 3. I ate my tea, ______________. 4. ________, the new teacher shouted at Stephen. 5. The moon, _____________, illuminated the empty street. 6. The train, ______________ , pulled into the station.

Key Skills Using Commas Correctly Key Skills Using Commas Correctly

Using Commas Correctly Objectives: • Reading: To understand how authors use Reading commas in Using Commas Correctly Objectives: • Reading: To understand how authors use Reading commas in lists and to separate dialogue. • Writing: To learn how to use commas when Writing creating lists and using dialogue.

Using Commas in Lists Commas can be used for many things but one of Using Commas in Lists Commas can be used for many things but one of its main uses is to replace the word ‘and’ in a list. For example, instead of the rather clumsy sentence: Joseph went to the shop and bought a chocolate bar and a can of pop and a magazine and a box of matches. You could use commas to change it into: Joseph went to the shop and bought a chocolate bar, a can of pop, a magazine and a box of matches. Commas replace the word ‘and’ except for the final ‘and’ which is always kept in.

Using Commas in Lists Another of the commas main uses is to replace the Using Commas in Lists Another of the commas main uses is to replace the word ‘or’ in a list of alternatives or choices. For example, instead of writing: Joseph went to the cinema but could not decide whether to watch ‘Kung Fu Panda’ or ‘WALL-E’ or ‘Mamma Mia’ or ‘Batman’ or ‘Hancock’. You could use commas to change it into: Joseph went to the cinema but could not decide whether to watch ‘Kung Fu Panda’ , ‘WALL-E’ , ‘Mamma Mia’, ‘Batman’ or ‘Hancock’. Commas replace the word ‘or’ except for the final ‘or’ which is always kept in.

Using Commas to replace and or or Use commas to improve the following sentences: Using Commas to replace and or or Use commas to improve the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jill went to the baker’s and bought a loaf of bread and a sausage roll and a cheese and onion pie and an iced finger. Mum’s shopping list included: carrots and potatoes and apples and milk and tomato sauce and eggs. Michael had to decide whether to take part in rock climbing or raft building or abseiling or river walking. I could not decide whether to borrow ‘Holes’ or ‘Point Blanc’ or ‘Stone Cold’ or ‘Titanic 2020’ or ‘Breathe’ from the school library. “This morning I’ve got to catch the bus and go to the dentist and meet Jack for lunch and pick up the children from school, ” said mum.

Check Your Understanding Use commas to improve the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. Check Your Understanding Use commas to improve the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jill went to the baker’s and bought a loaf of bread, a sausage roll, a cheese and onion pie and an iced finger. Mum’s shopping list included: carrots, potatoes, apples, milk, tomato sauce and eggs. Michael had to decide whether to take part in rock climbing, raft building, abseiling or river walking. I could not decide whether to borrow ‘Holes’, ‘Point Blanc’, ‘Stone Cold’, ‘Titanic 2020’ or ‘Breathe’ from the school library. “This morning I’ve got to catch the bus, go to the dentist, meet Jack for lunch and pick up the children from school, ” said mum.

Using Commas with Adjectives or Adverbs Commas are also used to separate adjectives or Using Commas with Adjectives or Adverbs Commas are also used to separate adjectives or adverbs when more than one is used to describe a noun or verb. For example: He was a tight fisted, miserable, old man. The sports car swiftly, silently and elegantly drove past. Similar to the lists on the previous slides this usage is designed to separate adjectives or adverbs and clarify meaning.

Using Commas in Dialogue The third main use of the comma is to separate Using Commas in Dialogue The third main use of the comma is to separate the actual words spoken from the rest of the sentence when using speech. Study these examples: She said, “Today was a brilliant day. ” “I never want to see you again, ” remarked James. “I have lost my money, ” cried Ben, “and my train ticket. ”

Check Your Understanding Use commas to separate the dialogue in the following sentences: 1. Check Your Understanding Use commas to separate the dialogue in the following sentences: 1. She said “It takes twenty minutes on the bus. ” 2. “You had it this morning” said Susan “you can’t have lost it already. ” 3. “My name is Mike” said the contestant “and I’m from Swansea. ” 4. “I was expecting you an hour ago” said Mr Hulme. 5. “Mrs Hartley” called the Head teacher “can I have a word with you in private? ”

Check Your Understanding Use commas to separate the dialogue in the following sentences: 1. Check Your Understanding Use commas to separate the dialogue in the following sentences: 1. She said, “It takes twenty minutes on the bus. ” 2. “You had it this morning, ” said Susan, “you can’t have lost it already. ” 3. “My name is Mike, ” said the contestant, “and I’m from Swansea. ” 4. “I was expecting you an hour ago, ” said Mr Hulme. 5. “Mrs Hartley, ” called the Head teacher, “could I have a word with you in private? ”

Figures of Speech Similes Figures of Speech Similes

Similes Objectives: • Reading: To understand how authors use Reading similes to create a Similes Objectives: • Reading: To understand how authors use Reading similes to create a vivid image for the reader. • Writing: To learn how to use similes to Writing create vivid images for the reader.

What are Similes? A simile is the comparison of one item with another. It What are Similes? A simile is the comparison of one item with another. It can usually be spotted by the use of the words ‘as’ or ‘like’ to bring the two ideas together. For example: George ran away from them, could become, George ran like a fox chased by a pack of hungry hounds. The first sentence makes sense but does not create a clear image whereas the second sentence creates an image and is more effective.

Super Similes are used to emphasise some quality about the object described. Here a Super Similes are used to emphasise some quality about the object described. Here a few similes from famous writers: ‘Brief as the lightning in the collied night. ’ (Shakespeare) ‘Bats hanging upside down like rows of disgusting old rags. ’ (D. H Lawrence) ‘A low voice like beer trickling out of a jug. ’ (P. G. Wodehouse)

Avoiding Cliché A Cliché is a phrase that has been over used and lost Avoiding Cliché A Cliché is a phrase that has been over used and lost its imaginative effect. Clichéd similes include: As strong as an ox. As bold as brass. As good as gold. As light as a feather. It dropped like a stone. These expressions are ‘hackneyed’ – they are dull, boring, do not create vivid writing and are best avoided.

Use a simile to complete the sentences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nathanael ran Use a simile to complete the sentences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nathanael ran like…. The gull soared as high as…. The path wound through the hills like… The trees towered above me like… The snow fell as gently as …. .

Key Skills Figures of Speech Metaphors Key Skills Figures of Speech Metaphors

Metaphors Objectives: • Reading: To recognise how authors use Reading metaphors to create images. Metaphors Objectives: • Reading: To recognise how authors use Reading metaphors to create images. • Writing: To learn how to use metaphors to Writing create images.

What are Metaphors? Like a simile, a metaphor is a comparison of one item What are Metaphors? Like a simile, a metaphor is a comparison of one item with another. However instead of saying that something is ‘like’ or ‘as’ something else a metaphor says that it is something else. Confused? Don’t be. Instead of writing, ‘the path wound its way through the hills like a snake’ (SIMILE) You could write: ‘The path snaked its way through the hills’ (METAPHOR) In a metaphor one thing is said to be another but it is not literally true

Mega Metaphors are used to emphasise some quality about the object described. Here a Mega Metaphors are used to emphasise some quality about the object described. Here a few more metaphors: ‘She broke my heart’ ‘Time flew by’ ‘It was raining cats and dogs’

Avoiding Mixed Metaphors Don’t get carried away and use too many metaphors. A mixed Avoiding Mixed Metaphors Don’t get carried away and use too many metaphors. A mixed metaphor is when a person uses too many metaphors and confuses the reader or creates redundancy in the sentence. For example: Let’s bury the hatchet and let sleeping dogs lie. I was frightened to death and falling to pieces. Remember metaphors are intended to clarify meaning and create vivid images. Mixing metaphors has the opposite effect.

Creating vivid sentences Use a metaphor to create a sentence for each of the Creating vivid sentences Use a metaphor to create a sentence for each of the following. The first has been done for you: 1. Lava slithering down a volcano. (A huge golden snake of lava slithered down the volcano) 2. An elderly lady looking tired annoyed. 3. A crowd of commuters rushing to work. 4. A jet plane flying overhead. 5. A storm blasting a small fishing village. This is quite a difficult task. If you are stuck have a quick look on the next slide…

Example Sentences Here a few ideas for sentences: 1. A huge golden snake of Example Sentences Here a few ideas for sentences: 1. A huge golden snake of lava slithered down the volcano. 2. The old woman carried the weight of the world on her shoulders. 3. The crowd of worker ants clambered onto the train. 4. The jet screamed over the village tearing the sky apart. 5. The storm, an angry giant, smashed at the harbour walls.

Speaking and Listening Feedback : Read your sentences out to a partner or the Speaking and Listening Feedback : Read your sentences out to a partner or the rest of the class. Explain why you have chosen particular metaphors, say why you chose particular comparisons.

Opposites and Antonyms Opposites and Antonyms

Opposites and Antonyms In this lesson we are going to: • Learn what an Opposites and Antonyms In this lesson we are going to: • Learn what an antonym is • Learn how to use antonyms to improve our writing skills

Opposites and Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. For example: tall and short Being Opposites and Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. For example: tall and short Being able to use opposites in your writing will improve your literacy skills.

Place the following words in the box with its antonym (opposite). The first one Place the following words in the box with its antonym (opposite). The first one has been done for you. small dry night asleep right heavy false mean thin happy slow old big small fat _____ true _____ wet _____ sad _____ fast _____ new _____ day _____ wrong _____ light _____ kind _____ awake _____

Place the following words in the box with its antonym (opposite). The first one Place the following words in the box with its antonym (opposite). The first one has been done for you. small dry night asleep right heavy false mean thin happy slow old big small fat thin true false wet dry sad happy fast slow new old day night wrong right light heavy kind mean awake asleep

Read the words below then write down an antonym (opposite) for each one. The Read the words below then write down an antonym (opposite) for each one. The first one has been done for you. There are clues in the pictures. 1. high 2. open 3. front 4. hot 5. rich 6. empty 7. stop 8. in low

There a number of possible answers. Here are some examples. 1. high 2. open There a number of possible answers. Here are some examples. 1. high 2. open 3. front 4. hot 5. rich 6. empty 7. stop 8. in low closed back cold poor full go out

Opposites and Antonyms Remember, antonyms are words that have the opposite meaning. For example: Opposites and Antonyms Remember, antonyms are words that have the opposite meaning. For example: light and dark Remember, being able to use antonyms in your writing will improve your literacy skills.

Opposites Game Click below to play the ‘Word Frog’ antonyms game. Opposites Game Click below to play the ‘Word Frog’ antonyms game.

Word Origins Prefixes Word Origins Prefixes

What is a Prefix? Prefixes are letters added to the beginning of words. They What is a Prefix? Prefixes are letters added to the beginning of words. They often provide a clue to the meaning of a word. Knowledge of common prefixes can help you to gain an understanding of words which may not be familiar to you. Look at the following words: Autobiography Automatic Autograph Automobile All these words begin with the prefix auto. What do auto the words have in common? What do you think the prefix auto means?

What is a Prefix? Auto comes for the Greek word for self. Remember our What is a Prefix? Auto comes for the Greek word for self. Remember our words from the last slide? • • Autobiography: An account of a person’s life written by themselves Automatic: A machine able to activate itself Autograph: To write your own signature Automobile: A self-propelling motor vehicle Therefore words which begin with the prefix auto usually mean something about the self.

Working out words from prefixes If you know the prefix you can often gain Working out words from prefixes If you know the prefix you can often gain an idea about the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Draw and complete the table opposite in your books. Write down two words that begin with each prefix then try to work out the prefix’s meaning. The first one has been done for you. Prefix Word Meaning Octagon octopus eight Semi Anti Mono tele sub pre

Check Your Understanding Prefix Meaning oct Word Octagon octopus semi Semi-skimmed Semi-circle half anti Check Your Understanding Prefix Meaning oct Word Octagon octopus semi Semi-skimmed Semi-circle half anti Antibody antisocial against mono Monorail Monochrome single tele Television Telephone distant sub Submarine subway under pre Preview prejudge before eight

Prefix Perfection Homework A good knowledge of common prefixes will help you to develop Prefix Perfection Homework A good knowledge of common prefixes will help you to develop your reading and writing skills. Task! Below is a list of common prefixes with Latin or Greek origins. Learn the table below for a test next week. Prefix Origin Word Meaning Ante Latin antenatal Before Hyper Greek hyperactive Excessive Contra Latin contraflow Against Poly Greek polyphonic Many Post Latin postscript After Tri Greek tricycle three multi Latin multicultural many

Prefix Perfection Task Name: ________ Below is a list of common prefixes with Latin Prefix Perfection Task Name: ________ Below is a list of common prefixes with Latin or Greek origins. Complete the table with the missing information. The first one has been done for you. Prefix Origin Word Meaning Ante Latin antenatal Before Hyper Contra Poly Post Tri multi