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Report on New Technologies ACI TSSC May 2004
New Technologies § The emerging technologies for aircraft management and surveillance offer significant capacity, economic and environmental benefits to airports as well as airlines and air traffic control service providers. § It, therefore, is essential that airports are aware of developments and become active participants in the process of ensuring that the new technologies are adopted world wide. § Technologies to be discussed tody are: – – – Global Positioning Systems Automatic Dependant Surveillance Broadcast (ADSB) Multilateration
Global Positioning System § GPS technology is rapidly forming the basis for aircraft navigation throughout the world offering advantages to both airlines & airports. § GPS is currently used for en route navigation. However, in the more critical phases of flight (approach, departure & landing) augmented GPS is required to realise the accuracy needed for guidance § These augmented systems are known as LAAS, DGPS or GLS § LAAS is now available to Category 1 standard and should be available on a commercial basis by 2006. A decision to produce cat 2 and cat 3 systems is expected in late 2005.
Global Positioning System § GLS has the potential to replace ILS approaches whilst offering operational efficiencies unmatched by current technologies. Airport benefits are: § 1 unit will facilitate Cat 1 ops to all rwys & potentially replace other ILS systems. § The replacement of the ILS systems, which comprise a glide-path & localiser, will facilitate the development of areas currently “sterilised” by ILS signal protection § GBAS GPS systems will facilitate curved approaches to runways, offering environmental & community benefits by spreading noise & locating flight paths over non sensitive areas
Global Positioning System Risks § it is argued that GBAS landing systems may be prone to radio frequency interference. The extent of this problem cannot be assessed until a unit is installed & trialled. § If GPS landing systems are not adopted the only other viable alternative is the Microwave Landing Systems (MLS). This system sterilises significant airport areas.
Global Positioning System GBAS Cost § 1 satellite landing system cost $750, 000 USD - approx $1. 5 m AUD § Installations approx $100, 000 AUD
Global Positioning System United States § US has embarked on Government Industry Partnership (GIP) program & is driving the introduction of GPS technology. Airlines involved in this program include United, Federal Express, UPS, Delta & Continental. § Installation of Cat 1 units has taken place at Chicago O’Hare, Chicago Midway, Memphis & 5 further units on order for the Los Angeles Basin airports. Asia § Units are being installed in Taiwan & Korea & it is expected that Russia will also equip rapidly to establish an efficient navigation infrastructure.
Global Positioning System Europe § The need for Category 3 ops at European Airports has forced the introduction of MLS systems & there has been some reluctance to pick up a US based technology. § The Europeans are working towards the launch of their own satellite constellation. § Frankfurt & Schipol airports have reached in principle agreements to install & trial GBAS landing systems. § IATA (European Region) has proposed a transition to GPS based technology over the next 15 years. As an interim measure IATA propose the adoption of MLS for cat 3 ops until GBAS systems are appropriately certified & operational.
Global Positioning System Australia § Airservices Australia established the Air Traffic Management Strategic Planning Group. § This aim of this plan is to address airspace / airport capacity issues & to determine industry infrastructure requirements to 2015. § Airservices Australia have agreed at Board level to transition from ILS technology to GBAS over time. § Consequently at the Strategic Planning Group Airservices propose: – That GBAS Category 1 landing systems replace ILS systems by 2008 as the primary precision approach system.
GPS - Australia § Airservices are now talking to the FAA with a view to taking part, albeit as an overseas stakeholder, in the FAA GBAS trials. § Airlines were in agreement with this strategy and CASA will work closely with this group to develop appropriate equipment certification. § Airservices are in the process of consulting with Boeing and Honeywell in order to place a GBAS on the ground at Sydney. With the support of Qantas they will then work with industry stakeholders to develop tailored arrivals.
Automatic Dependant Surveillance Broadcast (ADSB) § Once differential GPS systems are available on airport & aircraft can accurately fix their position, the ability to rebroadcast this data along with call-sign altitude & speed forms the basis to eliminate or reduce radar surveillance. § This technology is referred to as information relating to ADSB technology. It is now being defined and standardised by ICAO and other standards organisations. § However, most aircraft are not yet appropriately equipped & a lengthy transition period would be required to implement ADSB capability. § ADSB technology will initially beused for en route control but has the potential to replace surface movement, terminal area, & PRM radars.
ADSB - Australia § New ADSB system is being installed across Australia for enhanced safety and improved operational flexibility. § 28 ADSB stations are expected to be operational before the end of 2005. § Other elements of the project include improved Global Positioning System (GPS) performance monitoring for controllers § Airservices Australia has successfully trialled ADS-B technology over the past two years; the trial station is already receiving data from airline aircraft, including Qantas A 330 s, international freighters and regional airliners. § Airservices Australia is working closely with the aviation industry to maximise the benefits of the ADS-B system by encouraging aircraft operators to fit complementary equipment in their aircraft.
Multilateration Surveillance Technology § Multilateration is a surveillance system that receives & locates transmissions from aircraft. All aircraft equipped with transponders would be detected & tracked by this system. § Instead of a radar facility airports would have a network of strategically placed receivers to detect & position aircraft transmissions. § Multilateration can immediately replace surface movement radar & has the capacity to be effective in areas where traditional radar technology cannot operate. § This system will augment terminal area radar however a radar system would still be required to detect airspace incursions from non equipped aircraft. § The FAA has nominated Multilateration as a potential replacement for PRM.
Multilateration Surveillance Technology § Multilateration systems are currently operational at Dallas Fort Worth, Heathrow, Memphis, Hong Kong, & Frankfurt. § At Frankfurt the system is owned & operated by the airport with data on -sold to the DFS. The DFS are in the process of proving this system as a PRM. § Singapore & Taipei Airports are currently negotiating installation. § Cost – estimate system installation & testing cost of $5 m AUD. This compares favourably when compared with a cost of $18 m AUD for PRM alone
Multilateration Surveillance Technology § Additional Benefits Operations /Security – Vehicles operating airside can be equipped with a transmitter unit (squitters) to relay vehicle data. Suitably equipped vehicles will be identified to the tower & tracked. – Incidents are recorded & can be replayed as required. Master Planning – Records obtained from multilateration systems are stored in computer file format. These records can readily be integrated into the airfield modelling systems to form the base case schedule. – Taxiway utilisation can be monitored via multilateration tracking & asset management programs developed accordingly. Apron Control – Multilateration enable the tower or apron control units to monitor aircraft movements where line of sight does not exist or radar cannot function. – This technology is rapidly being adopted in the South East Asian countries as a response to the Singapore Airlines disaster in Taipei.
Conclusion § A combination of systems outlined above has the potential to increase airport capacity § Also to make available large amounts of airport land available for airport development § However any initiative involving aircraft re-equipment should be seen as long term and will require world wide adoption of the systems § Most of the benefits gained from these systems are incremental in nature & adding to the time required realising maximum airport benefits.