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Role of Communication in a Reform Arena A Presentation By Ugochukwu A. Okoroafor, mni, Role of Communication in a Reform Arena A Presentation By Ugochukwu A. Okoroafor, mni, fcs Younity Synergy Limited http//www. younityng. com; email: [email protected] com

Contents I. Introduction/Background II. Communication III. Using Communication to Drive Reforms IV. Conclusion Contents I. Introduction/Background II. Communication III. Using Communication to Drive Reforms IV. Conclusion

Introduction/ Background Introduction/ Background

Background to Reforms q Through history, reforms have brought key changes into the world Background to Reforms q Through history, reforms have brought key changes into the world q These changes have occurred in all disciplines and strata of society q Reforms begin as thoughts and desires to improve on existing practices and processes. In the public sector, reforms have helped to improve policy making, service delivery and the role of government to development q Most reforms are usually initiated by the liberal schools of thought, and are consequently resisted by those who prefer the status quo. q Successful reforms are ultimately accepted by the society and become mainstream

Defining Public Sector Reforms q Public sector reforms are defined as, ‘Activities that drive Defining Public Sector Reforms q Public sector reforms are defined as, ‘Activities that drive systemic and sustained improvement in the public administration of the state…. . The quality and effectiveness of public sector management and institutions and the appropriate role of the state in society’ – Hook, D. et al q They are seen as ‘a deliberate policy and action to alter organisational structures, processes and behaviour in order to improve administrative capacity for efficient and effective performance’ – Barbados Min. of Civil Service q It is all about ‘strengthening the way the public sector is managed’ – Schacter, M.

Major Reforms in Nigeria Major Reform Initiatives in Nigeria: q Adebo Commission (1971) q Major Reforms in Nigeria Major Reform Initiatives in Nigeria: q Adebo Commission (1971) q Udoji Reviews and Awards (1974) q Dotun Philips Civil Service Review (1988) q Allison Ayida Commission on Civil Service (1995) q Structural Adjustment Programme - SAP (1986) q Banking Consolidation and Reforms (2004) q Financial System Strategy 2020 - FSS 2020 (2006) q Financial Inclusion, Financial Literacy and Consumer Protection (2009) q On-going War on Corruption (2015)

Defining Communication Defining Communication

Communication Defined Rice-Johnston, W. : A communication takes place when one individual, a sender, Communication Defined Rice-Johnston, W. : A communication takes place when one individual, a sender, displays, transmits or otherwise directs a set of symbols to another individual, a receiver, with the aim of changing something, either something the receiver is doing (or not doing) or changing his or her world view. Wintersgill, S. ; Oxford University: The evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person: Paynes, J. : The meaning of communication is the response we get Teague, F. Jr: Nothing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood

Communication Elements (Source: Wilkes edu) Interpersonal Communication: Communication between two or more people Communicator: Communication Elements (Source: Wilkes edu) Interpersonal Communication: Communication between two or more people Communicator: The person originating the message Receiver: The person receiving a message Perceptual Screen: A window through which we interact with people that influences the quality, accuracy and clarity of communication

Communication Elements (II) (Source: Wilkes edu) Message: The thoughts and feelings that the communicator Communication Elements (II) (Source: Wilkes edu) Message: The thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver Feedback Loop: The pathway that completes two-way communication. Best communication is two-way communication Language: The words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them, used and understood by a group of people Data: Uninterpreted and unanalysed facts Information: Data that has been interpreted, analysed and has meaning to some user

Source: Vaid, N. A. 2009 The Communication Cycle Encoding Channel Message Decoding Message Source Source: Vaid, N. A. 2009 The Communication Cycle Encoding Channel Message Decoding Message Source Receiver Feedback

Source: Vaid N. A. 2009 Source: Vaid N. A. 2009

Means of Communication q Spoken Words q Written Words q Images and Visuals q Means of Communication q Spoken Words q Written Words q Images and Visuals q Non-Verbal

Forms of Non-verbal Communication q Non-verbal communication involves behaviour that does not use the Forms of Non-verbal Communication q Non-verbal communication involves behaviour that does not use the written or spoken word to communicate a message q It can occur through the following means: q. Kinesics: Body movement q. Haptics: Touch and tactile sensation q. Oculesics: Eye-related non-verbal communication q. Artifacts: Dressing and fashion q. Hepatics: Smell-related q. Proxemics: Nearness or proximity q. Chronemics: Time and time-related actions

Objectives of Communication in the Reform Process q To generate internal and external support Objectives of Communication in the Reform Process q To generate internal and external support for the reform programme q To reduce disruption of activities and processes q To elicit required action among stakeholders q To change behaviour and culture q To send and/or receive information between the reform agency and its various publics q To sustain the empathy of stakeholder groups and the morale of employees and reform team members q To engender greater understanding and bring clarity to issues

The AIDA Principle Model Source: Horky, V. , www. guerrillaonline. com The AIDA Principle Model Source: Horky, V. , www. guerrillaonline. com

Using Communication to Drive Reforms Using Communication to Drive Reforms

Role of Communications in Reforms (Source: Wintersgill, S. ; Oxford University) q Informs stakeholders Role of Communications in Reforms (Source: Wintersgill, S. ; Oxford University) q Informs stakeholders of rationale for the reforms q. Ensures they understand the rationale for the reforms q. Explains the benefits and consequences of embarking on them or not q. Emphasises what will not change q. Helps build consensus among stakeholders q Outlines the desired destination q. Map out the process of change q. Draws roadmap and migration path q. Identifies and recognises key milestones q Shows logical steps and how to arrive at desired state q. Shows clear simple steps to take q. Give practical examples of such steps q. Shows direction

Types of Communication Types of Communication

Communication Barriers q Channel or environmental noises q Perception q Unsuitable language q Characteristics Communication Barriers q Channel or environmental noises q Perception q Unsuitable language q Characteristics of receiver relative to message sent q Distance q Gender and Age q Value systems, Culture and Inferences

What to Communicate q Vision and desired reform outcomes q Mission q Objectives and What to Communicate q Vision and desired reform outcomes q Mission q Objectives and Goals q Milestones q Timelines q Action Plans q Sacrifices and Rewards q Things that will not be affected by the reform

What to Communicate q Establish the imperative and urgency of the required change (The What to Communicate q Establish the imperative and urgency of the required change (The Burning Platform Strategy) q The Vision and Mission of the reform programme q Reassurance that the change is a deliberate policy and that the institution has capacity to follow through to conclude it and deliver the required benefits q Clear milestones and timetable for reforms

What to Communicate (II) q Creation of social charters to concretise service delivery quality What to Communicate (II) q Creation of social charters to concretise service delivery quality and quantity q Benefits of the reforms and a vision of the desired future q The inconvenience of the necessary and ongoing sacrifices and the rewards for making them q Role expected of each stakeholder q Websites, telephone lines and Contacts for clarification and complaints

Identifying Stakeholder Groups q Primary and secondary publics q Internal and external stakeholders q Identifying Stakeholder Groups q Primary and secondary publics q Internal and external stakeholders q Deciders and influencers q Potential winners and losers q Potential supporters and resisters

Issues q What to communicate q Identifying and segmenting stakeholder groups q Channel Selection Issues q What to communicate q Identifying and segmenting stakeholder groups q Channel Selection q Team selection and Contact Points q Communication plan q Budget

Channels of Communication q Channels vary according to communication types and needs but there Channels of Communication q Channels vary according to communication types and needs but there are two different types: q Internal Communication: This occurs with the internal publics of the institution undertaking the reforms q External Communication: This occurs between the reforming agency and the various stakeholder groups whose perceptions and actions can affect the outcome of the reform programme. Two Points to Note: q. Internal communication is very critical but is often ignored or given scant attention q. With technology and social media, the lines between internal and external communication are blurring.

Channels of Communication q. Primary Channels: Involve direct (face to face) contact between the Channels of Communication q. Primary Channels: Involve direct (face to face) contact between the communicator and the target recipient of the message. Include meetings, workshops, video conferencing and so on q. Secondary channels are impersonal and are sent on a one-to-many basis. Examples include Announcements, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), emails, newsletters and

Channels for Internal Communication q General and departmental meetings and open fora q Newsletters Channels for Internal Communication q General and departmental meetings and open fora q Newsletters and publications q Posters, banners and brochures q Emails and internal memoranda q Intranet and notice boards q Site tours q Social media groups – Whatsapp, Instagram, and BBM groups, voicemails and text messages q Communities Of Practice (COPs)

Channels of External Communication q Advertisements, Text Messages and Press Releases q Public Relations Channels of External Communication q Advertisements, Text Messages and Press Releases q Public Relations q Meetings and open fora q Websites and Blogs q Social Media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, BBM, Instagram and so on q Annual reports and bulletins q Webinars and workshops q Communities of Practice (COPs) q Road Shows

Key Channel Considerations q Speed of message q Cost q Characteristics of the targeted Key Channel Considerations q Speed of message q Cost q Characteristics of the targeted receiver q Clarity of message q Need for feedback q Certainty of receipt and assurance of appropriate action taken q The Leadership style of the Chief Executive Officer

Monitoring and Evaluation q M & E is very important to monitor progress made Monitoring and Evaluation q M & E is very important to monitor progress made in the reform programme q It is used to reassure stakeholders and sustain support for reforms q Helps to maintain the morale of the change agents q It helps the budgeting process q It is useful in implementing rewards and sanctions regimes q It is a means of keeping records of achievements q It helps to attract and keep donors q M & E tools include Surveys, Feedbacks, Report Cards, Complaints Desks

Communication Leadership q There must be a face to the communication programme q The Communication Leadership q There must be a face to the communication programme q The Chief Executive Officer is the chief spokesperson for the reform institution q Even when this is delegated, the CEO must personify the change q There must be a go-to person who will be accessible to stakeholders q The communication team must be part of policy formulation to ensure that it understands the underlying issues of a policy

Creating a Communications Framework q Adopt a framework that is consistent with the overall Creating a Communications Framework q Adopt a framework that is consistent with the overall Vision and Mission of the programme q Utilise diversified communications channels q Formulate specific messages for target niches q Establish a Help or Complaints Desk q Set up committees for specific functions q High level committees (Champions and influencers) q Coordinating/Technical Committee (In-house) q Relationship committee for identified groups on basis of trade, income or geography q Industry Experts Group (Quality Assurance and continuous buyin)

Creating A Communications Framework (II) q Engage the relevant stakeholders with staged events q Creating A Communications Framework (II) q Engage the relevant stakeholders with staged events q Conferences, Seminars and workshops q Bonding activities like town hall meetings, dinners and cocktails q Occasional feedback reports to communicate on-going activity and progress q Design media activities q Set up newsletter; website; social media-tools like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Whatsapp, and so on q Enhance relationship with key mainstream and social media players q Prepare brochures and publicity materials for distribution at key events q Publicise testimonials and endorsements by third parties

Creating A Communications Framework (III) q Create a central slogan and pay-off line q Creating A Communications Framework (III) q Create a central slogan and pay-off line q Adopt logos and associated colour schemes q Create a team that is embedded in the various reform teams across the MDAs and offices q Communicate, Communicate q Newsletters, Banners, posters, T-shirts

Conclusion Conclusion

The 7 Cs of Communication The 7 Cs of Communication

Conclusion q Communication is key to every successful reform process q Remember to K. Conclusion q Communication is key to every successful reform process q Remember to K. I. S. S (Keep It Short and Simple)

Thank You For Your Attention Thank You For Your Attention