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Research Method on ELT 1 Ezis Japar Sidik
Things to discuss for today: a. b. c. d. e. Classroom Rules Assessment Materials to be covered; and Recommended readings Introduction to Research Method
Classroom rules • Attend at class on time (15 minutes late is still considered on time) • Up to 80% of attendance • Excuse should be informed in advance • Claim sick should be accompany with health certificate (if more than 2 -days-off ) • Those with attendance less than 80% might only receive D/E
Assessment A. Details: 1) Attendance 5 %, 2) Participation/Contribution to Class Discussion 10 %, 3) Evidence of Learning 10 %, 4) Research Outline 5%, 5) Research Proposal 25%, 6) Mid-Test 20%, and 7) Final-test 25%. B. Converted: ABS + TRSK UTS UAS : 25% (1 + 2 + 3) : 25% (4 + 6) : 50% (5 + 7)
Materials covered Week / Topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Introduction: (Classroom rules & “What is meant by Research? ”) Research approached in education. Research problem. Literature Review. Research variables and Hypothesis. Research Sampling. Data collection Techniques/Data Instrument. Mid-test (Research Outline is due this week) Validity and Reliability Processing and analyzing data (Descriptive Statistics) (Sampling) and Inferential Statistics Experimental Research and Experimental Research Design (Types of Experimental Research). Ex Post Facto Research. Correlational Research. Survey Research. Writing Proposal (for Quantitative Research) & Final test (Or as Scheduled)
Recommended readings 1. Ari, D. , Jacobs, L. C. , Sorensen, C. & Razavieh, A. : Introduction to Research in Education. 2. Burns, R. B. : Introduction to Research Method 3. Cohen, L. , Manion, L. & Morrison, K: Research Method in Education 4. Khotari, C. R. : Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques 5. Nunan, David: Research Method in Language Learning 6. Fraenkel, J. R. , Wallen, N. E. & Hyun, H. H: How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education
Research Methodology on ELT 1 • What is Research? • Why do Research (Objectives)?
What is meant by research? • Refers to a search for knowledge/information; is a scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic; is an art of scientific investigation (Khotari, 2004) • is a systematic investigation to find answers to a problem (Burns, 1994) • Thus, what are the differences research and daily search of information?
What is meant by scientific / systematic? • Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis/suggested solutions; collecting, organizing, and evaluating data; making deductions & reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis (Woody in Khotari, 2004)
Why do Research? • Objectives: – Search for (problem) solutions – Contribute to knowledge – Test hypothesis
Types of research (i) (iii) (iv) (vi) Descriptive vs. Analytical: Applied vs. Fundamental Quantitative vs. Qualitative Conceptual vs. Empirical One-time research or longitudinal research Field-setting research or laboratory research or simulation research (vii) Clinical or diagnostic research
Research Approach • Qualitative vs. Quantitative approaches: – Qualitative approach involves the generation of data in quantitative form which can be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid fashion. – Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviour