Скачать презентацию Residential Substance Abuse Treatment RSAT Training and Technical Скачать презентацию Residential Substance Abuse Treatment RSAT Training and Technical

2ce1ff509aa20b6180efbf6dc2f57268.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 124

Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) Training and Technical Assistance “The History and Evolution of Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) Training and Technical Assistance “The History and Evolution of the Therapeutic Community” “Team Building Skills” William Warr, LADAC, CCCJS, CCS, BSOM, MPA April 12 -13, 2011 This project was supported by grant No. 2010 -RT-BX-K 001 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the SMART Office, and the Office for Victims of Crime. Point of view or opinions in this document are those of the author and do not represent the official position or policies of the United States Department of Justice.

Evidence-Based Integrated Modified Therapeutic Community Model Correctional Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) Programs Evidence-Based Integrated Modified Therapeutic Community Model Correctional Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) Programs

PURPOSE: TO ENSURE THE MOST EFFECTIVE APPROACH IS UTILIZED TO PROVIDE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL PURPOSE: TO ENSURE THE MOST EFFECTIVE APPROACH IS UTILIZED TO PROVIDE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME FOR OFFENDERS BY INTEGRATING THE HIGHLY EFFECTIVE EVIDENCED BASE TREATMENT APPROACH WITH OTHER EVIDENCED BASED TECHNIQUES.

The Mission of Correctional RSAT Programs To promote public safety by reducing recidivism through The Mission of Correctional RSAT Programs To promote public safety by reducing recidivism through effective programming and training.

WHY RSAT IN CORRECTIONS? • More than 80% of inmates have substance abuse problems WHY RSAT IN CORRECTIONS? • More than 80% of inmates have substance abuse problems • Substance abuse is the largest contributing factor to recidivism • This directly contributes to overcrowding and increased costs • Common Mission The Mission of Corrections and Treatment is to correct/change criminal behavior • Effective inmate management tool • Enhances staff morale

WHY RSAT IN CORRECTIONS? Overwhelming research evidence that treatment works ü Reduces recidivism from WHY RSAT IN CORRECTIONS? Overwhelming research evidence that treatment works ü Reduces recidivism from 10 -50% ü Reduces direct corrections operational costs ü Reduces victim related costs ü Delaware/Crest Program (1999)

Correctional RSAT Program Core Conditions • The Program must use a consistent model of Correctional RSAT Program Core Conditions • The Program must use a consistent model of treatment • Staff and inmates must feel ownership in the treatment program • Treatment must be structured • The treatment program's rules must be clearly stated. Sanctions must be clearly defined and consistently applied • Inmates must be held accountable for their behaviors on and off the treatment unit • Treatment must involve the inmate's peer group • The treatment program must demonstrate a balance between support and confrontation • Staff as Role Models in RSAT

Delaware/Crest Program: 3 -Year Re-Arrest & Drug Use Rates Delaware/Crest Program: 3 -Year Re-Arrest & Drug Use Rates

10 What You Didn’t Know! The History and Evolution of the Therapeutic Community 10 What You Didn’t Know! The History and Evolution of the Therapeutic Community

11 Therapeutic Community Connections to History • Some suggest that the TC prototype is 11 Therapeutic Community Connections to History • Some suggest that the TC prototype is ancient, present in all forms of communal healing and support (Mowrer 1977; Slater 1984). For example, the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumron detail the communal practices of the Essenes, including a section on the “Rule of the Community. ” Adherence to the rules and teachings of the community was the process of living in harmony.

12 Therapeutic Community Connections to History • Today the TC has strong influences from 12 Therapeutic Community Connections to History • Today the TC has strong influences from the similarities with First Nations Culture which are evident in the importance of family and the value of extended family. We heal in community by practicing traditional values, ceremonies and rituals. • At the core of the change process in the TC is the relationship between the individual and the community. • The change occurs when the individual fully immerses themselves in the community and internalizes its teachings creating a coming of age process.

13 Therapeutic Community Connections to History • When we return to our roots we 13 Therapeutic Community Connections to History • When we return to our roots we develop a healthy identity, learning self-care, self-control, self management, and self-understanding. • The concepts of mutual and self respect within the hierarchical structure of the TC mirrors the traditional practices of the North American First Nations ways of living.

14 Therapeutic Community Pioneered in the late 1950's, therapeutic community movement spread across the 14 Therapeutic Community Pioneered in the late 1950's, therapeutic community movement spread across the nation bringing a way out of self-destructive behavior for those who were thought often to be beyond recovery.

15 Therapeutic Community History • 1969 - 1979: Establishing Roots Originally known as 15 Therapeutic Community History • 1969 - 1979: Establishing Roots Originally known as "Challenge House, " Spectrum was responsible for establishing one of the first therapeutic communities in the country for the treatment of substance abusers. The program opened in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1969 and was renamed "Spectrum House" before moving to Westborough in 1979.

16 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • The primary goal of a Therapeutic 16 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • The primary goal of a Therapeutic Community is to foster individual change and promote positive growth. This is accomplished by changing an individual’s lifestyle through a community of concerned people working together to help themselves and each other. • Being part of something greater than oneself is an especially important factor in facilitating positive growth. Therapeutic Communities offer a holistic approach in regards to treating the whole person and not just the addiction.

17 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • Clients in a Therapeutic Community (TC) 17 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • Clients in a Therapeutic Community (TC) are members, as in a family setting, they are not patients, as in an institution. These members play a significant role in managing the TC and act as positive role models for others to emulate. • High expectations and a high level of commitment from both Therapeutic Community members and staff are needed to make this positive change a success. Insight into ones problems is gained not only through group and individual interaction, but also by learning through experience, failing and succeeding and understanding accountability are considered to be the most integral influences toward achieving a lasting change.

18 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • The goal of the TC is 18 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • The goal of the TC is to help the individual gain the ability to return to society and lead productive lives. • Many TCA member programs now provide assessment, detoxification, crisis intervention, ER triage, residential and outpatient treatment, family therapy and education, vocational training, medical and health services, aftercare, and continuing care.

19 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • Both adults and adolescents are served 19 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • Both adults and adolescents are served in therapeutic communities. In addition, TC's serve a broad spectrum of special needs populations. These populations include pregnant and post partum drug-addicted women, individuals with HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C, mentally ill substance abusers, criminal justice populations, the homeless, the physically handicapped, gang involved individuals, the elderly, veterans, and mothers with children.

20 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • Experts across the country are actively 20 What is a Therapeutic Community (TC)? • Experts across the country are actively involved in research studies which have determined the efficacy of their efforts. Treatment improves the relationships, career prospects, and health of those directly impacted by addiction, and provides an impressive return on the dollar to society. • Positive treatment outcomes have also been shown to reduce health care costs as well as lessen incidents of crime, while increasing work productivity.

21 Product of Several Lineages • Modified Therapeutic Communities • Begin in England during 21 Product of Several Lineages • Modified Therapeutic Communities • Begin in England during the World War II (Dr. Maxwell Jones) • New Concept of Mental Health Treatment (Psychiatric self-help concept)

22 Two Types of Therapeutic Communities • Democratic TC (DTC), linked to psychiatry, which 22 Two Types of Therapeutic Communities • Democratic TC (DTC), linked to psychiatry, which used almost exclusively trained professionals from medicine, psychology, social work, etc. (Maxwell Jones, 1976) • Programmatic TC (PTC), designed for drug and alcohol addiction, which employ mainly exaddicts as staff (De. Leon, 1974)

23 Two Types of Therapeutic Communities Similarities • Both aim to achieve an integrated 23 Two Types of Therapeutic Communities Similarities • Both aim to achieve an integrated “family identity” • Both care about clients and staff • Awesome intensity, dedication, and militarism throughout the system

24 Major Influences • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the U. S. the self- help 24 Major Influences • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the U. S. the self- help movement was given life through the creation and development of this 12 -step method (1935) • The Synanon Approach, the first TC devoted to the treatment of substance abusers was founded by Charles S. Dederich in 1958 • In 1965 Jesse Pratt founded Tuum Est (“It’s up to you”)

25 What Is a Therapeutic Community? A Therapeutic Community is a structured method and 25 What Is a Therapeutic Community? A Therapeutic Community is a structured method and environment for changing human behavior in the context of community life and responsibility.

26 26 "Unless you change how you are, you will always have what you've got. " ---Jim Rohn

27 Indicators of the TC Model’s Evolution Into Mainstream Human Services • A mix 27 Indicators of the TC Model’s Evolution Into Mainstream Human Services • A mix of professionals • Evaluation research • Program and staff competence standards • Professional associations • Common components • Adaptations to new settings and special populations

28 Special Services in a TC • Enhance the effectiveness of the TC approach 28 Special Services in a TC • Enhance the effectiveness of the TC approach rather than modify or replace basic TC components and practices • Are incorporated into the TC environment only if they are consistent with the TC perspective and can be well integrated into the daily regimen of TC activities • Are provided only when residents are stable and have developed a sense of belonging within the peer community and understand the TC approach

29 Distinctive Features of TCs • TC lingo or language • Community-as-method • Rational 29 Distinctive Features of TCs • TC lingo or language • Community-as-method • Rational authority • TC views of the disorder, the person, recovery, and right living

30 TC Views View of the Disorder • Disorder of the whole person • 30 TC Views View of the Disorder • Disorder of the whole person • Virtually every aspect of a person’s life is affected View of the Person • TC residents are able to change their behavior and become productive members of society

31 TC View of Recovery • Gradual building or rebuilding of a new life 31 TC View of Recovery • Gradual building or rebuilding of a new life • Changes in thinking, feeling, values, behavior, and self-identity

32 TC View of Right Living • Honesty in word and deed • Responsible 32 TC View of Right Living • Honesty in word and deed • Responsible concern for others • Work ethic • Active and continuous learning

33 TCA Staff Competency Understanding the need for a belief system within the community 33 TCA Staff Competency Understanding the need for a belief system within the community

34 “If you want to experience the success you’ve never experienced, you have to 34 “If you want to experience the success you’ve never experienced, you have to begin to think and act in ways that you’ve never thought before” Author: Michael J. Burt

35 Concept of Community “The social organization of the TC, its structure, and its 35 Concept of Community “The social organization of the TC, its structure, and its systems essentially constitute an environment for engineering social learning” Can change actually happen?

36 Concept of Community “Where community exists, it confers upon its members identify, a 36 Concept of Community “Where community exists, it confers upon its members identify, a sense of belonging, and a measure of security…A community has power to motivate its members to exceptional performance. It can set standards of expectation for the individual and provide the climate in which great things happen. ”

37 Concept of Community • “Minds are like parachutes. They only function when open. 37 Concept of Community • “Minds are like parachutes. They only function when open. ”

38 Concept of Community • Environment – When you create an environment for change 38 Concept of Community • Environment – When you create an environment for change to occur; situations, attitudes, minds and communities do change.

39 Concept of Community • Standard – rational authority set good examples. 39 Concept of Community • Standard – rational authority set good examples.

40 Journal Writing and Wrap-up • How important is it to me that I 40 Journal Writing and Wrap-up • How important is it to me that I feel a part of a long tradition of people helping others to recover through the use of community? • How can I, in my role, best contribute to the community environment? • How do I see myself as a community member?

WHAT IS A CORRECTIONAL RSAT PROGRAM? • Minimum of six months of program services WHAT IS A CORRECTIONAL RSAT PROGRAM? • Minimum of six months of program services • Highly structured schedule of behavior change strategies • Proven Criminal Justice / Corrections Habilitation Model for Pro Social Change • Based on Evidence Based Practices

42 We Are Not Alone • “When we think we are separate, we put 42 We Are Not Alone • “When we think we are separate, we put ourselves in constant conflict, trying to get ours, always in fear of losing what we have, alienating others whom we use for our selfish purposes. This is the essence of the addict – self-centered, fearful, and isolated. ” Dr. Dennis Humphrey

43 43 "To the world you might be one person, but to one person you might be the world. " -- Ebony Mikle

HOW DOES RSAT WORK? Structure, Discipline, Consistency - Critical for model to be successful HOW DOES RSAT WORK? Structure, Discipline, Consistency - Critical for model to be successful (offender and staff) Therapeutic Community (TC) is the method for change, not the treatment specialist or the individual Training is critical and on-going.

HOW DOES RSAT WORK? Staff as role models (examples developed by staff) Consistency – HOW DOES RSAT WORK? Staff as role models (examples developed by staff) Consistency – all staff follow consistent rules and schedules every day and every shift; orderly entrance to groups, chow, morning inspections, etc. Guidelines should be agreed upon and followed by all staff. For instance - How to schedule breakfast, showers, and time to prepare for inspection. • Staff does not talk about their own current use. (“I got so drunk last night”) • Staff model the behaviors that offenders are taught. They listen and respond respectively, even when holding an inmate accountable for unacceptable behaviors. Direct supervision training demanded this type of behavior of all staff.

Staff as role models (examples developed by staff) • Staff will not intentionally “set Staff as role models (examples developed by staff) • Staff will not intentionally “set up” an offender. • Staff will not refer to offender sarcastically. (“Are you retarded? ”) • Staff will emphasize praise for positive efforts rather than punishment for mistakes. • Address bad behavior as much as possible within the Unit as opposed to lugging / disciplining inmates out of the Unit.

47 Staff as role models (examples developed by staff) • Treatment staff and Correctional 47 Staff as role models (examples developed by staff) • Treatment staff and Correctional Officers should combine efforts to address bad behavior. • Avoid public humiliation. • Confrontation should focus on negative behavior and attitudes, not on the individual. Staff will establish a base of respect. • Staff are capable and willing to run a community meeting. • Staff refrains from the use of coarse language and outbursts of anger.

THE THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITY Evidence-Based Integrated Modified Therapeutic Community Programs in Corrections THE THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITY Evidence-Based Integrated Modified Therapeutic Community Programs in Corrections

49 49 "Don't worry about the people in your past. There's a reason they didn't make it to your future. " -- Author Unknown

The Therapeutic Community Model* • As a Belief System - demands that practitioners/staff believe The Therapeutic Community Model* • As a Belief System - demands that practitioners/staff believe that this model works; that the individual CAN change and that it is the group, the community, that facilitates this change. • As a Scientific System- has theories, researched methods and measurable behaviors at work that yield predictable outcomes regardless of where the model is practiced. *Taken from Therapeutic Community: History and Overview video featuring David Deitch, Ph. D. , 1998.

The Therapeutic Community Model • Community as Method of Change Ø TC members interact The Therapeutic Community Model • Community as Method of Change Ø TC members interact in structured and unstructured ways to influence attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors associated with drug use and criminal behaviors. • Hierarchy of Responsibility Ø A hierarchy structure is utilized within the community to create responsibility for all community members using mentors and team leaders. • Accountability Ø TC members learn to be accountable to themselves and peers through participation in community meetings, work details and learning experiences.

Therapeutic Community • The term Therapeutic Community has come to represent a distinct approach Therapeutic Community • The term Therapeutic Community has come to represent a distinct approach that can be applied in almost any setting with almost any population. Therapeutic Community model has been adapted for use with what populations? Almost any ethnic or special population. It is a cross-cultural model. Includes adolescents, geriatrics, adults, head injury, PSTD, women, PRISON, etc. • To maintain integrity as a TC, the basic components of the generic TC program and the eight essential concepts of using community as method must be preserved.

Community As Method • The essential element of the TC is COMMUNITY. What distinguishes Community As Method • The essential element of the TC is COMMUNITY. What distinguishes the TC from other treatment approaches is the purposive use of the community. • COMMUNITY is the primary method to bring about needed social and psychological change in the individual. • Every activity in a TC is designed to produce therapeutic and educational change in the individual participants. • It is the participants who are the mediators of these changes. The COMMUNITY is both teacher and healer.

The Therapeutic Community Model Community as Method • Therapeutic Community Perspective ü View of The Therapeutic Community Model Community as Method • Therapeutic Community Perspective ü View of the Disorder ü View of the Person ü View of Recovery ü View of Right Living • 8 Concepts • 14 Components

Therapeutic Community Perspective View of the Disorder Substance abuse is viewed as a disorder Therapeutic Community Perspective View of the Disorder Substance abuse is viewed as a disorder of the whole person. • View of the Person The person or individual is distinguished along dimensions of psychological and social dysfunction. • View of Recovery The goal of treatment is a global change in lifestyle and identity. • View of Right Living In the TC view of right living, certain beliefs and values are essential to recovery, personal growth and healthy living. •

Eight Concepts of Therapeutic Communities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Use Eight Concepts of Therapeutic Communities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Use of Participant Roles Use of Membership Feedback Use of Membership as Role Models Use of Collective Formats for Guiding Individual Change Use of Shared Norms and Values Use of Structure and Systems Use of Open Communication Use of Relationships

Fourteen Components of Therapeutic Communities 1. Community Separateness 2. 3. 4. Community Environment Community Fourteen Components of Therapeutic Communities 1. Community Separateness 2. 3. 4. Community Environment Community Activities 8. Work as Therapy and Education 9. TC Concepts Peers as Community Members 10. Peer Encounter Groups 11. Awareness Training Staff as Community Members 8. Emotional Growth Training 6. A Structured Day 9. Planned Duration of Treatment 7. Phase Format 5. 10. Continuance of Recovery

58 58 "Life is too short. Grudges are a waste of perfect happiness. Laugh when you can, apologize when you should and let go of what you can't change. Love deeply and forgive quickly. Take chances. Give everything and have no regrets. Life is too short to be unhappy. You have to take the good with the bad. Smile when you're sad, love what you got, and always remember what you had. Always forgive, but never forget. Learn from your mistakes but never regret. People change, and things go wrong but always remember. . . life goes on!" -- Author unknown

59 Purpose of Communities • Communities are formed when individuals as family groups join 59 Purpose of Communities • Communities are formed when individuals as family groups join for mutual advantage: to protect against common enemies, and to organize to reach common goals. • The individuals believe that their purposes can be achieved more effectively as a group than separately. • In drug treatment therapeutic communities, the common enemy is the addiction along with addictive and criminal lifestyle. The common goal is change.

60 Purpose of Communities • In therapeutic communities, the term “right living” is used 60 Purpose of Communities • In therapeutic communities, the term “right living” is used to identify what the TC values as positive change. • When therapeutic communities lose their intensity and focus, there is usually a similar loss of focus on the common goals and common enemies that bind the community.

61 Values • Values form the guiding principles for the community and, as such, 61 Values • Values form the guiding principles for the community and, as such, could be compared to the community conscience. • They define what is good and what is not. • In most communities, values are primarily unwritten and are transmitted through the institutions of the community, (family unit, church, workplace, school, etc. ) • In TC’s values are spoken as “concepts”

62 Rules • In TC rules have an explicit purpose • Ensure safety • 62 Rules • In TC rules have an explicit purpose • Ensure safety • Ensure health of the community • Rules also have an implicit aim • To train members in the basic tenets of human interaction within a community—sometimes called “right living” • Rules or laws serve to codify community values • They provide a behavioral control that supports and protects the value of the community • Rules create a structure that ensures that community members understand the behaviors that are approved and disapproved by the community

63 63 "You see, we are here, as far as I can tell, to help each other; our brothers, our sisters, our friends, our enemies. That is to help each other and not hurt each other. " -- Stevie Ray Vaughan

CRIMINAL THINKING Recognizing the thinking patterns that lead to substance use and criminal behavior CRIMINAL THINKING Recognizing the thinking patterns that lead to substance use and criminal behavior

Recognizing Thinking Patterns Thinking Behavior Style of Interaction Core Beliefs Attitudes Recognizing Thinking Patterns Thinking Behavior Style of Interaction Core Beliefs Attitudes

Criminal Behavior is Preceded By Criminal Thoughts and Criminal Decisions • Most often, individuals Criminal Behavior is Preceded By Criminal Thoughts and Criminal Decisions • Most often, individuals who become involved in criminal conduct chose to do so. They make a conscious decision about who to victimize and how to victimize. • Once criminal conduct is engaged in, it sets off new cognitive reactions that reinforce the underlying criminal thinking. (Techniques of Neutralization) are a theoretical series of methods by which those who commit illegitimate acts temporarily neutralize certain values within themselves which would normally prohibit them from carrying out such acts, such as morality, etc. • Finally, the cognitive responses and reactions to the criminal conduct are reinforced which strengthens the criminal behavior itself.

The Cycle of Criminal Thinking Core Beliefs and Psychology of Criminal Conduct Decisions to The Cycle of Criminal Thinking Core Beliefs and Psychology of Criminal Conduct Decisions to Engage in Criminal Conduct Reinforcing Techniques of Neutralization

Neutralization • A technique, which allows the person to rationalize or justify a criminal Neutralization • A technique, which allows the person to rationalize or justify a criminal act. There are five techniques of neutralization; denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, condemnation of the condemners, and the appeal to higher loyalties.

Denial of Responsibility “It was not my faulty because___________” Denial of Responsibility “It was not my faulty because___________”

Denial of Injury • “It was a private argument, it was between my gang Denial of Injury • “It was a private argument, it was between my gang and his” • “It wasn’t stealing, I was gonna pay it back” • “Nobody got hurt”

Denial of Victim • The act doesn’t count as criminal because the person doesn’t Denial of Victim • The act doesn’t count as criminal because the person doesn’t count as a victim • Hate Crimes: “Gays aren’t even human” • Crimes Against Rivals: “Bloods don’t count” • Exaggerated “Robin hood” Philosophy: “They are so rich they probably won’t even know it’s gone”

Condemnation of the Condemners • Displacement of anger and antisocial sentiments onto those in Condemnation of the Condemners • Displacement of anger and antisocial sentiments onto those in position of judgment/authority • “All the Judges are hypocrites” • “Every Cop is Corrupt”

Appeal to Higher Loyalties • The crime against society (the large group) is warranted Appeal to Higher Loyalties • The crime against society (the large group) is warranted out of loyalty to the family/community/gang (the small group). • “The law that matters most is my family’s law” • In it’s extreme form, this type of neutralization is evident in terrorism

Identifying Thinking Patterns • To help clients to change these attitudes, treatment professionals in Identifying Thinking Patterns • To help clients to change these attitudes, treatment professionals in the criminal justice fields must first help them identify those thinking patterns that lead them into high-risk situations and increase their chances of engaging in illegal and self-destructive behaviors.

75 75

Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions • Power Thrust: Putting someone down so you can Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions • Power Thrust: Putting someone down so you can be in control. • Closed Channel: Seeing your way as the only way. • Victim Stance: Blaming others for what’s happening to you. • Pride and Superiority: You really feel superior to others and know it all; you feel the world owes you a living. • Lack of Empathy and Concern for how Others are Affected: not thinking how your actions affect others or the emotional / physical pain you cause others.

Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions (continued) • Seeing trust as a one way street Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions (continued) • Seeing trust as a one way street - can’t trust anybody: You demand people trust you but you do not trust others. • I can’t: You refuse to do something you don’t want to do. • Irresponsible commitment: You want what you want right now and will spend little time getting it; don’t follow through with commitments or complete the task, particularly if it doesn’t give you immediate reward. • Take what you Want from Others: I deserve it. • Rejection Dependency: You refuse to lean on someone, to depend on someone, to ask others for help because this is a sign of weakness. Yet you take from others which makes you dependent on others.

Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions (continued) • Put off Doing what Should be Done: Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions (continued) • Put off Doing what Should be Done: You put off things; you put off changing. You say “tomorrow I’ll quit”, or someday you will stop taking part in actions that make other people victims. • Rejecting obligations – I don’t have to do that: You may have enough money to get drunk but you delay paying the rent. • Concrete and rigid thinking: You have your ideas and will not change. • Either or, black or white thinking: one is either successful or not successful, pretty or ugly. There is no in-between, no shades of gray. • Mountains out of Molehills: This is catastrophizing. It is blowing up something out of proportion; treating something common as a catastrophe.

Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions (continued) • Feeling Singled Out: Feeling that what is Selected Thinking Errors and Distortions (continued) • Feeling Singled Out: Feeling that what is happening to you in unique; feeling picked on. • They Deserve It: If they hadn’t been so stupid and locked their doors, they wouldn’t have been robbed. • I Feel Screwed. • Selected Attention: Tuning out what one should hear; focus on one statement, one result. Hear the negative but tune out the positive. • Antisocial Thinking: You spend a long time thinking about criminal things and are busy planning doing unlawful things. • Lying or Exaggerating the Truth: You may lie so often that it becomes automatic; you exaggerated the truth to look important or big. (Source: “Criminal Conduct and Substance Abuse Treatment” by Wanberg, Kenneth W. , and Milkman, Harvey B. , Sage Publications, 1998. )

The Cycle of Criminal Thinking/Core Beliefs Techniques of Neutralization Thinking Errors and Distortions The Cycle of Criminal Thinking/Core Beliefs Techniques of Neutralization Thinking Errors and Distortions

What’s Next? • Teach the Client to Recognize these Thinking Errors by • Implementing What’s Next? • Teach the Client to Recognize these Thinking Errors by • Implementing Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques that • Illuminate the Pattern of Thinking that Leads to Criminal Acts Attitude + Behavior = Consequence

MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE Assessing and Enhancing Offenders Motivation in the Treatment Process MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE Assessing and Enhancing Offenders Motivation in the Treatment Process

MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE • Helping Offenders Change often involves increasing motivation • The incarcerated MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE • Helping Offenders Change often involves increasing motivation • The incarcerated offender is often at a pre- contemplative stage and requires specific interventions to shift along the change spectrum • IMTC programs can help the individual by increasing his awareness of the discrepancy between what he wants to achieve and what results his behavior usually generates. • TCs = ideal place to learn and rehearse new behavior

Readiness To Change-Motivation • Identifying a client’s stage in the change process helps placement Readiness To Change-Motivation • Identifying a client’s stage in the change process helps placement into appropriate programming and services. • Motivation is a dynamic process that can be changed by internal and external factors. • Individuals may be in one stage of change regarding a particular issue in life (earning their GED) and another stage of change regarding another issue (discontinuing heroin use).

The Stages of Change • Pre-contemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Action • Maintenance The Stages of Change • Pre-contemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Action • Maintenance Identifying what most motivates a client towards changing behaviors helps shape treatment / placement decisions and is the beginning of a “common goal” between service provider and client.

Motivation • ANY motivation towards change is as step in the right direction. • Motivation • ANY motivation towards change is as step in the right direction. • Entering treatment programming “just” for the “good time” is alright. • Our job as facilitators is to increase the offender’s motivation to change in a variety of ways

Selected Assessment Instruments • Prochaska and Di. Clemente’s Motivation for Change Scale • University Selected Assessment Instruments • Prochaska and Di. Clemente’s Motivation for Change Scale • University of Rhode Island’s Change Assessment (URICA) • Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) • All of these instruments measure where a client is in the stages of change and can be repeated over time.

Offender Profile • Action Oriented • Poor reflective skills • Resistant to punishment • Offender Profile • Action Oriented • Poor reflective skills • Resistant to punishment • Defensive • Need to be right • Self-centered • Competitive • Sees self as victim • Unable to delay gratification.

COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS Implementing Evidence-Based Treatment Services COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS Implementing Evidence-Based Treatment Services

Thinking and Behavior How we think affects the ways we behave in the world. Thinking and Behavior How we think affects the ways we behave in the world. thus If we can change the way we think, we can change the ways we behave

The Cognitive Cycle Situation Automatic Thoughts Consequences Beliefs Behaviors Feelings The Cognitive Cycle Situation Automatic Thoughts Consequences Beliefs Behaviors Feelings

Four Steps of Cognitive Self Change 1. Recognize Your Thoughts and Feelings 2. Recognize Four Steps of Cognitive Self Change 1. Recognize Your Thoughts and Feelings 2. Recognize When Your Thoughts and Feelings are destructive 3. Change the destructive thoughts 4. Practice the change

Elements of Behavior Change: Accountability Responsibility RESPECT FOR SELF & OTHERS Pro-social Thinking & Elements of Behavior Change: Accountability Responsibility RESPECT FOR SELF & OTHERS Pro-social Thinking & Action Internalization

Stages of Offender Change in Accountability ® (precedes pre-contemplation stage) Training Stage I: DEFIANCE Stages of Offender Change in Accountability ® (precedes pre-contemplation stage) Training Stage I: DEFIANCE Stage II: RESISTANCE ACCOUNTABILITY Stage IV: COOPERATION Stage III: COMPLIANCE

Process of Offender Change Process of Offender Change

The 3 R’s of the Accountability Training® Paradigm: Ø Right Thinking Ø Right Living The 3 R’s of the Accountability Training® Paradigm: Ø Right Thinking Ø Right Living Ø Right Now

1. Right Thinking - historical origins Ø “As a man think-eth, so he is” 1. Right Thinking - historical origins Ø “As a man think-eth, so he is” (The Holy Bible, Proverbs 23: 7) Ø We are shaped, created & led by our thoughts. (Teachings of the Buddha 500 B. C. E. ) Ø “Men are disturbed not by the things which happen, but by the opinions about the things. ” (Epictetus - 2 nd century A. D. philosopher) Ø “I think, therefore I am. ” (René Descartes -16 th Century Philosopher)

1. Right Thinking -historical origins continued ØMan’s Search For Meaning — a philosophical reflection 1. Right Thinking -historical origins continued ØMan’s Search For Meaning — a philosophical reflection on his experience as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp — Victor Frankl wrote: “…everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms — to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way. ”

1. Right Thinking -historical origins continued Ø “You can if you think you can. 1. Right Thinking -historical origins continued Ø “You can if you think you can. ” (Norman Vincent Peale) Ø “I am convinced that a person's behavior springs from his ideas. ” (Alfred Adler, Founder of the School of Individual Psychology) Ø We are what we think; by changing the way we think, we can change our behavior. How you think, determines how you feel. (Modern Cognitive Behavioral Theorists & Practitioners- Beck, Ellis, etc. )

1. Right Thinking Continued Ø ”As long as we remain unaware of our thinking, 1. Right Thinking Continued Ø ”As long as we remain unaware of our thinking, then actions will follow automatically. When we become aware of our thoughts, then we have the freedom to choose whether or not we want to act upon them. ” (Dr. Dennis Humphrey, summarizing the teachings from Buddhism Literature) Ø “We define who we are by consciously choosing our ways of thinking, the attitudes and beliefs that determine how we act and who we are. Choose how you will think, and be aware that you and you alone are doing the choosing. You and you alone are responsible for the person you will be. ” (Jack Bush: Cognitive Self-Change, 2002)

2. Right Living ØRespect of others ØAccountability ØResponsibility ØPro-Social life skills & Relationships ØSpirituality 2. Right Living ØRespect of others ØAccountability ØResponsibility ØPro-Social life skills & Relationships ØSpirituality ØService

3. Right Now Ø“The past is history, tomorrow’s a mystery, TODAY is a gift… 3. Right Now Ø“The past is history, tomorrow’s a mystery, TODAY is a gift… that’s why it’s called the present!” Ø“It matters not what we’ve done, but who we can become. ” (Mimi Silbert, Delancey Street Foundation)

Steps for Learning Accountability Ø Awareness that our behavior has an effect on others Steps for Learning Accountability Ø Awareness that our behavior has an effect on others Ø All behavior has Consequences for self and others Ø Recognize that, with awareness, behavior is a Choice Ø Acceptance – Owning one’s role in the behavior Ø (Dr. Steve Valle, Essex County Sheriff’s Office TC Training, 2008)and in the consequences Accountability means taking empathic Action to change

Core Standards of Care Expected of All Staff: ØAlways show respect, for self and Core Standards of Care Expected of All Staff: ØAlways show respect, for self and others ØProfessionalism before personal preferences ØPractice ethical behavior and integrity ØDemonstrate compassion and empathy for clients and colleagues ØBe trustworthy and practice trustworthiness ØConsistently model ACCOUNTABILITY to colleagues and clients

CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS Recognizing and Responding to Mental Health Issues in RSAT Programs CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS Recognizing and Responding to Mental Health Issues in RSAT Programs

Co-Occurring Disorders Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html Co-Occurring Disorders Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html

Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html

Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html

Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html

Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html

Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html

Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html Taken from: http: //coce. samhsa. gov/cod_resources/webinar/justice/. html

Time for a change? • Neither threat of incarceration nor prolonged incarceration cures criminal Time for a change? • Neither threat of incarceration nor prolonged incarceration cures criminal thinking– criminal behavior persists. • Failing to assess and adequately treat criminal thinking results in a costly, wasteful revolving door for crime and repeat offenders.

Time for a Change What do you call a system that locks up people Time for a Change What do you call a system that locks up people with behavioral problems - at considerable tax payer expense – fails to treat them, and releases them into the community in the same condition they came in, over, and over again? “The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. ”

115 Team Building Skills • 115 Team Building Skills • "Now if you are going to win any battle you have to do one thing. You have to make the mind run the body. Never let the body tell the mind what to do. The body will always give up. It is always tired morning, noon, and night. But the body is never tired if the mind is not tired. When you were younger the mind could make you dance all night, and the body was never tired. . . You've always got to make the mind take over and keep going. " -- George S. Patton

116 What is Team Building? • Team building is pursued via a variety of 116 What is Team Building? • Team building is pursued via a variety of practices, and can range from simple bonding exercises to complex simulations and multi-day team building retreats designed to develop a team (including group assessment and group-dynamic games), usually falling somewhere in between. It generally sits within theory and practice of organizational development, but can also be applied to sports teams, school groups, and other contexts. Team building is an important factor in any environment, its focus is to specialize in bringing out the best in a team to ensure self development, positive communication, leadership skills and the ability to work closely together as a team to problem solve.

117 Reasons for Team Building • Improving communication • Helping participants to learn more 117 Reasons for Team Building • Improving communication • Helping participants to learn more about themselves (strengths and more enjoyable weaknesses) • Motivating a team • Identifying and utilizing • Getting to know each other the strengths of team • Getting everyone "onto the members same page", including goal • Improving team setting productivity • Teaching the team self • Practicing effective regulation strategies collaboration with team members • Making the workplace

118 What are Team-Building Exercises and What is Their Purpose? • Team-building exercises consist 118 What are Team-Building Exercises and What is Their Purpose? • Team-building exercises consist of a variety of tasks designed to develop group members and their ability to work together effectively. There are many types of team building activities that range from kids games to games that involve novel complex tasks and are designed for specific needs. There also more complex team building exercises that are composed of multiple exercises such as ropes courses, corporate drumming and exercises that last over several days. The purpose of team building exercises is to assist teams in becoming cohesive units of individuals that can effectively work together to complete tasks.

119 Subgroups of Team-building Exercises • simple social activities - to encourage team members 119 Subgroups of Team-building Exercises • simple social activities - to encourage team members to spend time together • group bonding sessions - company sponsored fun activities to get to know team members (sometimes intending also to inspire creativity) • personal development activities - individual programs given to groups (sometimes physically challenging) • team development activities - group-dynamic games designed to help individuals discover how they approach a problem, how the team works together, and discover better methods • psychological analysis of team roles, and training in how to work better together

120 Models of Team Behavior • Team building generally sits within theory and practice 120 Models of Team Behavior • Team building generally sits within theory and practice of organizational development. The related field of team management refers to techniques, processes and tools for organizing and coordinating a team towards a common goal - as well as the inhibitors to teamwork and ways to remove, mitigate or overcome them. • Several well-known approaches to team management have come out of academic work.

121 Models of Team Behavior • The forming-storming-norming-performing model posits four stages of new 121 Models of Team Behavior • The forming-storming-norming-performing model posits four stages of new team development to reach high performance. Some team activities are designed to speed up (or improve) this process in the safe team development environment. (Bruce Tuckman, 1965) • Belbin Team Types can be assessed to gain insight into an individual's natural behavioral tendencies in a team context, and can be used to create and develop better functioning teams. (Meridith Belbin, 1970’s) • Team Socio-mapping is an visual approach to team process and structure modeling. This model is based on social networks approach and improves the team performance by improvement of specific cooperation ties between the people.

122 Organizational Development • In the organizational development context, a team may embark on 122 Organizational Development • In the organizational development context, a team may embark on a process of self-assessment to gauge its effectiveness and improve its performance. To assess itself, a team seeks feedback from group members to find out both its current strengths and weakness. • To improve its current performance, feedback from the team assessment can be used to identify gaps between the desired state and the current state, and to design a gapclosure strategy. Team development can be the greater term containing this assessment and improvement actions, or as a component of organizational development.

123 Organizational Development • Another way is to allow for personality assessment amongst the 123 Organizational Development • Another way is to allow for personality assessment amongst the team members, so that they will have a better understanding of their working style, as well as their fellow team mates. • A structured team-building plan is a good tool to implement team bonding and thus, team awareness. These may be introduced by companies that specialize in executing team-building sessions, or done internally by the human resource department.

124 Team Talk - Communication is another key to team unity. Part of communicating 124 Team Talk - Communication is another key to team unity. Part of communicating is getting to know your teammates, their opinions, concerns and aspirations for the team. Here is a great list of topics to use for learning about each other. Sit in a circle and have a leader ask a question. Allow each team member to answer the question until everyone has participated. Then continue with the next question. • When did you first know that you wanted to try out for this team? • What do your parents say about you being on the team? • Veteran members: What past team member did you most respect and why? • New team members: What do you think your most important job is as a first year member? • What is one or two words that students in your school use to describe your team? What words do you want them to use? • What do you think you’ll remember about your team 10 years from now? • Veteran members: What one piece of advice would you give to the new members if they want to have the most positive team experience? • New members: What help or encouragement do you need from the veterans to be a successful team member? • What one thing can you do consistently to show your dedication to the team?