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Re-imagining co-operative agency and community learning for an inclusive economy – Ilima Community Economies Re-imagining co-operative agency and community learning for an inclusive economy – Ilima Community Economies and a Design Logic Presentation to CEPD-Wits-Umalusi Seminar on Rethinking ABET and Community Education 17 th April 2013

Outline of presentation 1) Premises and Conceptual Framework for Ilima Community Economies 2) Agri. Outline of presentation 1) Premises and Conceptual Framework for Ilima Community Economies 2) Agri. Parks as example of value-chain centred construct of cooperative, agri-driven community economy 3) Some Developments ___________ § School Nutrition Programme as example of Market § Examples of imagination at various scales and levels of community – small medium large

Premises Premise 1 = a conception of society, economy and q Framing purposes systems Premises Premise 1 = a conception of society, economy and q Framing purposes systems development and learning happens within institutional for community appreciation of ideology informing design logic of life-world systems. Any avoidance of explicit stand implies affirming the default mainstream logic. 1. Status Quo q. Society, community and economy (as market economy) are defined, stand work apart in an unbalanced relationship – the economy, more specifically those who own it, all powerful q. Institutions are imbedded in, and serve an economy disconnected from, and predatory on the human and natural universe it purportedly exists to sustain q. Ideology, the knowledge it feeds and the institutions that generate, proliferate and regenerate it sustain this construct of relationship; false equilibria and a justifying politics are constructed and maintained => learning institutions are complicit and promote market-savant theorisation on the ideal of, and mission for public good Society, communities, human and ecological survival Market Economy Institutions

2. Ideal and Assumptions q. Society, community and economy are re-defined and reconstructed to 2. Ideal and Assumptions q. Society, community and economy are re-defined and reconstructed to work in mutually benefiting and cross-generative logic q. Institutions are more firmly embedded in, and serve a societal purpose conscious of appropriate balances in human and ecological flourishing and sustenance => ideology, knowledge and politics, as well as the organisation and functioning of the market, pursue a similar interest q. Curricula reformulated to address inter-institutional learning and growth, and agency is reoriented towards balanced development for a greater public good Community, societal and economic flourish and wellbeing institutions

Premise 2 – Co-operative agency for socio-economic development and Ilima conceptual framework q Rests Premise 2 – Co-operative agency for socio-economic development and Ilima conceptual framework q Rests on an awareness of shared agency for development, appropriating socio-cultural practice of ilima/letsema to modern political economy q Careful co-crafting of common purpose, activity and responsibilities Community assets, organisation and industry Ilima Community Economies 1. Supply-side enablers = Government development policy and resources – material and non-material 2. Demand-side = enabling public and private sector markets – local, etc. Ilima Technical Support Unit(s) = developmental agency working at multilevels, agitating for inclusion and formal devices to aid such, providing technical support to build community capabilities and advocating for more efficient application and utilisation of state and other development-support resources

Premise 3 – Capabilities and implications for curriculum design and pedagogy q Sensitivity to Premise 3 – Capabilities and implications for curriculum design and pedagogy q Sensitivity to learners as individuals and as members of communities, organisations and local enterprises q Multi-level needs, e. g. § Relevant praxis-based applied literacy as basic level learning programme to build/strengthen capabilities for mobilisation, organisation and systematic action for democratic and productive citizenship § Intermediate and advanced level programme for abakhwezeli/ Community Action Support Teams (CASTs) – consisting of local level agents of public sector institutions, development support agencies and representatives from co -operative and other civil society organisations • designed to foster integrated technical support for community action • Intended to build generic set of skills as well as develop applied-extensions of specialisations

 • of curriculum political economy: Abakhwezeli/ the market re-imagined An example Basic understanding • of curriculum political economy: Abakhwezeli/ the market re-imagined An example Basic understanding ofconstruct for the given vs alternatives; Community Action • Theoretical premises Support Teams (CASTs) on economic justice - postulations, arguments and analyses • Introduction to economy of cooperation, inclusive of Ilima-based socio-economic cooperation and solidarity economy • Introduction to, critical reflection on, and contextualisation of international Cooperative Principles (ICA and South Africa's Cooperatives Act no. 14 of 2005) Consciousness, Knowledge & Skills Developmental Praxis • Introduction to Critical Pedagogy • Introduction to Socio-Entrepreneurial Leadership Conscious and Competent Cooperatives Mkhwezeli / Development • Sensibilities for a Transformative Agency Facilitator • A Guide to facilitating the establishment and development of quality co-operative organisation • Creating and supporting quality cooperative networks and capable movement through critical actionlearning • Systematic , regenerative knowledge development through collaborative critical experiential reflection systematisation Organisation Development and Operations Management § Governance, member relations and people management § Financial management § Marketing management § Information management Sectors Agriculture Tourism Manufacturing and Industrial production Service industries

NURSERY - Co-operatively owned, supplying planting material to local producers Public Sector Markets FEEDER NURSERY - Co-operatively owned, supplying planting material to local producers Public Sector Markets FEEDER PLOT(s) co-owned by community Food Warehousing & Distribution Depots members in collective/ cooperative structure, supplying agro-processing and packing facilities - Schools (SNP) - Hospitals & Clinics - Other public establishments AGRO-PROCESSING FACILITIES co-owned with/by Independent local producers supplying agro-processors communities Private Sector Markets domestic and international rvices l and Financia nomic se other eco R&D, capacity-building and other development support by university, departments and other institutions Over time a range of economic activities and developments will occur, towards expanded and holistic enhancement of local livelihoods, led in the longer term by organised, capacitated, self-representing and flourishing communities

OPERATIONAL DRIVERS FOR ILIMA COMMUNITY ECONOMIES & AGRIPARKS Informed by experimental design started at OPERATIONAL DRIVERS FOR ILIMA COMMUNITY ECONOMIES & AGRIPARKS Informed by experimental design started at UFH – R&D and Innovation Organisation Production & Related - Endeavour to optimise local value-addition Markets - Local enterprise - Strategic - Enterprise <--> - Seamless operations & penetration of Community relations public and private arrangements across value and structure sector markets chain - Management systems - Committed energy - Human capacity - Skills development strategy & processes - Quality systems - Institutional Systematic development, cross-pollination, coordination of key elements across drivers and advocacy support - Appropriate Technology - Competitive Products - Conservative natural resource utilisation - Systems

3. Some developments q Memorandum of Agreement signed in 2010 between Department of Rural 3. Some developments q Memorandum of Agreement signed in 2010 between Department of Rural Development & Land Reform (DRDLR); Eastern Cape Rural Development & Agrarian Reform, Economic Development, Education, Roads & Public Works, Office of the Premier; University of Fort Hare, Agricultural Research Council, Is’baya, Eastern Cape Socio-Economic Consultative Council, Post Office q Extending collaboration with Department of Science & Technology, Rhodes EBRU around renewable energy pilot + NMMU + CSIR q DRDLR funded upgraded capacity of Alice R&D and Dutywa Agri. Parks (incomplete), to target starting school districts for School Nutrition Programme market; DRDLR intending to support development of Agri. Parks in other areas and provinces q Collaborating with Ntaba-ka-Ndoda community; + supporting Chris Hani District Municipality’s planning within revitalisation of irrigation schemes – collaborative of government at three spheres and other partners q Key objectives over first few years of programme = (1) development of physical infrastructure and R&D on appropriate technology; (2) systems development; (3) products R&D and establishment of markets; (4) organisational and capacity development for community producers and entrepreneurs; (5) consolidation of institutional support infrastructure – CASTs (conscientious, technically competent inter-institutional Community Action Support Teams)

Option 1 on relations & entitlements : Independent Cooperatives within Ilima Agri. Park value-chain Option 1 on relations & entitlements : Independent Cooperatives within Ilima Agri. Park value-chain 1 st inner level: Co-ops 2 nd level: Co-ops -No independent markets/ contracts -No independent asset ownership, but option to buy agro-processing facility over time -Wages set at W x 2 nd level wage, where W is factor to compensate for agro-processors’ inability to interact with market + incentive for productivity -1: 1 (own: Agri. Park) contribution to Cooperative Provident Fund (in wage structure; arbitrary)Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund Agri. Park Collective Ltd (Secondary Cooperative) ÜCapital operations design, development and maintenance support -Can sell to/ contract with customers in addition to Agri. Park -May independently own productive infrastructure (land, equipment, etc); Ilima may assist to procure assets -Basic wage guarantee, determined against income from own sales; supported by Agri. Park budget -2: 1 (own: Agri. Park) contribution to Cooperative Provident Fund -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund Vegetable Processing & Packaging Cooperatives -Democratic organization and self-leadership within Agri. Park Collective Ltd. ÜQuality assurance -100% Agri. Park contribution to Provident Fund for Co-op foundermembers ÜCommunications support & management ÜFinance & contracts management, to include management of investment portfolios – (i) Agri. Park Investment Fund – open, and (ii) Cooperative -Can contract with customers outside of Agri. Park -Independent ownership of productive assets (assistance from Ilima institutions to procure) -Earnings from Agri. Park strictly per service contract -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund Compost/grow medium Co-op -Sells to public and Agri. Park Nursery and Vegetable Production Co-ops ÜProduction and business operations planning and management ÜMarketing 3 rd level: Co-ops and others Nursery Cooperatives -Sells to public and Agri. Park vegetable production co-ops -100% Agri. Park contribution to Provident Fund for Khanya Nursery Co-op founder-members Independent vegetable farmers/producers -Sells to public and Agri. Park Collective Ltd for processing Vegetable Production Cooperatives -Sells to public and Agri. Park Collective Ltd for processing -100% Agri. Park contribution to Provident Fund for Co-op founder-members Food Transportation Co-ops -Can contract with both Agri. Park and independent producers (raw produce transportation), as well as Agri. Park and others for processed products’ transportation Depot/ Food Warehousing Co-ops -Can serve both Agri. Park business and other customers 11

Option 2 on relations & entitlements : Primary Cooperatives equal within Ilima Agri. Park Option 2 on relations & entitlements : Primary Cooperatives equal within Ilima Agri. Park value-chain 1 st inner level: Co-ops (all elements of value-chain) 2 nd level: Co-ops -Democratic organization and some selfleadership within Agri. Park Collective Ltd. -No independent markets/ contracts -No independent asset ownership, but option to buy agro-procesing facility over time -Wages equitable across all core cooperatives; differentiation only on agreed factors -1: 1 (own: Agri. Park) contribution to Cooperative Provident Fund (in wage structure; arbitrary) -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund -Can sell to/ contract with customers in addition to Agri. Park -Independently own productive infrastructure (land, equipment, etc); Ilima may assist to procure assets -Earnings from Agri. Park strictly per service contract -2: 1 (own: Agri. Park) contribution to Cooperative Provident Fund -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund -Ilima Agri. Park assists with development support Outer level beyond core partners: Co-ops and others -Can contract with customers outside of Agri. Park -Independent ownership of productive assets (assistance from Ilima institutions to procure) -Earnings from Agri. Park strictly per service contract -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund Agri. Park Collective Ltd (Secondary Cooperative) ÜCapital operations design, development and maintenance support ÜProduction and business operations planning and management ÜQuality assurance ÜMarketing ÜCommunications support & management ÜFinance & contracts management, to include management of investment portfolios – (i) Agri. Park Investment Fund – open, and (ii) Cooperative Provident Scheme – restricted to members of cooperatives ÜTraining and capacity-building 12

Option 3 on relations & entitlements : Value-chain units within Ilima Agri. Park Cooperative Option 3 on relations & entitlements : Value-chain units within Ilima Agri. Park Cooperative 1 st inner level: Units (all elements of value-chain) -Democratic organization and some self-leadership within Agri. Park Collective Ltd. -No independent markets/ contracts -No independent asset ownership, but option to buy agro-procesing facility over time -Wages equitable across all core cooperatives; differentiation only on agreed factors -1: 1 (own: Agri. Park) contribution to Cooperative Provident Fund (in wage structure; arbitrary) -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund 2 nd level: Co-ops -Can sell to/ contract with customers in addition to Agri. Park -Independently own productive infrastructure (land, equipment, etc); Ilima may assist to procure assets -Earnings from Agri. Park strictly per service contract -2: 1 (own: Agri. Park) contribution to Cooperative Provident Fund -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund -Ilima Agri. Park assists with development support 3 rd level: Co-ops and others -Can contract with customers outside of Agri. Park -Independent ownership of productive assets (assistance from Ilima institutions to procure) -Earnings from Agri. Park strictly per service contract -Personal choice of shares in Agri. Park Investment Fund Agri. Park Collective Ltd (Secondary Cooperative) ÜCapital operations design, development and maintenance support ÜProduction and business operations planning and management ÜQuality assurance ÜMarketing ÜCommunications support & management ÜFinance & contracts management, to include management of investment portfolios – (i) Agri. Park Investment Fund – open, and (ii) Cooperative Provident Scheme – restricted to members of cooperatives ÜTraining and capacity-building

4. School nutrition programme as market § Inclusion of Ilima Agri. Parks Programme in 4. School nutrition programme as market § Inclusion of Ilima Agri. Parks Programme in EC Department of Education’s Turnaround Plan => to promote quality nutrition (commitment to quality nutrition at affordable prices), minimise burden on educators, and promote local economic development § § R&D work underway to add spinach to vegetables-soya mix product Also working to expand product range, including collaboration with e. Thekwini Agri. Park project on high-protein edamame snack

UTILITARIAN JUSTIFICATION FOR ilima procurement substitution UTILITARIAN JUSTIFICATION FOR ilima procurement substitution

5. Examples of Imaginations across scale: q Small to medium-scale examples: 1) Alice R&D 5. Examples of Imaginations across scale: q Small to medium-scale examples: 1) Alice R&D Agri. Park extending beyond core of starting cooperatives to Ø collaborating with Qoboqobo communities – 13 villages, supported by Ntaba-ka. Ndoda community organisation and Fort Cox agric. college Ø Approach from established commercial fruit farmer to buy processing service at Alice Agri. Park (turn myth of “commercial farmers-best-placed-to-always-lead” on its head) 2) Dutywa Agri. Park to collaborate with farmers in Dutywa and Gcuwa region once fully up and running 3) 4) Supporting the establishment of Agri. Park Research Hub at NMMU Cross-provincial collaboration with e. Thekwini – sharing product development, systems-development and related (e. Thekwini group has led development of proteinrich edamame products) q Large-scale imagination (still built around aggregation of small producers and areas) = Ø Supporting Chris Hani District Municipality’s planning for revitalisation of irrigation schemes established during bantustan era – collaborative of government at three spheres and other partners Ø Proposal on developing Agro-Industrial Zone over time

Aerial view of Proposed Design for Ncorha Ilima Agri. Park Precinct The core elements Aerial view of Proposed Design for Ncorha Ilima Agri. Park Precinct The core elements are as marked below, and the development will build incrementally over time as follows – 1)First, will be built the nursery and agro-processing facility along improved designs of the facility tested at the Fort Hare R&D Agri. Park, but inclusive of grain milling plant. The construction should happen over 2013 – 2014, so that processing operations can begin from 2014. 2)While solar power will be incorporated in the construction of the agro-processing facilities, it will be strategic to introduce the piggery soon , and with it the development of the first element of the bio-energy facility – the Rhodes-developed IAPS (integrated algae pond system). 3)Refurbishment of the admin block and building of the training facility should happen soon after, as will be the business hub which can be added in the medium term, plus the beginnings of the residential element. It is assumed that development of enabling infrastructure such as connecting tarred road will happen along Agri. Park constructions