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Real World Strategies (RWS) 2006 -2010 Towards the Achievement of EFA by 2015 Real World Strategies (RWS) 2006 -2010 Towards the Achievement of EFA by 2015

Re-visiting ASPBAE Core Values o Education is a human right o Education is key Re-visiting ASPBAE Core Values o Education is a human right o Education is key to poverty alleviation and sustainable human development o Governments have the primary responsibility to provide free, compulsory basic education of good quality

Re-visiting ASPBAE Core Values Governments have to take the lead in providing opportunities for Re-visiting ASPBAE Core Values Governments have to take the lead in providing opportunities for adult learners to combat poverty, fight all forms of discrimination, equip citizens to actively participate in development and governance; empower people and communities to cope, survive and transform their position and conditions; build a culture of peace.

Education and Poverty o Children from poor families are less likely to go to Education and Poverty o Children from poor families are less likely to go to school o Children with educated mothers are twice as likely to be in school than those with mothers w/o formal education Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2005, United Nations, Page number 12

o ODI study 2004: Main factors that determine parents willingness to send children to o ODI study 2004: Main factors that determine parents willingness to send children to schools n n n n Adult literacy Parents’ education HH income Child’s health Costs including opportunity cost to parents Perception of economic benefits Perception of quality of education Source: `Can we Achieve the MDGs in Education and Health through Public Expenditure and Aid? ’, ODI briefing paper April 2004

o Among poor, participation in schools is very price elastic. Hence it has been o Among poor, participation in schools is very price elastic. Hence it has been argued that public expenditure reducing costs/opportunity costs of parents with school-going children can have dramatic results: n n n Abolishing fees Abolishing uniforms Free meals Grants to parents Flexible school timings

But Governments spend so little on education CONFINTEA V: Governments committed to spending 6% But Governments spend so little on education CONFINTEA V: Governments committed to spending 6% of education budgets to adult education BUT Actually, less than 1% of Government education budgets allocated to adult education (GMR 2006)

But Governments spend so little on education o Skewed priorities: examples n n In But Governments spend so little on education o Skewed priorities: examples n n In India and Bangladesh, there are 2 soldiers for 1 primary school teacher; in Nepal its is 4: 1 Pakistan: in last 4 years, 20% of govt expenditure was on defense spending; 33% on debt servicing and 15% on social services – 7% on education Philippines: 34. 1% of the national budget goes to debt servicing; 14. 9% to education Priority to Tertiary education: in South Asia, approximately 20% is spent on tertiary education compared to industrialized countries which spend 10%

But Governments spend so little on education o Globally: 15 million additional teachers needed But Governments spend so little on education o Globally: 15 million additional teachers needed to reach the 2015 targets Instead governments resort to ‘parateachers’: poorly qualified teachers (e. g. in India, Grade 7 pass) on short contract at cheaper wages thus institutionalizing a cheaper, inferior parallel school system for the poor

o Corruption: Examples n Bangladesh: 40% students pay admission fees at the primary level o Corruption: Examples n Bangladesh: 40% students pay admission fees at the primary level which are supposed to be free; 32% who are eligible for Government subsidies/grants have to pay to avail of these n India: US$919 million paid in bribes in Government schools p 70% of those who paid have avg. monthly HH incomes less than US $230; another 24% with incomes of $115 (Transparency International 2005)

EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) UN initiative started from Jomtien in 1991 to Dakar in EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) UN initiative started from Jomtien in 1991 to Dakar in 2000 o Six Major Goals of EFA 1. Expansion of early childhood care and education 2. Complete free and compulsory education for all in 2015 3. Appropriate learning/life skills for young and adults 4. 50% rise in adult literacy in 2015, especially for women 5. Eliminate gender disparities 6. Quality education o Strategies to achieve the goals: n Ensure Financial Support for EFA n Promote Partnership between Government & CSO

Asia Pacific: off-track in EFA o GMR 2006: in 2002, 99. 8 million children Asia Pacific: off-track in EFA o GMR 2006: in 2002, 99. 8 million children are out of primary school n n 44. 5% (45. 5 million) are in the Asia Pacific 55% (25. 1 million) girls o MDG Report 2005: Completion of primary schooling: only 60 -75% in South Asia, W Asia and the Pacific

Asia Pacific: off-track in EFA 2005: Gender Parity Goal missed in 94 countries Gender Asia Pacific: off-track in EFA 2005: Gender Parity Goal missed in 94 countries Gender Parity Index (F/M), 2002 primary secondary 1. 2 1. 0 0. 8 Gender parity 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 South West Asia Sub Saharan Africa Arab States Centr. Latin Central East. America Asia Europe Caribbean East Asia Pacific N. America/ W. Europe Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2006, UNESCO

Asia Pacific: off-track in EFA o GMR 2006: In 2002, 771 million adults have Asia Pacific: off-track in EFA o GMR 2006: In 2002, 771 million adults have been denied access to literacy skills globally, 64% of whom are women: n n 66. 3 % (551 million) are in the Asia Pacific 61% (336 million) are women. o 61. 3% of adult illiterates or more than 472 million live in 5 countries: India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia

The Aid Record o Commitments: Following the last G 8 summit (Gleneagles, 2005), the The Aid Record o Commitments: Following the last G 8 summit (Gleneagles, 2005), the promise of an additional $50 billion by 2010, holds out the hope that education has a good chance of being a recipient of additional aid

GMR 2006 – only 2. 6% of ODA goes to basic education Source: Education GMR 2006 – only 2. 6% of ODA goes to basic education Source: Education for All – Fast Track Initiative Status Report 2005, FTI Secretariat

Countries in greatest need re EFA are not in FTI Source: EFA – Fast Countries in greatest need re EFA are not in FTI Source: EFA – Fast Track Initiative Status Report April 2006, FTI Secretariat

The Funding Gap § Aid to basic education should increase from 2. 6% to The Funding Gap § Aid to basic education should increase from 2. 6% to 5% of total aid Funding gap § GMR 2006: Additional Required to achieve UPE and gender $2. 5 billion /year for the EFA adult literacy targets G 8 pledge § By 2006 Apr, FTI has multilateral Total aid bilateral $2. 1 billion USD Billions only mobilised $605 million in pledges; $510 million gap for 20 FTI countries

Additional funding for basic education is affordable Comparison of global spending 1998 $ Billion Additional funding for basic education is affordable Comparison of global spending 1998 $ Billion Universal Primary Education Perfumes in Europe & US Pet food in Europe & US Business entertainment Japan Alcohol in Europe Military spending worldwide 7 12 17 35 105 780 Source: (Source: Human Development Report 1998, United Nations Development Program)

CSO Demands: Southern Governments o Increase budget allocations for basic education o Fill the CSO Demands: Southern Governments o Increase budget allocations for basic education o Fill the gap of teacher vacancies with qualified, o o well trained teachers paid just wages; more female teachers Eliminate all user and indirect fees in education Address the problem of chronic corruption in the educational system Adequate school infrastructure, safe schools Incentives esp. for girls : mid-day meals, scholarships, grants to parents

CSO Demands on AE & Adult Literacy : Southern Governments o Allocate at least CSO Demands on AE & Adult Literacy : Southern Governments o Allocate at least 6% of education budgets to adult education and at least 3% for adult literacy o Promote ”quality” adult literacy n Continuous and sustained intervention n Ensure clear feedback and evaluation mechanisms, data systematization, strategic research

CSO Demands on AE & Adult Literacy : Southern Governments o Promote ”quality” adult CSO Demands on AE & Adult Literacy : Southern Governments o Promote ”quality” adult literacy n Adequately trained facilitators with opportunities for professional growth n 1 facilitator: 30 learners n Language choice n Use of suitable, creative, relevant learning materials n Governments should commit USD 50 100/learner/year for at least 3 years

Real World Strategies 2006 -2010: Towards the Achievement of EFA by 2015 o Overall Real World Strategies 2006 -2010: Towards the Achievement of EFA by 2015 o Overall Aim: policy changes at national, regional, global levels to accelerate EFA progress over the next 5 years o Coverage: Asia, Africa, Latin America o Asia Pacific: 11 countries n India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, Cambodia, PNG, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu

CSO Demands: to Northern Governments o Increase education aid: The barest minimum to cover CSO Demands: to Northern Governments o Increase education aid: The barest minimum to cover the $3. 7 billion (UPE) and $2. 5 billion (AL) financing gap o Allocate to core needs of EFA and countries most in need (not just better performers) o Donor coordination and harmonization o Countries need long term, predictable funding for education

RWS 2010 Objectives and Strategies o Strengthen and deepen the work of existing national RWS 2010 Objectives and Strategies o Strengthen and deepen the work of existing national education coalitions n n n help build national education coalitions in countries where none exist Support for time-bound, targeted campaigns, advocacy strategies defined by the coalitions national education coalitions recognised as key partners for national policy dialogue o Strengthen regional and sub-regional advocacy work o Local -Global advocacy work enhanced o Link education interests with others working on public sector service delivery, aid, debt and children’s issues

RWS 2010 : Activities n n n Capacity-building for national advocacy and campaigns School RWS 2010 : Activities n n n Capacity-building for national advocacy and campaigns School Report Card Education Watch - piloting : “Tracking the Education Deficit” South Asia: education budget tracking p South East Asia: access and outcomes of disadvantaged groups p South Pacific: tracking “real literacy” rates among the poor p n Sub-regional campaigns: E. g. aid to education, privatisation of education, education financing

By 2010: Enhanced capacities of the national coalitions in the Asia Pacific in: o By 2010: Enhanced capacities of the national coalitions in the Asia Pacific in: o Mobilising mass public support for increased investment in education & appropriate fund use through sustained & effective citizens' watch activities o Developing and advancing alternative education policies and mainstreaming good practice based on grass-root experiences o Monitoring the impact of international institutions’ policies on the education sector o Collaborating with other formations at regional and global level to jointly campaign for international policy change to support the achievement of EFA and the MDGs

Partners in Real World Strategies o 11 national education coalitions: Asia Pacific o Global Partners in Real World Strategies o 11 national education coalitions: Asia Pacific o Global Campaign for Education (GCE) o Education International (EI) o Global March against Child Labour (GM) o Education Watch of CAMPE, Bangladesh o African Network of Coalitions on EFA (ANCEFA) o Latin American Association for Adult and Popular Education (CEAAL)

Staffing o Asia Advocacy and Campaigns Coordinator o Pacific Advocacy and Campaigns Coordinator o Staffing o Asia Advocacy and Campaigns Coordinator o Pacific Advocacy and Campaigns Coordinator o Team leader, Policy Group o 3 Sub-regional Policy Analysts o Country Focal Points (currently 2)