Скачать презентацию Reclaiming Property — Reclaiming Livelihoods Property Grabbing Скачать презентацию Reclaiming Property — Reclaiming Livelihoods Property Grabbing

92266b55eb3803a7e6629884d53df492.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 27

Reclaiming Property - Reclaiming Livelihoods : Property Grabbing from Women and Children and AIDS Reclaiming Property - Reclaiming Livelihoods : Property Grabbing from Women and Children and AIDS Kaori Izumi, Ph. D. HIV/Rural Development Officer FAO Conference on AIDS and Livelihoods – Securing Property and Inheritance Rights Organised by aidsfocus 10 April 2008 Berne Note: The view expressed in this presentation does not represent the opinions of FAO and the speaker is solely responsible for all the views expressed in this presentation.

Property Grabbing A symptom of deepening poverty and changing cultural norms Property Grabbing A symptom of deepening poverty and changing cultural norms

Undernourishment n 1. 2 billion extremely poor globally (Anriquez and Stmoulis 2007) n 75% Undernourishment n 1. 2 billion extremely poor globally (Anriquez and Stmoulis 2007) n 75% of the world poor live in rural areas, deriving their livelihoods from agriculture n About 852 million people under-nourished n 815 million in the developing countries (883 million poor people lived in rural areas in 2002, p. 26 WDR 2008)

Undernourishment and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa n The highest incidence of undernourishment is found Undernourishment and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa n The highest incidence of undernourishment is found in sub-Saharan Africa n 33% of the total population in the region (Pingali et al. 2006) n In May 2006, 39 countries in the world with serious food emergencies, 25 in Africa (ibid)) n Close to half the world’s poor will live in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015 (ibid)

Declined Investment in Agricultural Sector n 57% decline in Official foreign development aid (ODA) Declined Investment in Agricultural Sector n 57% decline in Official foreign development aid (ODA) in agricultural in past 30 years from USD 5. 14 billion (1983 -87) to USD 2. 22 billion (19982000) (ibid) (Share of agriculture in ODA declined from 18% in 1979 to 3. 5% in 2004, and ODA declined in absolute terms from USD 8 billion in 1984 to USD 3. 4 billion in 2004, p. 41 WDR 2008) n 40% decline in the total volume of lending to agriculture from International Finance Institutions (IFIs)in real terms between 1990 and 1999.

GDP and Poverty n The average annual growth in GDP in sub. Saharan Africa GDP and Poverty n The average annual growth in GDP in sub. Saharan Africa 1980 -2000 was negative 1. 1% (Pingali et. al 2006) n In sub-Saharan Africa poverty has increased between 1990 and 1999 (ibid. )

Key constraints in Sub-Saharan Africa n Low-level of agricultural productivity n Resource degradation n Key constraints in Sub-Saharan Africa n Low-level of agricultural productivity n Resource degradation n Conflicts n HIV and AIDS n Natural disasters n Climate change Not accumulation, but survival

HIV and AIDS 33. 2 million living with HIV globally (UNAIDS, 2007) Women and HIV and AIDS 33. 2 million living with HIV globally (UNAIDS, 2007) Women and girls - the greatest growing group living with HIV and AIDS n Young women account for 76% of all new cases in sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS 2006) n In Swaziland, AIDS takes away more than one half of the potential length of life (V. A. Welkoff and P. Kowal, n n 2006) n In Botswana, Central African Republic, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe the loss is 30 -40% of years of life expectancy without HIV/AIDS (ibid)

Property Grabbing and AIDS Property Grabbing and AIDS

HIV and AIDS and Women’s Property Rights n n n Widow-creating disease Increased visibility HIV and AIDS and Women’s Property Rights n n n Widow-creating disease Increased visibility of property grabbing Stigmatised people more likely to be abused, less capable of defending their rights, social support withdrawn Widows are made responsible for their husband’s death - witch, prostitute Property confiscation as punishment (e. g. the brother-in-law cutting down fruit trees)

Changing norms and practice Widow inheritance disappearing partly because of AIDS pandemic n Inheritance Changing norms and practice Widow inheritance disappearing partly because of AIDS pandemic n Inheritance to sons by sub-division of land disappearing due to AIDS n In the past, caregivers within extended families assumed control of orphans parental property and were expected to provide for the orphans needs n Today, poverty and high death rates because of AIDS have exacerbated property grabbing and neglect n

Facts and Figures on Property grabbing Namibia: – 30% lost small livestock – 39% Facts and Figures on Property grabbing Namibia: – 30% lost small livestock – 39% lost farm equipment 44% of widows and orphans lost cattle (Ohangwena region, Namibia, FAO IP study, 2004)

Zambia: – At least 700 -900 cases of confiscation of property from women are Zambia: – At least 700 -900 cases of confiscation of property from women are annually handled by the Police Victim Support Unit (FAO 2006) – 30% of widows experienced more than 50% land size reduction after their husbands had died (national statistical data) (Chapoto and Jayne 2007) – 79% of orphans in Kakolo community in Kitwe district reported their property had been taken by grandparents, uncles and aunts – 24 out of 40 orphans interviewed Kakamega, Gatundu and Limuru districts reported their property had been taken by close relatives (CINDI and Groots. Kenya, FAO 2008)

Uganda: § 90% of intra-familial conflicts are over women’s land rights in one of Uganda: § 90% of intra-familial conflicts are over women’s land rights in one of the district offices § Of which, 70% were cases on threats of eviction from their homes (Mari Aili Tripp 2004)

Zimbabwe § 53% of boy orphans § 47% of girl orphans Were displaced after Zimbabwe § 53% of boy orphans § 47% of girl orphans Were displaced after their parents had died in Manicaland Chimani districts (HSRC, UOZ 2006)

Methods of property grabbing Take moveable property when parent is sick n Take moveable Methods of property grabbing Take moveable property when parent is sick n Take moveable property after death of parent n Obtain burial order and death certificate of parent and gain access to moveable and immoveable property (e. g. pension and bank accounts) n Assume guardianship of orphans and dispose of moveable and or immovable property n

Impact of Property Grabbing n Eviction n Destitution n Migration n Malnutrition n Sex Impact of Property Grabbing n Eviction n Destitution n Migration n Malnutrition n Sex work and risk of re-infection n Pre-matured deaths n Increasing number of orphans n Neglect of children

The Faces of Poverty The Faces of Poverty

The Voices of Poverty The Voices of Poverty

n These things. . . suitcases and mattresses belonged to my boys. And these n These things. . . suitcases and mattresses belonged to my boys. And these remains decay. . . even my memories. . . n When I do not have anything to cook at home, I simply put water into boiling. And we all sleep listening to water boiling. . . (as if we are cooking).   (interviews with grandmothers left with orphans, November 2005, FAO Junior Farmers Field and Life Schools, Bondo, Kenya)

Multiple Approaches on Invisible Poverty n Make invisible poverty visible n Shelters to those Multiple Approaches on Invisible Poverty n Make invisible poverty visible n Shelters to those without households n Secure property rights n Livelihoods opportunities of those without livelihoods n Self-esteem for ‘the losers’ in global market, ‘emerging agriculture’ n “Inclusive” agriculture and employment

In practice In practice

Gendered and Targeted Food Aid and Food Production - Case of Botswana and Swaziland Gendered and Targeted Food Aid and Food Production - Case of Botswana and Swaziland n Survey on 1050 women and 999 men in two countries n In Botswana and Swaziland, women with insufficient food had: – Over 50% higher risk of engaging in intergenerational sex – 70% higher in lack of control in sexual relationships – 80% higher in selling sex for money or resources – 70% increase in unprotected sex

n Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women n Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. n Targetted food aid, food production and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women’s legal and social rights may play an importnat role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women.

SWAPOL Agricultural Cooperatives 1003 women of 30 groups living positively with HIV n By SWAPOL Agricultural Cooperatives 1003 women of 30 groups living positively with HIV n By 2002 acquired 11 hactres of land n 2003/2004 season, one of the groups: n – – – 300 bags of maize harvested 50 bags for storage for emergencies 5 bags to neighbourhood care points to feed OVCs 10 bags to child-headed AIDS orphans households The rest of the maize sold for USD 3, 883 (Izumi 2006)

Innovative initiatives n n n Negotiation with local authorities on land allocation – Swazi Innovative initiatives n n n Negotiation with local authorities on land allocation – Swazi Positive Living Memory book project - Uganda Community Watch Dog - Groots Kenya Paralegal kids - Law and Development Association (LADA) Zamia Paralegal training for women (FIDA, ZWLA) Community Tribunals - Justice for widows and orphans (JWOP) Victim Support Unit – Zambia Village Legal Desk - TWLA Tanzania Allocation of land to 50 women by Buganda King Kabaka Quota system in fast track resettlement program – Seke District, Zimbabwe Ondonga law in Namibia

Conclusion n n Development is about people, their aspiration, self esteem, a sense of Conclusion n n Development is about people, their aspiration, self esteem, a sense of responsibilities and a belief for change Extreme poverty and abuse deprives people from them Children growing up under extreme poverty, abuse and neglect Global humanitarian, social and political security Property rights and access to productive resources are the key for poverty alleviation and HIV prevention