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Read: -Jeremiah 31: 31 -33 -Galatians 4 What is Paul saying in Galatians 4? Read: -Jeremiah 31: 31 -33 -Galatians 4 What is Paul saying in Galatians 4?

Goals for Today: -Assyrian & Babylonian Legacies. -Persian Legacy -Alexander the Great -Israel and Goals for Today: -Assyrian & Babylonian Legacies. -Persian Legacy -Alexander the Great -Israel and Hellenism -The order and peace of Rome in Palestine (Julius Caesar, Octavius, Tiberius & Catigula, Claudius & Nero). -Social Settings & Stratification -Jewish Groups (Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes, Zealots)

Assyria: Elimination of northern Israel as part of Israel (replacement of the northern tribes Assyria: Elimination of northern Israel as part of Israel (replacement of the northern tribes with “half- breeds”: Assyrians mixed with Jews = Samaritans) Babylonia: A captivity reminiscent of Egypt Exposure to urban life and new ideas

Persian legacy: -An enduring notion that Persia was different from the other empires (including Persian legacy: -An enduring notion that Persia was different from the other empires (including “Cyrus, my Messiah”) -A well-governed and organized empire that respected individual tribes (like the Jews) -Often portrayed as the bad guys but they were the ones who sent the Jews back after conquering the Babylonians.

Alexander’s Legacy -“Hellenism” -Expansion throughout the former Persian Empire of Greek language, ways of Alexander’s Legacy -“Hellenism” -Expansion throughout the former Persian Empire of Greek language, ways of thinking (even the Judaism of the time of Jesus was very Hellenized Judaism). -Acceptance of local religious practice, tried to create a synthesis of all the religions into each sector of the empire. Israel during the Hellenistic Period -Israel again becomes the “pawn” of warring Empires -Seleucids and Ptolemies -Seleucid king: Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175 -164 BC)

The Hellenistic Period and the Second Century Crisis: 323 -164 BCE The Hellenistic Period and the Second Century Crisis: 323 -164 BCE

The Hellenistic Period 334 -331 BCE, Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire The Hellenistic Period 334 -331 BCE, Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire

Empire of Alexander the Great Empire of Alexander the Great

The Hellenistic Period 334 -331 BCE, Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire 323 The Hellenistic Period 334 -331 BCE, Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire 323 BCE, Alexander the Great dies Empire is divided among generals, the “diadochoi (successors)”

The territories of the diadochoi, c. 310 The territories of the diadochoi, c. 310

Contested loyalties among Judeans 319 BCE, Ptolemy I takes Jerusalem and brings elites to Contested loyalties among Judeans 319 BCE, Ptolemy I takes Jerusalem and brings elites to Egypt, beginning great Jewish culture of Alexandria 301 BCE, Ptolemy secures control of all Palestine, S. Syria, and small portions of Asia Minor 300 BCE, Seleucus I establishes Antioch as new capitol of empire; grants Jews in Seleucid empire full citizenship and extensive rights

Kingdoms of the diadochoi after wars, c. 300 BCE Kingdoms of the diadochoi after wars, c. 300 BCE

Pressures on Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires, c. 270 BCE Pressures on Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires, c. 270 BCE

The Seleucid-Ptolemaic Wars: A Test of Judean Loyalties, 274 -246 BCE With whom should The Seleucid-Ptolemaic Wars: A Test of Judean Loyalties, 274 -246 BCE With whom should Judean Jews side? 246 -219 BCE, Onias II, High Priest in Jerusalem, withholds tribute from Ptolemy III (Josephus, Ant. 12. 158 -59) Attempts to establish treaty with Spartan king, Areus I (1 Maccabees 12: 7 -23)

The Seleucid-Ptolemaic Wars: A Test of Judean Loyalties, 274 -246 BCE Onias II and The Seleucid-Ptolemaic Wars: A Test of Judean Loyalties, 274 -246 BCE Onias II and supporters in anti-Egyptian party Joseph of the priestly Tobiad family in Jerusalem attempts to wrest High Priesthood from Oniads 222 -204, Ptolemy IV Philopator suppresses rights of Egyptian Jews and attempts to plunder the Jerusalem temple for tribute; he fails (3 Maccabees)

The beginning of Seleucid rule: 225 -187 BCE Antiochus III “the Great” rules Seleucid The beginning of Seleucid rule: 225 -187 BCE Antiochus III “the Great” rules Seleucid empire 200 BCE, Antiochus the Great conquers Syria-Palestine 1) exempted Jerusalem temple from taxes 2) patronized priesthood with wealth and temple goods 3) confirmed and protected priests’ political power 219 -190 BCE, Simon son of Onias, “Simon the Just, ” High Priest; a stable and prosperous time for Judea (see Ben Sira 50: 1 -21)

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Onias III (190 -175 BCE) External 190 BCE, Rome defeats Antiochus the Great in Asia Minor and demands massive tribute 187 BCE, Seleucus IV succeeds Antiochus the Great and inherits his troubles with Rome 187 -175, Seleucus IV sends Heliodorus to seize funds of Jerusalem Temple; he is turned away by bludgering angels on horseback and foot (2 Maccabees 3: 22 -40; cp. episode in 3 Maccabees 5 -6)

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Onias III (190 -175 BCE) Internal Simon with brothers Menelaus and Lysimachus, and help of Tobiad clan, plot vs. HP Onias III Simon accuses Onias III of plotting Heliodorus’ temple robbery Murderous campaign of Simon and Tobiads vs. Onias III and Oniads Onias III appeals to Seleucus IV for help; order is restored to Jerusalem

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Onias III (190 -175 BCE) Internal 175 BCE, Onias III attempts to visit Seleucus IV in Antioch SURPRISE! Heliodorus had murdered Seleucus IV and installed Antiochus IV “Epiphanes” in his place Onias III goes into exile near Antioch

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Jason, brother of Onias III (175 -171 BCE) Internal 175 BCE, Onias III attempts to visit Seleucus IV in Antioch Heliodorus had murdered Seleucus IV and installed Antiochus IV “Epiphanes” in his place Onias III goes into exile near Antioch Jason, brother of Onias III, travels to Antioch and bribes Antiochus IV to recognize him as HP

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Jason, brother of Onias III (175 -171 BCE) Internal 175 BCE, Jason the HP and other “lawless sons of Israel” ask Antiochus IV to transform Jerusalem into a Greek city (1 Macc 1: 11 -15) 1) Antiochus IV builds a gymnasion alongside the Jerusalem temple; 2) establishes an ephebic class (young elite men educated in Hellenistic fashion) 3) enrolls citizens of Jerusalem as “Antiochenes” 4) elite Jews attempt to become thoroughly Greek, even removing the marks of circumcision (1 Macc 1: 15)

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Menelaus (171 -c. 160 BCE) Internal 171 BCE, Menelaus betrays Jason while acting as ambassador to Antiochus IV: a large bribe makes Menelaus HP Menelaus lures Onias III out of hiding near Antioch and has him murdered (2 Macc 4: 30 -38)

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Menelaus (171 -c. 160 BCE) Internal/External 170 BCE, Antiochus IV successfully invades Egypt and exacts tribute to pay Romans Judeans get word that Antiochus IV died in Egypt Jason and his supporters attack HP Menelaus in Jerusalem 169, Antiochus IV returns alive and thinks Jerusalem is in revolt; He slaughters citizens and loots the temple

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE New crises: 190 -168 BCE New High Priest: Menelaus (171 -c. 160 BCE) Internal/External 168 BCE, Antiochus IV returns to Egypt to collect tribute Greetings from the Roman Senate: a low-level ambassador tells Antiochus to withdraw, and that Egypt is now under Roman protection Antiochus refuses and demands time to make a decision The Roman ambassador gives Antiochus all the time he needs…

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Second Century Crisis: 168 -164 BCE High Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Second Century Crisis: 168 -164 BCE High Priest: Menelaus (171 -c. 161 BCE) Internal/External Crises Continue 167 BCE, humiliated, Antiochus IV returns to Antioch 22, 000 Seleucid troops sent to attack Jerusalem on the Sabbath Jerusalem’s walls demolished Circumcision and reading Torah prohibited Jews forced to eat pork Temple rededicated to Zeus; Antiochus sacrifices a pig on the altar

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt 167 BCE: Priestly family, Hasmoneans, Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt 167 BCE: Priestly family, Hasmoneans, lead revolt vs. Seleucids, emphasizing defense of temple

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt The first generation of Hasmonean Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt The first generation of Hasmonean leaders John Mattathias | Simon Judas “Maccabeus (‘the Hammer’)” Jonathan d. 134 Rededicated temple in 164; d. 160 Eleazar d. 142

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt 167 BCE: Priestly family, Hasmoneans, Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt 167 BCE: Priestly family, Hasmoneans, lead revolt 167 -Dec. 164 BCE, Jews unite vs. Seleucids, achieve surprising victories in quick succession under leadership of Judas “the Hammer” Jews from Babylon, Egypt, and other diasporan areas come to Judea to join Maccabean revolt Hasmonean leaders make treaties with powerful allies, above all Rome (1 Macc 8: 18) Temple rededicated and returned to normal operations, Dec. 164 BCE

Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt Jewish parties during the revolt: Seleucid rule: 225 -c. 162 BCE The Maccabean Revolt Jewish parties during the revolt: Hasmoneans and their allies the “Hasideans” or “hasidim, ” ultra-pious Jews that joined the revolt, at least at first (1 Macc 2: 42; 7: 13; 2 Macc 14: 5 -6) Pro-Seleucid factions, led by Alcimus the High Priest (c. 161 -159 BCE)

An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 162 -150 BCE, internal strife Alcimus An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 162 -150 BCE, internal strife Alcimus appointed HP c. 161 with Seleucid support; opposed by Judas Maccabee and the hasideans Alcimus fought vs. Jason, Judas’ brother, and slaughtered 60 hasideans (1 Macc 7: 16) More Jews sided with Judas and his brothers 161 BCE, Judas acclaimed formally as leader of the Jews by the Seleucid king 159 BCE, Alcimus dies; High Priesthood is vacant for seven years

An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 162 -150 BCE, further internal strife An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 162 -150 BCE, further internal strife Seleucid strife Demetrius I vs. Alexander Balas for Seleucid throne Alexander Balas released Jewish prisoners captured in war Recognizes Jonathan as High Priest Sends Jonathan a purple robe and a crown Jonathan sides with Alexander Balas and helps him defeat Demetrius I

An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 143 -134, Simon Maccabee succeeds Jonathan An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 143 -134, Simon Maccabee succeeds Jonathan as HP and is acclaimed “Prince of the Jews” by foreign leaders 141, peace finally comes to Judea Simon Maccabee acclaimed as “High Priest, general, and ethnarch” by priests, officials, and people in Judea, until a trustworthy prophet should arise (1 Macc 14: 41) What does this qualification mean? 134 -104, John Hyrcanus succeeds his father Simon as ruler and High Priest; 1 Maccabees most likely composed during his long and peaceful reign First mention of named Jewish sects occurs in account of events during John Hyrcanus’ reign: Pharisees and Sadducees compete for influence

An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 104 BCE, Aristobulus succeeds father John An Independent Judean State, c. 161 -63 BCE 104 BCE, Aristobulus succeeds father John Hyrcanus for one year; Josephus says he was the first Jewish ruler to wear the crown since the Babylonian exile 103 -76 BCE, Alexander Jannaeus, brother of Antigonus, rules for 27 bloody years 96 -70, Pharisees openly rebel vs. AJ 76 -67, Alexandra, AJ’s widow, rules; she sides with the Pharisees at the urging of her dying husband 67 -63, Aristobulus II, last Hasmonean king

Judea as a Roman Client Kingdom, 63 -4 BCE 63 BCE, Roman general Pompey Judea as a Roman Client Kingdom, 63 -4 BCE 63 BCE, Roman general Pompey called to arbitrate between warring factions following the death of Aristobulus II Pompey appoints Hyrcanus II High Priest (63 -40 BCE); leaves kingship open 40 -37 BCE, Herod convinces Roman Senate to appoint him king of Judea 37 -4 BCE, Judea becomes safe; Herod enters and takes throne; begins massive building projects under patronage of Rome

A New Temple under Herod the Great A New Temple under Herod the Great

Judea as a Roman Client Kingdom, 63 -4 BCE 63 BCE, Roman general Pompey Judea as a Roman Client Kingdom, 63 -4 BCE 63 BCE, Roman general Pompey called to arbitrate between warring factions following the death of Aristobulus II Pompey appoints Hyrcanus II High Priest (63 -40 BCE); leaves kingship open 40 -37 BCE, Herod convinces Roman Senate to appoint him king of Judea 37 -4 BCE, Judea becomes safe; Herod enters and takes throne; begins massive building projects under patronage of Rome Great period of prosperity and peace for Judea; ends with Herod’s death in 4 BCE

Back to the 160 s-150 s Maccabees restore: land temple laws population unity kingship Back to the 160 s-150 s Maccabees restore: land temple laws population unity kingship Hasmoneans place great emphasis on the temple, cultic laws, political independence, and piety.

Hasmonean piety 2 Macc 4: 13 There was such an extreme of Hellenization and Hasmonean piety 2 Macc 4: 13 There was such an extreme of Hellenization and … because of the surpassing wickedness of Jason, who was ungodly and no true high priest, 14 that the priests were no longer intent upon their service at the altar. Despising the sanctuary and neglecting the sacrifices, they hurried to take part in the … the wrestling arena after the signal for the discus-throwing, 15 disdaining the honors prized by their ancestors and putting the highest value upon Greek forms of prestige. 16 For this reason heavy disaster overtook them, and those ways of living they admired and wished to imitate completely became their enemies and punished them. 17 It is no light thing to show irreverence to the divine laws-- a fact that later events will make clear.

Hasmonean piety 2 Macc 4: 17 Antiochus was elated in spirit, and did not Hasmonean piety 2 Macc 4: 17 Antiochus was elated in spirit, and did not perceive that the Lord was angered for a little while because of the sins of those who lived in the city, and that this was the reason he was disregarding the holy place. 18 But if it had not happened that they were involved in many sins, this man would have been flogged and turned back from his rash act as soon as he came forward, just as Heliodorus had been, whom King Seleucus sent to inspect the treasury. 19 But the Lord did not choose the nation for the sake of the holy place, but the place for the sake of the nation.

Hasmonean piety 2 Maccabees urges the reader to view the disaster of 167 as Hasmonean piety 2 Maccabees urges the reader to view the disaster of 167 as proof of God’s mercy: 6: 12 Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people. 13 In fact, it is a sign of great kindness not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately. 14 For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us, 15 in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height. 16 Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Although he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.

Hasmonean piety 2 Maccabees urges the reader to view the disaster of 167 as Hasmonean piety 2 Maccabees urges the reader to view the disaster of 167 as proof of God’s mercy: Thus in Hasmonean ideology, Antiochus IV Epiphanes’ desecration of the temple was yet another example of YHWH’s punishment and purification of Israel, through a foreign power; Hasmonean success was proof of YHWH’s merciful redemption and restoration after chastisement.

Persons of the Roman Empire Pompey the Great (63 BC enters Temple) Julius Caesar Persons of the Roman Empire Pompey the Great (63 BC enters Temple) Julius Caesar (44 BC assassinated) Julio-Claudian Emperors Octavian (Augustus Caesar, after 31 BC Actium and 27 BC Senate decree – AD 14) ▪ Herod the Great (until 4 BC) ▪ Quirinius (governor of Syria) Tiberius (AD 14 -37) ▪ Pontius Pilate: magistrate in Judaea Caligula (AD 37 -41) Claudius (AD 41 -54) Nero (AD 54 -68)

Persons of the Roman Empire Flavian Emperors Vespasian Titus Domitian (AD 81 -96) Nervan-Antonine Persons of the Roman Empire Flavian Emperors Vespasian Titus Domitian (AD 81 -96) Nervan-Antonine Emperors Trajan (AD 98 -117) Hadrian (AD 117 -138)

Social Settings of 1 c Palestine Countryside -Not generally inhabited; used for cultivation, grazing, Social Settings of 1 c Palestine Countryside -Not generally inhabited; used for cultivation, grazing, or infertile. Villages -Main population base; found every few kilometers. Cities -Very few – Jerusalem, Caesarea, Tiberias, etc. – and essentially elite or Roman, along with working class and slaves to supply the city’s services.

Social Stratification (by control of the food supply) -Land-owners (patrons), usually live in the Social Stratification (by control of the food supply) -Land-owners (patrons), usually live in the city -Managers (brokers) -Land-workers (‘farmers’, ‘peasants’) -Day labourers / Artisans (craftsmen) -Beggars (infirm), Widows, Orphans: all of these lack any social support (i. e. , “poor”)

Jewish Ideological Groupings: Essenes Zealots Pharisees Sadducees Jewish Ideological Groupings: Essenes Zealots Pharisees Sadducees

OT: Library of books sacred to Judaism in the period of Roman occupation. Hundred OT: Library of books sacred to Judaism in the period of Roman occupation. Hundred or thousands of years before the Romans, reflecting broad ranges of the Ancient Near Eastern World. Almost entirely written in Hebrew Testament=covenant. “OT’ = the record of the covenant of God with His people. Old covenant or testament: the texts that document how Jews were guardians of God’s world until the Messiah. NT: Library of earliest texts/books of Christianity. From a very narrow period of time and culture, the Roman provinces of the Levant during the middle and final years of the Roman Empire’s Julio-Claudian dynasty (and possibly from the earliest years of the Flavian dynasty). Almost entirely in Greek In both cases, texts were read aloud to people (most people could not read. ) New Testament is not a category but rather a testament to a new relationship of God with all people.

Textual criticism is the discipline that attempts to ascertain: What was in the original Textual criticism is the discipline that attempts to ascertain: What was in the original text? What changes have been made to the original text and why? Ex: Mark 1: 1 “The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. ” Translation of Greek found in late but very good MSS “The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ. ” Translation of the Greek found in the earliest MSS

Social (Generalized human behavior) vs. Cultural (local social practices) -Culture is all about the Social (Generalized human behavior) vs. Cultural (local social practices) -Culture is all about the distinctive, shared meanings and feelings characteristic of a given group at a certain time and place -Meaningful human behavior shares cultural patterns and is performed in ways that are culturally meaningful -Texts (words) reflect these patterns -Language is about more than just extracting literal meaning. -Cultural norms that make up a culture=cultural cues for knowing how to behave in a particular culture

Honor (Shame) vs. Dishonor (Shamelessness) Honor = a claim to worth that is socially Honor (Shame) vs. Dishonor (Shamelessness) Honor = a claim to worth that is socially acknowledged for males. Can be ascribed or acquired Shame = a claim to worth for females Example Mark 15: 27 -32

25 It was nine o’clock in the morning when they crucified him. 26 The 25 It was nine o’clock in the morning when they crucified him. 26 The inscription of the charge against him read, “The King of the Jews. ” 27 And with him they crucified two bandits, one on his right and one on his left. 29 Those who passed by derided him, shaking their heads and saying, “Aha! You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days, 30 save yourself, and come down from the cross!” 31 In the same way the chief priests, along with the scribes, were also mocking him among themselves and saying, “He saved others; he cannot save himself. 32 Let the Messiah, the King of Israel, come down from the cross now, so that we may see and believe. ” Those who were crucified with him also taunted him. Mark 15: 27 -32

Limited good vs. abundance -Everything is in limited supply. Envy -The situation that arises Limited good vs. abundance -Everything is in limited supply. Envy -The situation that arises when equals or superiors are losing limited good, as a means of survival -When honour that you seek to acquire is beyond you. To gain back by force what is lost or unable to be gained

Evidence of envy -Ostracism, Gossip, Homicide, & Evil eye -Mark 12: 13 -17, 14: Evidence of envy -Ostracism, Gossip, Homicide, & Evil eye -Mark 12: 13 -17, 14: 1, 15: 10 Kinship: -Relationships derived from birth and marriage (a network of culturally defined family relationships) -Marriage (exogamous/endogamous) -Patrilocal

Corporate Personality (dyadic) vs. Individual Personality If Jesus didn’t go to Rabbinic school where Corporate Personality (dyadic) vs. Individual Personality If Jesus didn’t go to Rabbinic school where did he get his knowledge? Very suspect of someone who individually trained.

And a large crowd followed him and pressed in on him. 25 Now there And a large crowd followed him and pressed in on him. 25 Now there was a woman who had been suffering from hemorrhages for twelve years. 26 She had endured much under many physicians, and had spent all that she had; and she was no better, but rather grew worse. 27 She had heard about Jesus, and came up behind him in the crowd and touched his cloak, 28 for she said, “If I but touch his clothes, I will be made well. ” 29 Immediately her hemorrhage stopped; and she felt in her body that she was healed of her disease. 30 Immediately aware that power had gone forth from him, Jesus turned about in the crowd and said, “Who touched my clothes? ” 31 And his disciples said to him, “You see the crowd pressing in on you; how can you say, ‘Who touched me? ’” 32 He looked all around to see who had done it. 33 But the woman, knowing what had happened to her, came in fear and trembling, fell down before him, and told him the whole truth. 34 He said to her, “Daughter, your faith has made you well; go in peace, and be healed of your disease. ” Mark 5: 21

Traditionally, Matthew was believed to be the first Gospel written. However, later biblical scholarship Traditionally, Matthew was believed to be the first Gospel written. However, later biblical scholarship led most to believe that Mark was written first. Matthew and Luke “improve” difficult passages in Mark.

Traditionally, Matthew was believed to be the first Gospel written. However, later biblical scholarship Traditionally, Matthew was believed to be the first Gospel written. However, later biblical scholarship led most to believe that Mark was written first. Matthew and Luke “improve” difficult passages in Mark.

 Gospel: “Good News” The very life of Jesus Christ is the Good News Gospel: “Good News” The very life of Jesus Christ is the Good News of God’s love and Salvation for all. Preaching about Jesus Four written versions of the Good News; each evangelist proclaims in their own unique way the “Good News”