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RIGA, JUNE 17, 2011 A project funded by the European Union RIGA, JUNE 17, 2011 A project funded by the European Union

Market potential A rapidly growing economy ü an annual GDP growth rate of around Market potential A rapidly growing economy ü an annual GDP growth rate of around 10% over the last five years ü Key drivers: ü a strong trade balance ü increasing FDI: $105. 7 billion in 2010 (+17. 4%) ü urbanisation of China’s population: 49. 7% now live in cities, compared with just ~20% in 1982. From 2010 to 2025, 300 million Chinese now living in rural areas will move into cities (Ministry of Housing and Urban. Rural Development)

Challenges Ø Environmental • Heavy pollution • Lack of water Ø Energy • Reliance Challenges Ø Environmental • Heavy pollution • Lack of water Ø Energy • Reliance on coal • Increasing energy dependence • Massive electricity shortages Ø Social • Aging • Disparity of revenues

Air pollution Air pollution "Overall urban air quality is good with relatively heavy pollution in some cities. Among 471 cities, 3. 6 percent met grade 1 air quality standard, 79. 2 percent met grade 2, 15. 5 percent met grade 3 and 1. 7 percent failed to met grade 3. " Interpretation: Almost one in five cities still fails to meet the low passing grade set by the government on an annual basis. Photograph: Guang Niu/Getty Images

Water issue Mainland China has only a per-capita share of 2700 cubic meters per Water issue Mainland China has only a per-capita share of 2700 cubic meters per annum, ¼ of the world's average. 2/3 of China's 660 largest cities face water deficits. Beijing is among the cities most affected. "Surface water pollution across the country is still relatively grave … 59. 9 percent of rivers were grade 3 or better, 23. 7 percent of rivers were grade 4 or 5 and 16. 4 percent failed to meet any grade standard. (China State of the Environment 2010)

Reliance on coal China's coal consumption in 2010 was 3. 2 billion metric tonnes Reliance on coal China's coal consumption in 2010 was 3. 2 billion metric tonnes (2. 3 B in 2006) Mainly for production of electricity (73%) Also by some industries (Steel…)

Massive power shortage Power shortages yearly since 2004: insufficient generating capacity, fuel shortages, blackout Massive power shortage Power shortages yearly since 2004: insufficient generating capacity, fuel shortages, blackout ordered to meet a year-end energy-efficiency target… deficit of 30 million kilowatt hours this summer

Social Ø Ø Aging: By 2020, over 23 percent of China’s citizenry is expected Social Ø Ø Aging: By 2020, over 23 percent of China’s citizenry is expected to be over age 65 (People aged 65 and older currently constitute 8. 87% of the population) Disparity of revenues: per-capita annual income in urban areas was about $2, 500 in 2010, more than three times the $750 in rural areas

Challenges = market opportunities - Emissions control and measurement systems - Equipment for green Challenges = market opportunities - Emissions control and measurement systems - Equipment for green building - Medical equipment - Pharmaceuticals - Energy efficient products - Electric equipment - Home decoration - Consumer goods (not only luxury) - Travel

Assess these market opportunities - Verify the reality of the market for your product: Assess these market opportunities - Verify the reality of the market for your product: - Right to sell your product - Need to conform to standards - Pricing - Do a real market research: - China is not a market, but many markets - Visit a professional exhibition - Be cautious - Due diligence of the prospective partners - Do not sign any contract after just one meeting - Do not give any exclusivity - scams

Develop a strategy - Make sure you have the means to tackle the challenges Develop a strategy - Make sure you have the means to tackle the challenges - Select a limited geographical area and/or a specific sector - Take all the help you can get (EU SME Centre, Embassy, IPR Helpdesk, consultants, law firms…

STANDARDS STANDARDS

 1) 2) 3) The Chinese Standardisation and Conformity Assessment System Some Basics China’s 1) 2) 3) The Chinese Standardisation and Conformity Assessment System Some Basics China’s Standardization System Conformity Assessment

Basic differences EU Ø Ø China Free market access Ø Producer/ Importer must prove Basic differences EU Ø Ø China Free market access Ø Producer/ Importer must prove that product is safe: Ø Compliance with harmonized standards gives presumption of conformity Ø CE marking is a selfdeclaration by producer Restricted access to the Chinese market Government permit is required for most products and services before being placed on market For many consumer products CCC mark is required, along with other certificates

Safe products? In Europe. . . Ø Ø Ø Sole responsibility of producer / Safe products? In Europe. . . Ø Ø Ø Sole responsibility of producer / importer Government controls very few high risk products Market surveillance activities by Member States In China. . . Ø Both government and producer Ø Proof of Conformity Ø Government permits Ø Market surveillance activity by provincial governments

Market Access in China For most goods, one or several pre-market approval schemes apply, Market Access in China For most goods, one or several pre-market approval schemes apply, for example: Ø Ø CCC Scheme: catalogue published by CNCA, based on compulsory National Chinese Standards (GB) Licensing Schemes controlled by various ministries, based on technical regulations, National, and Industry standards Goods not listed in the CCC catalogue and w/ out other specific licensing rules, market access is free Some goods require marks and labels on a self-declaration basis Ø China Compulsory Energy label Ø China Ro. HS declaration for electronic products

China’s regulatory system Formal legislation Ø Legislation, e. g. standardization law, consumer protection law, China’s regulatory system Formal legislation Ø Legislation, e. g. standardization law, consumer protection law, energy saving law, food safety law, IP law, etc. Ø Regulations, e. g. CCC market access scheme, regulations about indigenous innovation products, etc. Ø Instructions for implementation of regulations, e. g. CCC implementation rules Co-Regulations (soft regulation) Ø Compulsory standards (part of technical regulations, but adopted in informal process) Ø Voluntary Chinese standards

Snapshot on Standardization Ø Ø China has a clearly defined standardization strategy, supported by Snapshot on Standardization Ø Ø China has a clearly defined standardization strategy, supported by the Government Over 100. 000 standards compared with 20. 000 EN standards Standardization Administration of China (SAC) main interlocutor– owns Chinese National Standards (GB Standards) China is very active in international standardisation forums (ISO, IEC, ITU)

Standardization Policy Ø Ø Standardization is a tool to disseminate scientific experience and accelerate Standardization Policy Ø Ø Standardization is a tool to disseminate scientific experience and accelerate technical innovation (“leapfrog technologies”) Standardization is a tool to develop a strong domestic knowledge base and a related industry (“home-grown standards”) National safety and security interests shall be reflected in the standardization system Export of Chinese standards shall support Chinese trade policies, e. g. in the field of IPR in standards

Why are standards important? Ø Ø Ø To safeguard basic protection of Human Health, Why are standards important? Ø Ø Ø To safeguard basic protection of Human Health, Personal Property and Safety Standards describes the fundamental qualities for products allowed on the Chinese market On-going efforts to harmonize with International Norms but Chinese deviations are common Standards provide the legal basis for Conformity Assessment International recognised test results are not accepted in China, with the exception of CB reports (for electronic and electro-technical goods) Conformity assessment can only be carried out in China

4 levels of standards Voluntary GB Stand. 22. 931 Mandatory GB Stand. 3. 111 4 levels of standards Voluntary GB Stand. 22. 931 Mandatory GB Stand. 3. 111

National Standards ü Sold by SAC, often in partnership with National Standards Authorities ü National Standards ü Sold by SAC, often in partnership with National Standards Authorities ü Translated, at least into English ü Easy to search, using SAC web portal Code Content GB Mandatory National Standard GB/ T Voluntary National Standard GB/ Z National Guiding Technical Document

Professional Standards Ø Industry Standards or Sectorial Standards Ø Apply when no National GB Professional Standards Ø Industry Standards or Sectorial Standards Ø Apply when no National GB Standard exists Ø Mandatory or Voluntary Ø Difficult to search, only available in Chinese Ø Mostly sold in China Code Content BB Packaging CH Surveying CB Ship … Continued

Support GB Standards can easily be identified online through SAC search tool or with Support GB Standards can easily be identified online through SAC search tool or with the help of national standards organisations. For the remaining 3 levels: - Through service providers - Through Industry Associations - EU-China Standards Information Platform - EU SME Centre

Conformity Assessment Conformity Assessment

Snapshot on Conformity Assessment üOpposite approach from EU’s ”Presumption of Compliance” üProof of conformity Snapshot on Conformity Assessment üOpposite approach from EU’s ”Presumption of Compliance” üProof of conformity falls on the testing body and Conformity Assessment is Mandatory üProducts subject to mandatory Chinese standards must be tested üCompliance testing is required before the product is allowed to enter China

Market Access Schemes üMost common is the China Compulsory Certification (CCC) - 23 Broad Market Access Schemes üMost common is the China Compulsory Certification (CCC) - 23 Broad Categories - 172 types of Products ü A number of other Market Access Schemes exists - Radio Type Approval (SRRC) mobile phones, broadcasting equipment, RFID, etc - Network Access License (NAL) Phones, fax, modems, routers, etc - Information Security Certificate (CC-IS) - Special Equipment License Boilers, pressure vessels, elevators, etc - Industrial Product Manufacturing License - Heavy Polluting equipment - Phytosanitary Certificate

Sector Specific Market Access Schemes In addition, some sectors will have seperate requirements, in Sector Specific Market Access Schemes In addition, some sectors will have seperate requirements, in particular: Ø Medical / Healthcare Equipment Ø Cosmetics Products Ø Food and Beverage (not including SPS issues)

CCC at a glance ü Needed in China mainland only ü Compulsory market-access license CCC at a glance ü Needed in China mainland only ü Compulsory market-access license ü Focus on product safety, environmental performance, consumer protection applies to 23 categories of products and based on Chinese national standards (GB standards) 1. Electrical wires and cables ( total 5 categories ) 2. Switches for circuits, Installation protective and connection devices 3. Low-voltage Electrical Apparatus ( 9 categories ) 4. Small power motors ( 1 category) 5. Electric tools ( 16 categories ) 6. Welding machines ( 15 categories ). . . Etc.

CCC Exemptions There are few exemptions to the mandatory mark. In general, products not CCC Exemptions There are few exemptions to the mandatory mark. In general, products not intended for sale or usage on the Chinese market can be exempted from testing requirement. Exemptions include: - Products used at exhibition - Special purpose products (eg. military use) - Personal belongings - Products imported for R&D or testing purposes - Products for re-export

Overview of the certification process The CCC testing procedure can generally be divided into Overview of the certification process The CCC testing procedure can generally be divided into a 5 step process. 1. Application – The required documentation in submitted to the competent authorities 2. Type Testing – A designated test laboratory in China will test the sample product. 3. Factory Inspection - CQC will send representatives to inspect the manufacturing facilities for your product. Each factory producing parts for the final exported product needs to be inspected. 4. Evaluation – decision is made if CCC certificate is granted or not. 5. Product Marking – marking of product and packaging 6. Follow-up Factory Inspection - Manufacturing facilities needs re-inspected by CQC every 12 to 18 months

What does the CCC Mark cost? Application fees and superior costs Consulting and translation What does the CCC Mark cost? Application fees and superior costs Consulting and translation cost to service agent Test fees CCC Cost CNCA marking fee Inspection fees Travel fees and accommodation for testing staff

CCC Cost Expanded Steps Standard Price Note 1 Application 500 CNY/ per application 1000 CCC Cost Expanded Steps Standard Price Note 1 Application 500 CNY/ per application 1000 CNY translation fee if not in Chinese 2 Type Testing Depending on Product Type CNCA publish price list (in Chinese only)* 3 Factory Inspection 2500 CNY/man day Additional cost: Return fee Ticket, Per Diem 4 Approval and Registration 800 CNY/ per application 5 Follow up inspection 2500 CNY/man day Can be carried out by fee CQC cooperation partners

Additional requirements üSome products will have additional requirement depending on product qualities and functionalities Additional requirements üSome products will have additional requirement depending on product qualities and functionalities üOther common requirements includes: - Radio Type Approval (SRRC) License required for products using radio frequency spectrum resources, such as mobile phones, broadcasting equipment, RFID devises, etc. - Network Access License (NAL) License required for products needing network compatibility between equipment and network, such as phones, fax, modems, routers, etc.

Example of Product Enquiry üProduct Qualities - Wireless Connection to internet - Remote Communication Example of Product Enquiry üProduct Qualities - Wireless Connection to internet - Remote Communication via GPRS - Energy Consuming - Interface with Boiler üCertification Requirements - CCC certification - SRRC License - NAL License - Possible Special Equipment License

Labelling requirements include: üRo. HS Labelling – on self declaration basis (but mandatory) üEnergy Labelling requirements include: üRo. HS Labelling – on self declaration basis (but mandatory) üEnergy Label – on self declaration basis (but mandatory) ü Labelling for F&B products – applying stickers on product offering information about exact content, levels, expiration date, etc.

General remarks ü Chinese Standards and Conformity Assessment environment is frequently changing – it General remarks ü Chinese Standards and Conformity Assessment environment is frequently changing – it is key for manufacturers to stay informed - Industry associations can play an important role ü First time applicants should get assistance from professional service providers - Gaining experience ü Language is one of the main barriers to product certification - In-house language capabilities is an asset

Remarks ü Standards in China are very important ü There are ways to make Remarks ü Standards in China are very important ü There are ways to make them less difficult to handle ü One of them is to use the specialists of the EU SME Centre

Overview of the Centre Overview of the Centre

Purpose and objectives The core purpose of the Centre is to: Ø Ø Support Purpose and objectives The core purpose of the Centre is to: Ø Ø Support EU SMEs to establish, develop and maintain commercial activities in the Chinese market In particular, support EU SMEs without access to national trade chamber services in China The EU SME Centre helps EU SMEs overcome barriers and constraints they face in their efforts to export to the Chinese market.

Expertise The EU SME Centre has a multi-cultural team of 15 full-time members of Expertise The EU SME Centre has a multi-cultural team of 15 full-time members of staff, including advisors and specialists on hand to offer free, confidential advice and a range of comprehensive support services Market Access Advisors – experts specialised in the fields of Business Development, Legal issues, Standards, and HR & Training External experts – a large pool of freelance experts on hand to offer specific sectorrelated advice

4 main areas of expertise Business Development Legal Issues • Market information (projects, opportunities. 4 main areas of expertise Business Development Legal Issues • Market information (projects, opportunities. . . ) • Transparency and Predictability in the legal system • Product Quality • Business Advice • Access to the legal information • Conformity Assessment • IPR (in cooperation with the IPR SME Helpdesk) • Labeling • Matchmaking • Business Centre (hotdesks, meeting rooms etc) Technical issues • Chinese Marks Human Resources Issues • Resources with specific skill sets, including languages • Advice on how to limit the turnover of the personnel • Referral to trainings sessions/expertise • referral to service provider (lawyer, tax advisor, etc. ) 30/11/10

Online Portal The website aims to be a valuable source of practical information for Online Portal The website aims to be a valuable source of practical information for professionals, companies and trade promotion agencies developing commercial activities in China. ü Registration is free and allows users to access the - Knowledge Centre Ask-the-expert service Hot-desking service

Publications Radio Type Approval Guideline Network Access Licence Guideline CC-IS Guideline Medical Devices Sector Publications Radio Type Approval Guideline Network Access Licence Guideline CC-IS Guideline Medical Devices Sector Guideline China Compulsory Certification Guideline Industrial Products Manufacturing Licence Special Equipment Licence General Guideline to Chinese Labelling requirements Energy Label Guideline Ro. HS Label Guideline Contract conclusion IIT Taxation of non-resident enterprise Processing trade ICT Sector Report F&B Sector Report Green Technology Report ICT Case study (2) F&B Case study (3) Green Tech case study (3) HR Recruitment Case Study

enquiries@eusmecentre. org. cn www. eusmecentre. org. cn [email protected] org. cn www. eusmecentre. org. cn