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Published in 1984 A meditation on the historical recurrence of governments pursuing policies evidently contrary to their own interests. Focuses on Troy, the Renaissance Popes provoking Equally Protestantism, the British losing their relevant is the American colonies, and the United States Civil War in Vietnam.
If you get nothing else from today. . . If you don’t remember who David Wilmot or John C. Calhoun or Preston Brooks or John Brown or even Barbara Tuchman are. . . I want you to remember the Barbara Tuchman thesis which is slightly different wording can be phrased:
The Tuchman Thesis In different words: Nations. . . and sometimes people. . . persist in foolish and unnecessary behaviors. . . even to their own hurt and in some cases to their own destruction
"The Sectional Split" Was the Civil War inevitable? Why or why not?
What characteristic or behavior accounts for the success of the American nation from its very inception? Compromise
There were specific circumstances leading to the “Sectional Crisis” that contributed to the coming of the American Civil War (18611865).
The Territories In the end, it would be the newly acquired western territories and the question of slavery in the new territories that would cause the tensions that split North and South into polarized factions** In an odd and somewhat convoluted way. . . we became the victims of our own success
Constitutional Issue Relevant to Slavery in Existing States "The Constitution gave the federal government the right to abolish the international slave trade but no definite authority to regulate or destroy the institution where it existed under state law. . [Its authors] provided no direct means to achieve this end except voluntary state action. . It was easy to condemn slavery in principle but very difficult to develop a practical program to eliminate it without defying the Constitution. . [Northerners] saw no legal or desirable way to bring about emancipation within the southern states. ”
What About the Future States? “But the Constitution had not predetermined the status of slavery in future states. . Congress had the power to admit new states to the Union under any conditions it wished to impose. . [There was, however, a] tradition of providing both the free North and the slave South with opportunities for expansion. . [but] the creation of new states broke down when new territories were wrested from Mexico in the 1840 s. ”
The Mexican War of 1846 -1848 — 11 -C This conflict was supported by the slave states because they believed the new territories would be settled by Southerners with slaves and become slave states balancing the free territories north of 36º 30'. South of that latitude lay the southern border of Missouri.
Wilmot Proviso— 11 -C** David Wilmot (D-PN, 18141868 ), a congressman from Pennsylvania, introduced a bill in 1846 -47 to prohibit slavery (as well as settlement by free Blacks) in the territories obtained by the Mexican cession (most of this territory lay south of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific).
Issues Surrounding the Wilmot Proviso • Southerners supported the Mexican War hoping the territories would become slave states • Racist Dimensions—The bill sought to give common white folk of the North the inside track in the job market, i. e. , no competition from slaves or free Blacks. It expressed a concern about unregulated competition between slave and free labor in the territories • Passage in the House • Bill Blocked in Senate
Leading the Opposition The leading opponent of the Wilmot Proviso. He argued that state citizens, whose property was protected by the Constitution, had the right to take their slaves with them into new territories. Ultimately, Calhoun sought to create a Southern voting bloc cutting across regular party lines. During Taylor's administration, he denounced "Northern aggression" against the Southern slave states
California Crisis and Compromise of 1850** Discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill on January 24, 1848 John Sutter, 1803 -1880 Sutter’s Mill The discovery of gold in California was, more than any other reason, the cause for the rapid settlement of the recently acquired territory
California’s Application for Statehood** In December, 1849, California had already submitted an application to Congress for statehood, with a provisional Constitution that prohibited slavery
The Debate over California Pro- and Anti-slavery forces were split so decisively over California that the "Union" was threatened. Zachary Taylor died in 1850 and Vice-president Millard Fillmore (1800 -1874— left) became President
Compromise of 1850—RQ 10 & 13 -A** • California would be admitted free • The rest of the territories taken from Mexico would be open to slavery if the settlers so desired • Abolition of slave auctions and depots in District of Columbia • A tough Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 – the federal government was given strong powers to return runaways—RQ 10 & 13 A
Compromise of 1850 Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas—the "Little Giant"— from Illinois pushed 6 bills based on the principle popular of sovereignty through Congress. Collectively, these acts came to be known as the “Compromise of 1850”
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850** • Suspected fugitives denied jury trial • Suspected fugitives denied testifying on own behalf • Suspected fugitives denied other basic Constitutional rights The Fugitive Slave Law stripped slaves of any vestige of civil rights.
Kansas. Nebraska Act of 1854 (RQ 11 & 13 C & C 1)** This act revived sectional conflict
Impact of the Act In defiance of the whole compromise tradition, it made a concession to the South on the issue of slavery extension without providing an equivalent concession to the North. It also shattered the fragile sectional accommodation of 1850 and made future compromises less likely. From now on, northern sectionalists would be fighting to regain what they had lost, while Southerners would battle to maintain rights already conceded. **
The act also destroyed what was left of the second party system. . The furor over Kansas-Nebraska also doomed the efforts of the Pierce administration to revive an expansionist foreign policy. . [Some Northerners] were convinced that the administration was trying to extend slavery to the Great Plains. . . [and were] enraged to discover that it was also scheming to fulfill the southern expansionist dream of a 'Caribbean slave empire. **
Bleeding Kansas—RQ 11 & 13 C & C 1** In 1856, violence erupted into a small scale civil war between the slave owning farmers and the nonslave owning farmers The Kansas debacle proved to be a “dress rehearsal” for the larger coming American Civil War.
The Confrontation Missourians raided and harassed anti-slavery settlers or voted illegally. Settlers favoring "free soil" policies were actually the majority of the territory's residents. The new legislature passed laws making antislave speech or acts a crime. The majority population founded a rival territorial government. Predictably, it outlawed slavery. Armed confrontation in front of the Western Hotel
Culmination in the “Sack of Lawrence” Massacre (May 21, 1856) —Lawrence, Kansas was burned with property damage but no loss of life. Red flag of the Palmetto Guards proclaiming Southern rights To left, the ruins of the “Free-State Hotel” in Lawrence destroyed by pro-slavery men under Sheriff Samuel J. Jones
The Retaliation John Brown (1800 -1859, left) a radical eastern abolitionist believed God was behind him. He ritually murdered five proslavery settlers with a scythe. This caused an uproar in Congress. The South was outraged and the North said nothing.
In the final analysis, the Southerners lost and Kansas became a free state
The Preston Brooks caning of Charles Sumner—May 22, 1856 Sumner gave a speech on the floor of Congress and insulted Andrew Butler from South Carolina Charles Sumner, 1811 -1874 Butler's nephew, Preston Broks of the House came into the Senate and almost caned Sumner to death Preston Brooks, 18191857
The Upshot of the Incident On the Senate floor, Brooks caned Sumner to the point that popular opinion perceived the incident as demonstrative of Southern brutality and barbarism. **
The New Republican Party • The party made a bid for national power sought to mobilize North against aggressions of the slave holding South. Republicans saw Southerners as plotting to extend their barbaric system of labor** • Most Southerners perceived the very existence of the new Republican Party as an insult to the South, and a threat to the region's vital interests** • Fear and anxiety enveloped them psychologically**
Dread Scott Decision (versus Stanford) — 13 -D Scott was a slave who had been taken out of the South and had lived in the free states, specifically the Wisconsin Territory during the 1830 s. Dred Scott, 1795 -1858 After his master's death, he was sold to an abolitionist. The new owner had Scott sue him for freedom to make a point
Dred Scott v. Sanford—March 6, 1857 The Decision Not a Citizen** Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, 1777 -1864 Scott was not entitled to freedom and could not sue because he was not a citizen. Ultimately, the issue was resolved after the Civil War by the 14 th Amendment giving blacks legal basis for full citizenship. No Power Over Slavery in Territories Taney ruled that the federal government had no right to pass a law regarding slavery in the territories because the Constitution outlawed all law in the territories concerning slavery. In effect, this judgment deemed the judgment of the Missouri Compromise as unconstitutional.
Uniqueness of the Decision For the first time, the Supreme Court actually invalidated a major piece of legislation (a qualitative difference from Marshall's claim of the Court as final arbiter of constitutional questions). **
Impact of the Decision “The Court's verdict was viewed [in the North] as the latest diabolical act of the ‘slave power conspiracy. ’ The charge that the decision was a political maneuver rather than a disinterested interpretation of the Constitution was supported by strong circumstantial evidence. . Republicans denounced the decision as ‘a wicked and false judgment. ’. . . The decision actually helped the Republicans build support; it lent credence to their claim that an aggressive slave power was dominating all branches of the federal government and attempting to use the Constitution to achieve its own ends. ”
The Lecompton Controversy, 13 -D Constitution Hall in Lecompton, Kansas Since the adoption of the Lecompton Constitution was “fixed, ” anti-slavery voters boycotted the vote on it. In fact, the constitution was a “perversion of popular sovereignty. ”**
Lecompton, Kansas A referendum in 1858 expressed the will of the majority in Kansas by overturning the Lecompton Constitution and endorsing the antislavery Wyandotte Constitution
John Brown's Raid— 13 -F
John Brown’s Goal** • Brown "had the appearance and manner of an Old Testament prophet and thought of himself as ‘God's chosen instrument’ to purge this land with blood' and eradicate the sin of slaveholding • Brown's aim was to arm the local slave population to commence a guerrilla war from havens in the Appalachians that would eventually extend to the plantation regions of the lower south
Raid on Harper’s Ferry, October 16, 1859 Federal Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia John Brown led a group of 22 against Harper's Ferry— a federal munitions dump/armory. He hoped to capture the ammunition and start a slave rebellion. Armory at Harpers Ferry shown to left as it appeared in 1803.
The Capture of John Brown Robert E. Lee (1807 -1870) Ironically, it would be Lee who led the forces that captured Brown at Harper’s Ferry. Not long thereafter, Lee declined Lincoln’s invitation to lead the Union Army in the impending Civil war and threw his support to the Confederacy.
The End of Moderation • Prior to the 1850 s, the spirit of moderation prevailed • This old guard was getting old and new politicians from the North, radical abolitionists, and in the South, "Fire Eaters, " started to control the House and Senate
Birth of the Republican Party The years 1852 -1856 saw the collapse of the socalled “Second Party System. ” “The consensus of 1852 meant that the parties had to find other issues on which to base their distinctive appeals. . The collapse of the second party system released sectional agitation from the earlier constraints imposed by the competition of strong national parties. . Passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act raised the territorial issue and gave birth to the Republican Party”
Lincoln. Douglas Debates, 1858 VS For the Senate seat in Illinois 1809 -1865 1813 -1861
Significance of the Debates for Lincoln “The Lincoln-Douglas debates established his reputation as a rising star of the Republican party. ”** Douglas alleged Lincoln's moral opposition to slavery implied that he believed in racial equality, a volatile charge before an intensely racist electorate. Although Lincoln lost to Douglas in his quest for an Illinois Senate seat in 1858, he grained respect in Republican circles nationally and “sharpened his party's ideological focus and had stiffened its backbone against any temptation to compromise on its free-soil position. ”
The Election of 1860— 13 -C 1 • The Split in the Democratic Party by trying to please everyone • Eight Southern states walked out of the Democratic Convention in Charleston and the party split • Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge (1821 -1875) of Kentucky
Dividing the National Map published by Rickey, Mallory, and Co. in 1860. Douglas and Lincoln struggle to control the northern and western states while John C. Breckinridge pulls at the south and John Bell tries to glue the map back together
Outcome of the Election of 1860 • It was a stunning victory with Lincoln garnering a decisive majority. The Republican strategy of seeking to win decisively in the majority section paid off handsomely • Lincoln won the all the states shaded in black • Breckinridge swept all but 4 Southern sates
Secession— 13 -H** South Carolina led the way** They had more slaves They were leaders of the states’ rights movement
Attacked on Fort Sumter (in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina) on April 12, 1861 Thus began the Civil War
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated —March 4, 1861 Who Was Lincoln ?
A self-made man Embodied Republican ideal of equal opportunity for all Favored high protective tariff Endorsed free homesteads Favored federal aid for internal improvements (popular in Midwest), particularly a transcontinental railway
Lincoln's Slavery Position— 13 -G He believed that slavery was protected by the Constitution and was content to let slavery stay in the South with no expansion into the territories Lincoln stood for the entire Republican platform and believed Blacks were inferior
Crittenden Compromise This called for the free states to remain free and the slave states to remain slave (Southerners mistrusted such assurances)** The 36º 30' line would remain Kentucky Senator John J. President Lincoln rejected the compromise because he was opposed to slavery in the territories Crittenden By rejecting the compromise, he insured that the nation would go to war
Southern Reaction • No matter what reason you give for the Civil War, it always comes back to the issue of slavery • It was not a war to end slavery in the North, but the South fought to defend slavery
Assessment of Secession— 13 -H • Clash of economic interests between industrializing and agrarian regions • Debate over Right or Wrong of Slavery, Whether to Extend or Contain • Disagreements over Economic Measures and Protective Tariffs • Irresponsible Agitators and Extremists on Both Sides
Confederate States of America formed in 1861