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Racing Engine Technology & Ethanol as a Performance Racing Fuel Robert L. Colesworthy 12/3/07 Racing Engine Technology & Ethanol as a Performance Racing Fuel Robert L. Colesworthy 12/3/07 3/19/2018 Advanced Engineering & Technology Conference, 2007 1

Racing Engine Technology 3/19/2018 Speaker, Robert L. Colesworthy Does rod length really affect engine Racing Engine Technology 3/19/2018 Speaker, Robert L. Colesworthy Does rod length really affect engine torque? Are aluminum blocks better than cast iron? Are aluminum heads better than cast iron? Are gear camshaft drives better than chain or belt drives? Is fuel injection better than carburetion? What makes horsepower? Where to spend your money 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 2

Does rod length really affect engine torque? 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Does rod length really affect engine torque? 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 3

Are aluminum blocks better than cast iron? Positives: Weight Repairablity Heat dissipation Dart “Big Are aluminum blocks better than cast iron? Positives: Weight Repairablity Heat dissipation Dart “Big M” ferrous block Negatives: Expansion rate differentials Lower strength Cylinder sleeves 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 4

Are aluminum heads better than cast iron? Positives: Weight Ease of porting Repairablity Reher-Morrison Are aluminum heads better than cast iron? Positives: Weight Ease of porting Repairablity Reher-Morrison “Raptor” BBC Head Negatives: Expansion rate differentials Lower strength Heat dissipation 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 5

Are gear camshaft drives better than chain or belt drives? Positives: Durability Negatives: Power Are gear camshaft drives better than chain or belt drives? Positives: Durability Negatives: Power loss Noise Time consuming to change timing 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 6

Is fuel injection better than carburetion? Fuel Injection Advantages: Fuel Mileage Lower Emissions Cold Is fuel injection better than carburetion? Fuel Injection Advantages: Fuel Mileage Lower Emissions Cold Startup/Driveablity Carburetor Advantages: More Horsepower (nat. asp. ) Lower Cost Easier to Adjust & Service 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 7

What Makes Horsepower? Formula: HP=Torque x RPM’s/5252 Increasing Torque: Increase Engine Displacement Increase Cylinder What Makes Horsepower? Formula: HP=Torque x RPM’s/5252 Increasing Torque: Increase Engine Displacement Increase Cylinder Pressures Reduce Parasitic Losses Increasing RPM’s: Speed Costs Money! $$$ Component Selection/Matching 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 8

Where to Spend Your Money Buy: Quality matched components Great cylinder heads Titanium valves Where to Spend Your Money Buy: Quality matched components Great cylinder heads Titanium valves Stiff valve springs Avoid: Titanium Rods Extrusion Hone or “Home Porting” of heads & manifolds “Bigger is Better” syndrome 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 9

Cool New Stuff! “Beehive” Valve Springs Oval Port`“Raptor” Heads 3/19/2018 Heart-Shaped Combustion Chamber Advanced Cool New Stuff! “Beehive” Valve Springs Oval Port`“Raptor” Heads 3/19/2018 Heart-Shaped Combustion Chamber Advanced Engineering & Technology 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 10

Ethanol as a Racing Fuel 3/19/2018 Winning on Ethanol - Why it works and Ethanol as a Racing Fuel 3/19/2018 Winning on Ethanol - Why it works and what is driving racing to go to it Different blends, availability, and how E 85 will fit the future Application specifics, a review of compatibility of parts, corrosion, etc. How to optimize for effective use of ethanol as a performance fuel 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 11

Winning on Ethanol - What is Driving Racing to Go to It? 3/19/2018 Environmentally-friendly Winning on Ethanol - What is Driving Racing to Go to It? 3/19/2018 Environmentally-friendly fuel Favorable political climate Safety Low cost and increasing availability Power-making potential 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 12

3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 13 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 13

“Ethanol Blends Significantly Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions” Argonne National Labs. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 “Ethanol Blends Significantly Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions” Argonne National Labs. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 14

Michael Wang – Argonne National Laboratory, Aug. 2005 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering Michael Wang – Argonne National Laboratory, Aug. 2005 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 15

Power Making Fuel Characteristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 3/19/2018 Octane Rating Burning Rate Latent Power Making Fuel Characteristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 3/19/2018 Octane Rating Burning Rate Latent Heat of Vaporization Energy Value 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 16

1. Octane Measures fuel’s resistance to preignition and detonation, commonly called “knocking” Three common 1. Octane Measures fuel’s resistance to preignition and detonation, commonly called “knocking” Three common octane ratings for motor fuels: Research Octane Number (RON) Motor Octane Number (MON) (R+M/2) method 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 17

1. Octane 3/19/2018 MON rating is most useful to racers because it is measured 1. Octane 3/19/2018 MON rating is most useful to racers because it is measured under high loads and at high RPM’s High MON rated fuels allow the use of higher compression and advanced spark timing 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 18

1. Octane 3/19/2018 E 85 delivers MON octane ratings equal to, or better than, 1. Octane 3/19/2018 E 85 delivers MON octane ratings equal to, or better than, most gasolines 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 19

2. Burning Rate 3/19/2018 The speed at which fuel burns and releases its heat 2. Burning Rate 3/19/2018 The speed at which fuel burns and releases its heat energy There is less time for fuel to burn at high RPM’s, so rapid burning fuel is a must in racing 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 20

2. Burning Rate 3/19/2018 Peak horsepower and engine efficiency are realized if fuel is 2. Burning Rate 3/19/2018 Peak horsepower and engine efficiency are realized if fuel is almost completely burned by 20 degrees after Top Dead Center (TDC) 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 21

3. Latent Heat of Vaporization 3/19/2018 Measures a fuel’s ability to cool the intake 3. Latent Heat of Vaporization 3/19/2018 Measures a fuel’s ability to cool the intake charge and combustion chamber Measured in BTU’s per gallon Higher rated fuels remove heat better 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 22

3. Latent Heat of Vaporization E 85 promotes better cooling: Making the intake charge 3. Latent Heat of Vaporization E 85 promotes better cooling: Making the intake charge more dense, thereby packing more energy (per volume) into the engine Helping to control detonation Reducing temperatures in the engine and oiling system components 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 23

4. Energy Value 3/19/2018 The total heat energy contained in a given amount of 4. Energy Value 3/19/2018 The total heat energy contained in a given amount of fuel – BTUs/lb. Horsepower generation depends on “Net Energy Value” - Equal to the energy value multiplied by the amount of fuel that can be burned 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 24

4. Energy Value 3/19/2018 A fuel’s “stoichiometric” defines its ideal air/fuel ratio Lower stoichiometric 4. Energy Value 3/19/2018 A fuel’s “stoichiometric” defines its ideal air/fuel ratio Lower stoichiometric fuels allow more fuel to be burned which, in turn, increases the Net Energy Value of the fuel 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 25

4. Energy Value 3/19/2018 The lower stoichiometric of E 85 provides the fuel with 4. Energy Value 3/19/2018 The lower stoichiometric of E 85 provides the fuel with a higher Net Energy Value than most gasolines 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 26

Fuel Comparison Chart Fuel Octane (MON) Burning Rate (ms@stoic. ) Pure Ethanol 102 . Fuel Comparison Chart Fuel Octane (MON) Burning Rate ([email protected] ) Pure Ethanol 102 . 39 396 12, 800 6. 5/1 3. 00 Pure Methanol 103 . 43 503 9, 750 5/1 3. 08 Pump Gasoline 80 -90 . 34 150 (avg. ) 18, 70019, 100 12. 5/1 2. 92 Racing Gasoline 99 N/A 160 (est. ) 18, 500 (est. ) 12. 5/1 2. 90 E 30 87 -94 . 36 337 17, 178 10. 7/1 2. 94 E 85 99 -100 . 38 359 14, 021 7. 4/1 2. 99 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Latent Heat Energy Value Net Energy Value Power Stoic. (BTU/gal) BTU/lbs (MJ/kg) Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 27

Fuel Rankings Fuel Burning Rate (ms@stoic. ) Pure Ethanol 2 5 2 2 Pure Fuel Rankings Fuel Burning Rate ([email protected] ) Pure Ethanol 2 5 2 2 Pure Methanol 1 6 1 1 Pump Gasoline 6 2 6 5 Racing Gasoline 4 1 5 6 E 30 5 3 4 4 E 85 3/19/2018 Octane (MON) 3 4 3 3 800 -597 -9747 Latent Heat Net Energy Value (BTU/gal) (MJ/kg) Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 28

Dave Slatten – 540 CID Drag Race Engine Dyno Results 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Dave Slatten – 540 CID Drag Race Engine Dyno Results 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 29

Dave Slatten – 540 CID Drag Race Engine Dyno Results 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Dave Slatten – 540 CID Drag Race Engine Dyno Results 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 30

Different Blends, Availability, and How E 85 will Fit the Future 3/19/2018 E 10 Different Blends, Availability, and How E 85 will Fit the Future 3/19/2018 E 10 E 85 E 100 (E-98) 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 31

Application Specifics, a Review of Compatibility of Parts, Corrosion, etc. E 10: 1. Passenger Application Specifics, a Review of Compatibility of Parts, Corrosion, etc. E 10: 1. Passenger car-compliant for decades. A simple replacement fuel 2. Reduced emissions/oxygenate 3. MTBE replacement 4. Promotes clean fuel injectors 5. Octane booster 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 32

 E 85: 1. Requires vehicle modifications 2. “Flex Fuel” vehicle (FFV) – identified E 85: 1. Requires vehicle modifications 2. “Flex Fuel” vehicle (FFV) – identified by a gas cap insignia 3. Ethanol-compatible fuel tank, pump, lines, etc. 4. Modified air/fuel ratio: enriched air/fuel ratio (approx. 25 -28%) or specialized sensors and computer programming 5. Additional changes and race car handling considerations 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 33

 E 100 (E 98): 1. Contains 98% ethanol and 2% denaturing chemical 2. E 100 (E 98): 1. Contains 98% ethanol and 2% denaturing chemical 2. Race-only fuel (IRL series) 3. Extremely hygroscopic 4. May require “top oil” and post-race “pickling” procedures. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 34

How to Optimize for Effective Use of Ethanol as a Performance Fuel 3/19/2018 Know How to Optimize for Effective Use of Ethanol as a Performance Fuel 3/19/2018 Know Your Fuel – Determine Actual Ethanol Content Fuel System Modifications Engine Modifications Handling and Storage Racing E 85 Fuel 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 35

 Know Your Fuel – Determine Actual Ethanol Content The actual ethanol content of Know Your Fuel – Determine Actual Ethanol Content The actual ethanol content of E 85 varies widely by the time of year and pump-to-pump. For our easy Four. Step Titration Method, you will need: 1. 100 ml. graduated cylinder & stopper 2. Sample of test E 85 fuel 3. Distilled water 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 36

Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 1: Fill the cylinder to the Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 1: Fill the cylinder to the 50 ml. mark with the test fuel. 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com

Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 2: Add 48 ml. of distilled Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 2: Add 48 ml. of distilled water. 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com

Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 3: Put stopper in top of Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 3: Put stopper in top of cylinder. Shake vigorously to mix the water and fuel. Allow it to stand. 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com

Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 4: Pull stopper out slightly to Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 4: Pull stopper out slightly to allow pressure buildup to escape. Reseal and allow to stand for 15 min. 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com

Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 5: Write down the overall Volume Six-Step Water Titration Method, for E 85 Step 5: Write down the overall Volume A and the separation line Volume B. 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com

 Step 6: Apply this formula to determine gasoline content: Percent Gasoline = 2. Step 6: Apply this formula to determine gasoline content: Percent Gasoline = 2. 1 + 1. 94 (Volume A – Volume B) 2. 1 + 1. 94 (93 -86) 2. 1 + 1. 94 (7) 2. 1 + 13. 58 Percent Gasoline = 15. 68% To find the ethanol content, subtract the percentage gasoline content (15. 68) from 100: 100 – 15. 68 = 84. 32% or approx. E 85 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com

Four-Step Water Titration Method Step 4: Read the level of the ethanol/water at the Four-Step Water Titration Method Step 4: Read the level of the ethanol/water at the bottom. Subtract 10 ml. (the amount of added water). This is your true ethanol percentage. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 The ethanol/water level reads 88 ml. Subtract 10 ml. for the true ethanol content of 78%, or E 78. 43

Four-Step Water Titration Method Step 3: Put stopper in top of cylinder. Shake vigorously Four-Step Water Titration Method Step 3: Put stopper in top of cylinder. Shake vigorously to mix the water and fuel. Allow it to stand. The ethanol/water mix will fall to the bottom of the cylinder. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 44

Four-Step Water Titration Method Step 4: Read the level of the ethanol/water at the Four-Step Water Titration Method Step 4: Read the level of the ethanol/water at the bottom. Subtract 10 ml. (the amount of added water). This is your true ethanol percentage. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 The ethanol/water level reads 88 ml. Subtract 10 ml. for the true ethanol content of 78%, or E 78. 45

 Fuel System Modifications To make your race vehicle E 85 compatible, you must Fuel System Modifications To make your race vehicle E 85 compatible, you must inspect the following and make any needed changes: 1. Correct fuel tank type & size 2. Vented gas cap 3. Compatible fuel pump – correct type and capacity 4. Compatible carburetor/injectors 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 46

 Engine Modifications Protect your engine and take full advantage of the power-making capability Engine Modifications Protect your engine and take full advantage of the power-making capability of E 85 fuel: 1. Utilize ethanol-compatible motor oil 2. Increase engine static compression ratio 3. Increase engine dynamic compression 4. Adjust air/fuel ratio 5. Adjust spark timing 6. Experiment with spark timing correction 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 47

 Handling & Storage Ethanol blends are hygroscopic. Once water has been introduced, corrosion Handling & Storage Ethanol blends are hygroscopic. Once water has been introduced, corrosion will develop. Be sure to: 1. Store the fuel only in approved containers and keep it tightly capped at all times. 2. All alcohols are very drying to skin. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. 3. Follow all other normal fuel handling and storage recommendations. 4. Inspect your motor oil for “milking” and change frequently. 5. After racing, “pickle” the engine and vehicle. Drain all fuel from lines and use an appropriate anticorrosive agent. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 48

 Racing with E 85 Not only does E 85 vary in ethanol content Racing with E 85 Not only does E 85 vary in ethanol content by the time of year and from pump to pump, but the 15% gasoline portion also affects engine performance and fuel system requirements. While pump E 85 has a nominal octane rating of 105 (R+M/2 method), we strongly recommend that you find a supplier of “E 85 Racing Fuel”. The fuel should have a consistent and high (85%) ethanol content and the gasoline should also be a high grade racing fuel. This will protect your engine from varying octane levels and air/fuel mixture requirements. 3/19/2018 800 -597 -9747 Advanced Engineering & Technology www. iqlearningsystems. com Conference, 2007 49

Contact Information: Robert L. Colesworthy IQ Learning Systems, Inc. 1833 Scherer Parkway Saint Charles, Contact Information: Robert L. Colesworthy IQ Learning Systems, Inc. 1833 Scherer Parkway Saint Charles, MO 63303 800 -597 -9747 www. iqlearningsystems. com 12/3/07 3/19/2018 Advanced Engineering & Technology Conference, 2007 50