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Residential planning Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 (Highlights)
Space Planning Two basic kinds of knowledge are needed: 1. Knowing what things need to be included (partitions, rooms, furnishings and accessories) 2. How to organize those things to achieve a functional and perceptually good solution.
Space Planning • Fixed architectural elements are typically given and cannot be changed, (structural columns) • Interior architectural elements (doors, partitions, etc. ) • Furnishings (FF&E) (lighting, equipment, etc. )
Concepts of Accommodation Accommodating humans and their needs is a complex task. Seven universal concepts related to the arrangement of people and their environments • • Insider / Outsider Hierarchical Arrangement Individuals vs. community Invitation vs. rejection Openness versus enclosure Integration vs. segregation Combination vs. dispersion
Individual / Community
Invitation / Rejection
Openness / Enclosure
Integration / Segregation
Combination / Dispersion
Anatomy of a Space Plan • Producing a good plan is not an easy task • Requires trial and error and may refinements • When asking someone “what do you see” they will state the obvious – kitchen, size. • Designers note more: such as Efficiency, flow, correct placement of rooms, shape of rooms, etc.
The Good Room To design a good project, you need to design good individual rooms that are functional, with adequate space to support the furniture and equipment. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Envelope Contents Connections Flow Scale
5 Principles of Room Design • What size and shape should this room be? • What furnishings and accessories are needed? • How should these be arranged? • How should people enter and move through the room? • How should the room connect to the exterior?
Shape & Proportion • Not many shapes and proportions will produce a good room. • Rectangular rooms are the most common. • Avoid overly long and narrow rooms. • If the length of a room exceed its width, the proportion becomes uncomfortably narrow in relation to its length.
Windows • Always consider the windows when placing furniture • They provide views, natural lighting, but can also cause glare, too much heat or a bad view • Decide on a case by case basis
Circulation • Entry point • Main space • Clearances • Exit points Strive for efficient, fluid and discrete paths that allow multiple furniture configurations
Residential Zones • Social: public area and most used portion of the home. Comprised of the entry, family room, living room, media room, game room, etc. • Private: Areas such as the bedroom, bathrooms, etc. • Work: Kitchen, laundry, HVAC, storage, office, etc. Most of these areas should not be in direct view of guests (except the kitchen).
Evaluating the plan § Traffic patterns § § § How do you move from room to room? Does traffic flow through the conversation areas? Does traffic flow through meal preparation area? Does guest traffic flow through private areas? Is there a good flow from a service entrance? Note: when evaluating a plan or home, don’t let the beauty of the architecture, furnishings and accessories distract your judgment.
Evaluating the plan § Look for poorly located doors, windows and closets. § Are they conveniently located or do they interfere with good furniture arrangements and traffic patterns. § Is there adequate storage space inside and out? § Is the plan effectively oriented on the site? § Climate control § Privacy/views § Garage door openings (to side) § Look for adjacencies of rooms. § Do they function in relation to each other? § Is the space appropriately allocated?
Common traffic considerations § § § Kitchen, garage, mud room Dining room to kitchen Kitchen to service entrance Laundry to bedrooms Bedrooms to bathrooms
Considerations by area: Entry: Provides the first impression. § No direct views into the private zones or work zones from the entry. § Should have a coat closet § Should not open directly into living area § Approximately 35 sq. feet § Ability to view visitors § lighting
Considerations by area: Living areas, dining rooms, home offices can be viewable from entry. § Should have a focal point § Good traffic flow – not through conversation area § Access to a guest bath or powder room § Should have ample wall space for furniture placement § Should not have direct view into private zones - should have a corridor that leads to the private zone § Should not have direct view into work zones
Considerations by area: § Kitchen § No traffic through the work triangle (sink, cooktop and refrigerator) § Garage access is nearby § Appliance doors and cabinet doors do not collide § Panty is provided § Kitchen should not be viewable from entry § Storage: § Recommended 10% of total sq. footage § Location is convenient § Separate closets for men and women – walk-in ideal
Considerations by area: § Dining Rooms should be near the kitchen for ease of clean up § Surface, sideboard for utensils, food etc. § Consider how family eats § § § Formal sit down Informal sit down Buffet style Meals on the run Young children
Consideration by area Bedrooms (1/3 of our lives is spent in bed!) § 120 sq. feet desired, minimum of 70 sq. feet required by code 90 sq. ft. allows for a single bed, 120 allows for a double bed. 145 square feet § Must have an operable window § Closets can act as sound barriers – minimum closet size is 24” deep by 5’ wide § Locate remotely as possible from social areas for privacy § Sound insulation needed in walls if adjacent to social areas § Adequate wall space to plan furniture layout § Door swings against wall § Split plans are ideal
Considerations by area Bathrooms (ideally a 3 bedroom should have 2 full baths) § § § § § Located in private zone, close to bedrooms Use back-to-back plumbing Compartmentalize in family bathrooms Consider privacy in regard to windows (not on front of house Look at door swings – shouldn’t hit anyone standing at a vanity View into the bathroom ideally should not be a direct view of a toilet Nearby linen storage needed Master suites often have separate tub and shower Minimum size is 5’ x 7’ FYI: Water closet is another name for a toilet
Considerations by area: Laundry room § § § § § Venting access (25’max) Out of view Acoustic insulation Drain and tile floor recommended Utility sink and clothes rod Ironing station Folding area Can serve as a mud room Freezer storage Clothes drop in 2 -story homes or second floor laundry room
Traffic pattern pitfalls § Rooms that act as hallways § Door locations that force circulation through conversation areas § Spaces that are too small to plan § Traffic pattern through work areas that tend to be messy § Hallways less than 3’ (ideally 3’-6”) § Doors should open against a wall.
Floor Plans § Open plans – concept developed by Frank Lloyd Wright. § § § Less expensive to build Space seems larger Flexible layouts Ideal for accessibility Lacks privacy sound
Floor Plans § Closed Plans § Spaces walled off and have doors § Provides more privacy § Creates chopped up plans § Can control HVAC to areas not used often § Not easily accessible § Less flexible for furniture layouts
Types of Housing § Single family detached: represents a house with a yard – requires more maintenance and yard work. Examples: Ranch, 1 ½ story, two-story, , mobile home § Attached dwellings share walls with other residences and usually don’t have a yard. Row houses, town houses, garden homes, patio home, apartments. Usually windows and doors are placed on front and back only. § Multi-family such as high-rise apartments. Lacks privacy, limited on parking and usually no outdoor space
House sizes § Small: up to 1, 500 sq. feet § Medium: 1, 500 – 3, 000 sq. feet § Large: Over 3, 000 sq. feet
Ways to save money – through design § § § § § Smaller sq. footage Two-story homes Back-to-back plumbing Stacked fireplaces Reduce number of dormer windows Use simpler foundations (less jogs, simple rectangle) Use standard sizes and finishes Plan long-term and easy maintenance Reduce cubic feet (lower ceilings for heating/cooling)
New Construction vs. Remodeling New Construction: (advantages and disadvantages) § Location and orientation can be selected § § § Customized New technology and building materials Don’t have to live in the construction More expensive Takes longer Travel time to oversee construction
New Construction vs. Remodeling (advantages and disadvantages) § Relocation not required § Work can be completed in stages § Less expensive than new construction § Living in the mess § Subcontractors in your home § Finding surprises
Economic Considerations § Economy is an important consideration in planning space. § New construction and remodeling will have limitations (maximum that can be spent) dictated by financial institution or by homeowner § What is affordable? 2 times the annual family income although many people go up to 3 or 4 times the annual income. § Interest rate, length of loan (15 yr vs. 30 yr) § $250, 000 @ 4% = $78, 000 for 15 years § $250, 000 @ 4% = $168, 000 for 30 years § Location § Building materials used § Labor rates
Square footage vs. Material and labor § Quick way to estimate is using the sq. footage method based on the average price in the neighborhood. Not as accurate as using a materials and labor quote. § Material and Labor quote is more accurate