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Reinforcement Schedules Match the type of reinforcement schedule to the example that best defines it.
Reinforcement Schedule Review RATIOS = RESPONSES • Fixed Ratio (FR) – Reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses – Results in a burst-pause-burst-pause pattern • Variable Ratio (VR) – Reinforcement occurs after an average number of responses. Number of responses required for reinforcement is unpredictable. – Results in high, steady rates of responding with almost no pauses
Reinforcement Schedule Review INTERVALS = TIME • Fixed Interval (FI) – A reinforcer is delivered for the first response after a preset time interval has elapsed. – Number of responses tends to increase as the time for the next reinforcer draws near then long pause occurs after reinforcement. • Variable Interval (VI) – A reinforcer is delivered for the first response after an average time interval has elapsed. The interval is unpredictable. – Number of responses will be moderately steady because reinforcement could occur at any time.
Example 1 A business that advertises that it will change your oil in 20 minutes offers you a free oil change after you have had your oil changed 5 times at their business.
Example 1 ANSWER • FIXED RATIO (FR)
Example 2 Although farmers put out about the same amount of labor each year, sometimes they sell their grain at harvest time, sometimes in January, and sometimes in late March.
Example 2 ANSWER • VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI)
Example 3 You are fly fishing in a great trout stream. Sometimes you catch a fish after only 4 or 5 casts; sometimes it takes 10 or 20 casts.
Example 3 ANSWER • VARIABLE RATIO (VR)
Example 4 A bank employee is given a bonus of a $30 restaurant coupon for every 4 hours of overtime he volunteers to work.
Example 4 ANSWER • FIXED INTERVAL (FI)
Example 5 A young child demands a candy bar each time she is in the checkout line at the grocery store. Sometimes the parent gives her one and sometime he doesn’t.
Example 5 ANSWER • VARIABLE RATIO (VR)
Example 6 A piano teacher gives a 6 -year-old student a sticker for each song he plays well.
Example 6 ANSWER • FIXED RATIO (FR)
Example 7 You are still fishing from a dock. You sit with your line in the water and wait for the fish to strike. Sometimes it takes only 20 minutes, and sometimes it takes an hour or more.
Example 7 ANSWER • VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI)
Example 8 You do piece work in a factory. For every 3 sleeves you sew on garments, you get $0. 50.
Example 8 ANSWER • FIXED RATIO (FR)
Example 9 For each half day that a second grader pays attention and works well, the teacher gives her a “Good Behavior” dollar that she can trade in at the end of the week for desired objects from the store.
Example 9 ANSWER • FIXED INTERVAL (FI)
Example 10 A vacuum cleaner salesperson does numerous presentations in people’s homes and gets paid a bonus each time he or she sells a vacuum. Sometimes the salesperson does 5 presentations before a customer buys a vacuum, sometimes 2 customers in a row purchase the product.
Example 10 ANSWER • VARIABLE RATIO (VR)
Example 11 Your paycheck arrives on the 1 st and the 15 th of every month.
Example 11 ANSWER • FIXED INTERVAL (FI)
Example 12 Buying state lottery tickets & winning.
Example 12 ANSWER • Variable Ratio (VR)
Example 13 A hotel maid may take a 15 -minute break only after having cleaned three rooms.
Example 13 ANSWER • Fixed Ratio (FR)
Example 14 Watching and seeing shooting stars on a dark night.
Example 14 ANSWER • Variable Interval (VI)
Example 15 A teenager receives an allowance every Saturday.
Example 15 ANSWER • Fixed Interval (FI)
Example 16 Checking the front porch for a newspaper when the delivery person is extremely unpredictable.
Example 16 ANSWER • Variable Interval (VI)
Example 17 A professional baseball player gets a hit approximately every third time at bat.
Example 17 ANSWER • Variable Ratio (VR)
Example 18 Checking the oven to see if chocolate chip cookies are done, when the baking time is known.
Example 18 ANSWER • Fixed Interval (FI)
Example 19 A blueberry picker receives $1 after filling 3 pint boxes.
Example 19 ANSWER • Fixed Ratio (FR)
Example 20 A charitable organization makes an average of ten phone calls for every donation it receives.
Example 20 ANSWER • Variable Ratio (VR)
Example 21 Calling a garage mechanic to see if your car is fixed yet.
Example 21 ANSWER • Variable Interval (VI)
Example 22 A student’s final grade improves one level for every three book reviews submitted.
Example 22 ANSWER • Fixed Ratio (FR)
Example 23 Going to the cafeteria to see if the next meal is available.
Example 23 ANSWER • Fixed Interval (FI)