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[Regarding Mesopotamian divination: ] The means of divination practiced may be divided into two classes: unarranged forms and arranged forms. As to the unarranged, these concerned any omen-type events that might occur in the natural course of a day. The Mesopotamians had a lengthy list of such omens and their meanings. Usually when something happened on the right of a person it was a good omen, and when something happened on the left it was bad. Included in the unarranged types of omens were those pertaining to nature, heavenly bodies, the flight of birds, dreams, and weather conditions.
Of the arranged types two were most important. The first was hydromancy in which oil was poured upon water or visa versa. Since oil and water do not mix, the action of these when put together was observed and that which happened was thought to be significant as an omen. The other means was hepatoscopy which was the most important of all. This was the reading of a sheep’s liver though sometimes the kidneys of an animal might be observed. This organ apparently was thought of as the seat of life of the animal and therefore significant for revelation.
Now Deborah, a prophetess, wife of Lappidoth, was leading Israel at that time (Judges 4: 4)
Prophets in Samuel/Kings
Introduction to the Prophets