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Russian Nuclear Power in the Ever-changing World V. G. Asmolov Seventh International Scientific & Russian Nuclear Power in the Ever-changing World V. G. Asmolov Seventh International Scientific & Technical Conference (MNTK-2010) Moscow, 26 – 27 May 2010

Russian NPPs in commercial operation 10 NPPs, 32 Units, Ninst. = 24242 MW 2 Russian NPPs in commercial operation 10 NPPs, 32 Units, Ninst. = 24242 MW 2

Electricity generation by Russian NPPs 3 Electricity generation by Russian NPPs 3

Load Factor of Russian NPPs 4 Load Factor of Russian NPPs 4

Load Factor at Russian NPPs in 2009 5 Load Factor at Russian NPPs in 2009 5

Execution of the planned target for electricity generation at Russian NPPs in 2009 (% Execution of the planned target for electricity generation at Russian NPPs in 2009 (% and mln. k. W-h) 6

Trend of operational events at Russian NPPs 7 Trend of operational events at Russian NPPs 7

Trend of events with scrams at Russian NPPs 8 Trend of events with scrams at Russian NPPs 8

Radioactive noble gases releases from NPPs in 2009 New limits for allowed release introduced Radioactive noble gases releases from NPPs in 2009 New limits for allowed release introduced (by SP AS-99 standard) (% of the allowed release level) On-line data for 2009 9

Collective doses at NPPs for different reactor types (man-Sv/Unit) 10 Collective doses at NPPs for different reactor types (man-Sv/Unit) 10

Summary of the year 2009 ►Nuclear power units safe operation has been ensured ►The Summary of the year 2009 ►Nuclear power units safe operation has been ensured ►The maximum electricity generation level of 163. 3 bln k. W-h (100. 6% of the FTS balance target) has been achieved ►The maximum generation capacity of 22 700 MW has been attained ►Load Factor of 80. 2% has been reached (79. 5% in 2008) ►Availability Factor of 83. 6% has been reached (82. 2% in 2008) 11

Production targets for 2010 Planned generation as per FTS balance target - 169. 2 Production targets for 2010 Planned generation as per FTS balance target - 169. 2 bln k. W-h Load Factor - 81, 3 % 12

Electricity generation increase at the operating nuclear power units is achieved by implementation of Electricity generation increase at the operating nuclear power units is achieved by implementation of relevant measures in the following areas: ► Reliability improvement; ► Nuclear power units efficiency factor raise; ► Thermal power increase; ► Reduction of overhaul and mid-life repair terms; ► Thermal efficiency improvement for thermomechanical equipment; ► Operation life extension for NPP units. 13

The gradual comprehensive upgrading plan for VVER-1000 power units Reactor Steam Generator ►Reduction of The gradual comprehensive upgrading plan for VVER-1000 power units Reactor Steam Generator ►Reduction of conservatism in defining the design basis and operational limits. Turbine Generator ►Upgrading the steam separation system. ►Upgrading the flow- ►Upgrading in order to through part and obtain a maximum optimization of the possible electric ►Evaluation of internal thermal circuit. power. SG pressure raising feasibility. ►Enhancement of ►Evaluation of ►Reduction of linear the feedwater feasibility of the power release in a fuel ►Evaluation of recovery system for generator feasibility of SG element by means of efficiency factor replacement. axial and radial replacement with a improvement profiling. more efficient one. purpose. ►Fuel assembly modernization. 14

Reduction of conservatism in the VVER-1000 power capability evaluation Parameter 1. Kr – fuel Reduction of conservatism in the VVER-1000 power capability evaluation Parameter 1. Kr – fuel element power nonuniformity coeff. qдоп - fuel element power тв 2. capability, KW 3. Fобщ(qтв ) - margin coefficient Value at present 1, 52 110 1, 17 Conservatism Measures towards reduction conservatism reduction 1, 48 Fuel load optimization 115 Reduction of conservatism in the accident analysis domain 1, 11 Ensuring the overall 95% probability of being within the limits As a result thermal power can be increased by 12% 15

Phases of Russian Nuclear Power Development in Post-Chernobyl Period ► 1992 – 2004 - Phases of Russian Nuclear Power Development in Post-Chernobyl Period ► 1992 – 2004 - the “survival” period ► 2004 – 2008 - nuclear “renaissance” ► 2008 – 2009 - global financial crisis ► 2010 onward - end of recession period and post-crisis development

Russian NPPs built in the “survival” period 1993 – Balakovo NPP Unit 4 2001 Russian NPPs built in the “survival” period 1993 – Balakovo NPP Unit 4 2001 – Volgodonsk NPP Unit 1 2005 – Kalinin NPP Unit 3 17

Foreign NPPs of the “survival” period Tianwan NPP (China) Bushehr NPP (Iran) Kudankulam NPP Foreign NPPs of the “survival” period Tianwan NPP (China) Bushehr NPP (Iran) Kudankulam NPP (India) 18

The “survival” period outcome ►R&D infrastructure and the knowledge for the basis technology (VVER The “survival” period outcome ►R&D infrastructure and the knowledge for the basis technology (VVER and BN reactors) have been retained ►The technology and infrastructure for the construction of NPP power units, and the whole nuclear industry have been retained ►Severe accidents research programs have been carried out, and computer codes have been developed and verified ►New safety design features have been developed and tested

Safety database 1986 - 2005 RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN RUSSIA with Western partners involvement · Safety database 1986 - 2005 RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN RUSSIA with Western partners involvement · Thermohydraulics integral experiments · Hydrogen (deflagration, detonation) · RASPLAV, MASCA · Melt - concrete interaction · Thermomechanics of fuel elements · Thermomechanics of a reactor vessel · Reactivity initiated accidents RESEARCH PROGRAMS AT WESTERN FACILITIES with Russian involvement INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS (data bases, codes) · Thermohydraulics PMK (Hungary), PACTEL (Finland) ·Thermohydraulics ¨ CAMP, ICAP · Core damage - CORA (Germany) ¨ NEA / OECD · Hydrogen - HDR(Germany) ¨ EU, IAEA programs · Melt-concrete interaction · Severe accidents BETA (Germany), ACE (USA) ¨ CSARP · Filters on the containment ¨ NEA / OECD ¨ EU, IAEA programs venting system ACE (USA), TYPHOON (Germany) COMPUTATIONAL TOOL APPLICATION TO THE NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS 20

Boundary conditions that determined the nuclear “renaissance” External conditions: ● Non-uniform distribution of fossil Boundary conditions that determined the nuclear “renaissance” External conditions: ● Non-uniform distribution of fossil fuel resources ● Increased tension at global energy market The public request for accelerated nuclear power development Demonstration of developing consumer-oriented features of NPPs: ● guaranteed safety ● economic efficiency ● closed NFC § RW & SF management § fuel breeding 21

Nuclear power globalization degree ► Five countries (U. S. A. , France, Japan, Russia Nuclear power globalization degree ► Five countries (U. S. A. , France, Japan, Russia and Germany) altogether produce 70% of nuclear-generated electricity in the world. ► Light water reactors of three types (PWR, BWR, VVER) represent 80% of global reactor fleet. ► Five countries (Russia, France, Japan, China, India) are developing fast reactor technologies in an advanced phase. ► Six companies (Rosatom, URENCO, USEC, EURODIF, CNNC, JNFL) are performing commercial-scale uranium enrichment. ► Six countries (France, United Kingdom, Russia, Japan, China, India) have nuclear fuel reprocessing capacities.

To be decommissioned: 3. 7 GW - red line separates the units with guaranteed To be decommissioned: 3. 7 GW - red line separates the units with guaranteed financing - blue line designates the mandatory power unit commissioning programme NVNPP, Unit 3 NVNPP, Unit 4 LNPP Unit 1 Kola, Unit 2 Central, Unit 1 Tver, Unit 4 Central, Unit 2 South Urals, Unit 2 Nizhniy Novorod, Unit 2 South Urals, Unit 4 38. 9 Nvoronezh-II, Unit 4 Central, Unit 4 Nizhniy Novorod, Unit 4 Central, Unit 3 Kola-II Unit 2 Nizhniy Novorod, Unit 3 32. 1 Kola-II Unit 1 South Urals, unit 3 Capacity to be commissioned, GW Seversk, Unit 2 February 2008 Tver, Unit 3 57. 4 Leningrad-II, Unit 4 51. 6 South Urals, NVoronezh-II, Unit 1 Unit 3 Tver, Unit 1 Installed capacity by 2020, GW Tver, Unit 2 Seversk, Unit 1 Leningrad-II, Unit 3 Mandatory and supplementary programmes Nizhniy Novorod Unit 1 Leningrad-II, Unit 2 Rostov, Unit 3 Mandatory programme Rostov, Unit 4 NVoronezh-II, Unit 2 Beloyarsk, Unit 4 BN-800 Leningrad-II, Unit 1 NVoronezh-II, Unit 1 Kalinin, Unit 4 completion Kursk, Unit 5* completion Rostov, Unit 2 completion NPP construction roadmap according to the General Plan till 2020 Prim. , Unit 1 Prim. , Unit 2 Kola-II, Unit 3 Kola-II, Unit 4 LNPP, unit 2 Kola, Unit 1 23

NPP siting in accordance with the General Plan Pevek (PATES) NPPs in operation NPPs NPP siting in accordance with the General Plan Pevek (PATES) NPPs in operation NPPs under construction Prospective NPPs Baltic Bilibino Kola Leningrad Vilyuchinsk (PATES) Tver Kalinin Smolensk Kursk Central Nizhniy Novgorod Novovoronezh Beloyarsk Rostov Seversk Balakovo South Urals Primorye Power unit information In operation - 31 units Under construction - 10 units (including floating units - PATES) Prospective - 28 units (including floating units - PATES) Upgrading - 14 units Decommissioning - 9 units (including Bilibino NPP) 24

The AES-2006 design is the basis for implementation of the General Siting Plan “roadmap” The AES-2006 design is the basis for implementation of the General Siting Plan “roadmap” 25

AES-2006 – the targets reached ● Thermal power has been increased up to 3200 AES-2006 – the targets reached ● Thermal power has been increased up to 3200 MW and Efficiency factor (gross) of a power unit has reached 36. 2%, due to: ▬ elimination of excessive conservatism ▬ improvement of steam turbine thermal circuit ▬ improvement of steam parameters at the steam generator outlets and decrease of pressure losses in steam lines ● Economic efficiency has been improved by means of: ▬ optimization of passive and active safety systems used in AES-91 and AES-92 designs ▬ unification of the main equipment; ▬ decrease of materials consumption 26

Negative effects of the world financial crisis ►Industrial production shrinkage ►Energy consumption recession ►Grid Negative effects of the world financial crisis ►Industrial production shrinkage ►Energy consumption recession ►Grid restrictions and NPP generation reduction ►Decreased profits and reduced investments in construction of new NPPs

Beloyarsk NPP Power unit 4 (BN-800) Baltic NPP Power unit 1 Leningrad-II NPP power Beloyarsk NPP Power unit 4 (BN-800) Baltic NPP Power unit 1 Leningrad-II NPP power unit 2 Rostov NPP Power unit 4 Leningrad-II NPP power unit 4 Baltic NPP power unit 2 Leningrad-II NPP power unit 3 Novovoronezh-II NPP Power unit 2 Rostov NPP Power unit 3 Leningrad-II NPP power unit 1 Novovoronezh-II NPP Power unit 1 Kalinin NPP power unit 4 Rostov NPP power unit 2 NPP units currently under construction As both the economics and electricity demand will be recovered, it is expected to build: Central NPP; Nizhniy Novgorod NPP; Seversk NPP; South Urals NPP; Tver-II NPP 28

NPPs under construction – current status ►Completion of NPPs with VVER-1000 reactors: - Rostov NPPs under construction – current status ►Completion of NPPs with VVER-1000 reactors: - Rostov NPP, power units 2, 3 and 4 - Kalinin NPP, power unit 4 ►Construction of NPPs of the AES-2006 design: - Novovoronezh-II NPP, power units 1 and 2 - Leningrad-II NPP, power units 1 and 2 ►Construction of NPP with BN-800 reactor: - Beloyarsk NPP, power unit 4 ►Construction of floating nuclear cogeneration plant (PATES) with KLT-40 reactor (Vilyuchinsk) 29

Rostov NPP Units 2, 3 and 4 Rostov NPP Unit 2 Rostov NPP Units Rostov NPP Units 2, 3 and 4 Rostov NPP Unit 2 Rostov NPP Units 3, 4 30

Kalinin NPP Unit 4 31 Kalinin NPP Unit 4 31

Novovoronezh-II NPP 32 Novovoronezh-II NPP 32

Leningrad-II NPP 33 Leningrad-II NPP 33

Beloyarsk NPP Unit 4 34 Beloyarsk NPP Unit 4 34

Floating nuclear cogeneration plant (PATES) 35 Floating nuclear cogeneration plant (PATES) 35

NPP-2006 siting licenses for new sites NPP Seversk NPP License obtaining date 13. 11. NPP-2006 siting licenses for new sites NPP Seversk NPP License obtaining date 13. 11. 2009 Nizhniy Novgorod NPP 3 rd quarter of 2010 Tver NPP 3 rd quarter of 2010 Leningrad-II NPP (Units 3 and 4) 2 nd quarter of 2010 Baltic NPP Central NPP 19. 02. 2010 2 nd quarter of 2010

Main areas of optimization in AES-2006 Economic requirements and boundary conditions of the Customer Main areas of optimization in AES-2006 Economic requirements and boundary conditions of the Customer Basis – AES-2006 design Reactor unit Turbine hall Heat exchangers Safety systems Design is not changed. Removal of conservatism Significant upgrading (there is a significant back-up) Variability. Optimization. Simplification of the design and completion of passive safety justification Auxiliary systems: • Ventilation, • Radwaste Optimization AES-2010 (VVER-SOC) Automated process control system Development in accordance with the adopted design 37

Development areas for AES-2010 concept design Area Comments Cost and risks analysis for introduction Development areas for AES-2010 concept design Area Comments Cost and risks analysis for introduction of new advanced plant equipment and systems : - reduced number of control rods; R&D works accomplished - introduction of new main circulation pumps (water lubrication, one-speed motor); R&D works to be accomplished in 2010 - implementation of new steel for pressure vessels; R&D works to be accomplished in 2011 38

Development areas for AES-2010 concept design (continuation) Area Comments - implementation of new set Development areas for AES-2010 concept design (continuation) Area Comments - implementation of new set of heat exchanging equipment of collector-platen type; The collector-platen arrangement of heat exchanging devices will allow to reduce metal consumption - transition to a deaeratorless layout of the secondary circuit; The transition will allow to achieve significant savings as regard to Turbine hall equipment & systems - introduction of heat accumulators to ensure maneuverable parameters of a power unit Application of heat accumulators will enable the NPP power units involved in maneuvering regimes to maintain the high LF levels and up-to-date fuel cycle parameters 39

Development areas for AES-2010 concept design (continuation) Area - abandon the demineralizer use, or Development areas for AES-2010 concept design (continuation) Area - abandon the demineralizer use, or transition to low-capacity demineralizers; Comments This is connected with application stainless steels or titanium for heat exchanging surfaces in the secondary circuit and with transition to ethanolamine-based water chemistry - optimization of the secondary Introduction of feedwater pump circuit feedwater system arrangement capacity control by means of smooth variation of pump rotation speed. Analysis of application of: - a high-speed rotating turbine drive, a frequency-controlled motor drive; - a motor drive with hydraulic clutch 40

Development areas for AES-2010 concept design (continuation) Area Comments - implementation of MOX fuel Development areas for AES-2010 concept design (continuation) Area Comments - implementation of MOX fuel Analysis of feasibility to implement the EUR requirement concerning MOX fuel use - introduction of hydrogen-potassium water chemistry for the primary circuit coolant Will allow to: - minimize equipment composition and dimensions; - optimize service parameters of the water chemistry maintenance systems; - reduce significantly volume of process waste being generated 41

Systemic problems of the modern nuclear power ● Low efficiency in beneficial use of Systemic problems of the modern nuclear power ● Low efficiency in beneficial use of mined natural uranium – less than 1% ● Continuously growing volumes of SNF and RW

Requirements to a nuclear power system (NPS) 1. Economical efficiency 2. Guaranteed safety 3. Requirements to a nuclear power system (NPS) 1. Economical efficiency 2. Guaranteed safety 3. No limitations in regard to a raw materials base for а historically significant time span 4. SNF and RW management – the NP fuel cycle is to be organized in a way ensuring safe ultimate RW confinement 5. Energy production scale – the share in the national electricity market should be not less than 30% 6. Energy production structure is to ensure an opportunity to expand the markets

A power unit of the 4 th generation with a sodium-cooled fast reactor: ►Complying A power unit of the 4 th generation with a sodium-cooled fast reactor: ►Complying with the requirements of large-scale nuclear power in areas of fuel utilization and minor actinides management ►With improved technical, economic performance and safety features

Requirements to VVER technology development aimed at its application in combination with breeder reactors Requirements to VVER technology development aimed at its application in combination with breeder reactors within the closed NFC: n Fuel utilization (Breeding Ratio) n Efficiency coefficient n Investment payback terms

Target features of an innovative NPP unit based on the traditional VVER technology ► Target features of an innovative NPP unit based on the traditional VVER technology ► Fuel utilization – possibility of operation with breeding ratio (BR) of ~ 0. 8 – 0. 9 and natural uranium consumption of 130 – 135 t/GW(e) per year ► Thermodynamic efficiency - improvement of the efficiency coefficient by optimization of the steam generator design and by the maximum possible increase of steam parameters ► Investment payback – shortening of the construction period down to 3. 5 – 4 years due to the enlarged industrial modular fabrication

Perspective pattern of Russian nuclear power system Mid of 21 -st century Today VVER-440 Perspective pattern of Russian nuclear power system Mid of 21 -st century Today VVER-440 NPPs, VVER-1000 NPPs RBMK NPPs BN-600 NPP Basic electricity supply Electricity supply, extra fuel breeding Electricity supply + fuel breeding Heat supply + electricity Bilibino NHPP High potential heat, new energy carriers Open nuclear fuel cycle AES-2006, AES-2006 М NPPs with VVER-1000 NPPs with Super-VVER for operation in CNFC with BR ~ 0. 9 BN-800 NPPs commercial breeders Regional NHPPs with small- and medium-size reactors High-temperature reactors Closed nuclear fuel cycle 47