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Psycho/Social Coping A Theoretical Model For Understanding General Victimization and Facilitating Recovery John P. J. Dussich, Ph. D. California State University, Fresno and Tokiwa International Victimology Institute Mito, Japan For the 11 th Asian Post Graduate Course on Victimology and Victim Assistance Jakarta, Indonesia July 2011 © 2008 Copywrited by John P. J. Dussich. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by an means – graphic; electronic; or mechanical, including photocopying recording taping, Web distribution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner – without the written permission of the author.
Introductory comments Coping is what persons do, physically, socially, and cognitively to meet the demands of living. The objective of coping is to reduce the stress brought about by the presence of a problem. Coping styles vary according to individuals, families, and cultures. Some persons cope appropriately & others cope inappropriately. Appropriate coping means being positive, engaging in constructive problem solving, task-focused behavior, working out, accepting help, etc. ; while inappropriate coping is blaming oneself or others, denying the problem exists, trying to cope alone, use of drugs or alcohol, being aggressive, etc. (Andrews, 1990).
Introductory comments cont. Research has shown that persons who cope appropriately (adaptively) have a better sense of wellbeing, achieve better and are generally more successful in life. Those who cope inappropriately (maladaptively) are not comfortable with themselves, are lower achievers and have less success in their lives (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1999, 2002). Coping is highly individualistic.
Theoretical Background -The Psycho/Social Coping Model (P/SCM) is offered as a general theory for understanding all forms of victimization and for facilitating recovery. -This model uses behavioral versus legal concepts. -Its primary goals are to be explanatory and utilitarian. -Its roots are derived from social psychology phenomenology, social control theory, stress theory, symbolic interactionism and behaviorism.
THE PSYCHO/SOCIAL COPING MODEL ANTECEDENTS COPING MILIEU PERSONAL RESOURCES PROBLEM APRAISAL FEEDBACK RESULTS Success COPING PROCESS Failure
The Coping Milieu -The coping environment is called the Coping Milieu. -The Coping Milieu is predominantly a physical, social, and psychic interactive space within which a person attempts to survive. -The Coping Milieu is defined as that space in which a person’s specific problem exists. For each person and each problem the Coping Milieu is different. -Within a Coping Milieu, each person has their own personal resources available to confront problems in the search for solutions.
The Psycho/Social Coping Model The P/SCM starts with the Coping Milieu and an individual’s 5 Personal Resources: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Repertoire Social assets Psychic assets Physical assets Time
PERSONAL RESOURCES PSYCHIC -intelligence -personality -education -skills, etc. TIM E E TIM COPING REPERTOIRE SOCIO -social class -sibling position -roles -friendship -status, etc. TIME -PHYSIO -age -sex -race -health -size, etc.
A Problem -Within a given milieu and armed with personal resources, an individual confronts a problem and makes an appraisal (Lazarus, 1981). -A problem is here defined as a multi-dimensional force directed at a person that blocks status and/or the pursuit of goals which creates physical, social and psychical stresses. -Each problem is made up of numerous continua which, in this model, are considered at a moment in time. -The “problem moment” is a heuristic device that allows us to freeze time so as to evaluate each different continuum. - In response to a problem a person begins the coping process.
The Problem Moment Continua 1. Due Continuum - Time remaining for problem resolution. 2. Time Continuum - Length of time a problem has existed. 3. Person Continuum - Number of persons in the problem. 4. Severity Continuum – Complexity of the problem. 5. Threat Continuum - Extent of threat to a person’s wellbeing. 6. Evolution Continuum - Speed with which problem became known. 7. Familiarity Continuum - Extent to which problem is known to a person. 8. Context Continuum - Extent to which problem is in or out of context. Other continua are possible, such as: culture, social support, etc.
7 UN KN -4 UL T DIF FIC SAFE-5 OW 6 -SL PROBLEM MOMENT CONTINUA TOOL 3 UP O GR OW -2 N 8 -I N NG LO M ER T LATER-1 1 - SOONER M OU T- 8 SY EA 4 - 7 5 - LIFE THREAT D IN 3 - N- OW -6 ICK QU 1. DUE CONTINUUM 2. TIME CONTINUUM 3. PERSON CONTINUUM 4. SEVERITY CONTINUUM 5. THREAT CONTINUUM 6. EVOLUTION CONTINUUM 7. FAMILIARITY CONTINUUM 8. CONTEXT CONTINUUM KN IV ID U A L O H 2 - S ER TT R - Time remaining for problem resolution. - Length of time problem has existed. - Number of persons involved in the problem. - Complexity of the problem. - Extent of threat to a person’s wellbeing. - Speed with which problem become known. - Extent to which problem is familiar to a person. - Extent to which problem is in or out of context.
The Psycho/Social Coping Process -This psycho/social coping process has four distinct phases: 1. Prevention (Starts with the awareness that a problem is possible. ) 2. Preparation (Starts with the awareness that a problem is imminent. ) 3. Action (Starts when the problem is present. ) 4. Reappraisal (Starts after the problem is over. ) -Each phase is a continuum within which a person can make a choice, with failure more likely at one end, and success more likely at the other end.
prevention THE FOUR PHASES OF PSYCHO/SOCIAL COPING + AWARENESS OF A PROBLEM POSSIBILITY REASONABLE ANTICIPATION OF A PROBLEM -“proactive coping” (Aspinwall & Taylor, 1997) -“anticipatory coping” (Schwartzer & Knoll, 2003) preparation + + action DENYING THE LIKLIHOOD OF A PROBLEM AWARENESS AND APRAISAL OF A PROBLEM PREPARATION - Appraisal - Rehearsal - The Work of Worrying (Janis, 1965) - The Work of Practicing (Dussich, 1988) (Kopp, 1982) - ABSENCE OF PREPARATION - No Appraisal - No Rehearsal - No Worrying (Janis, 1965) - No Practicing (Dussich, 1988) - PROBLEM-EVENT OCCURS COPING - Learned Resourcefulness (Meichebaum, 1973) - Self-Delivered Reassurance - Diminished Vulnerability FAILURE TO COPE - Learned Helplessness (Seligman, 1973) - Disappointment in Protective Authorities - Increased Expectation of Vulnerability reappraisal (Meichenbaum, et al. , 1975: 339) + SECONDARY COPING - Replay - Assessment PROBLEM-EVENT IS OVER NO SECONDARY COPING - No Replay - No Assessment -
Application to victimization and recovery -Victimization is an event whereby a person is unable to cope with a personal attack due to inadequate resources. -Recovery is the end-state when a victim resumes a functional life-style with significantly fewer symptoms and adopts a positive identity of self. -Inadequate resources result in vulnerability, victimization, and a poor ability to recover. -Adequate resources result in resiliency, safety, and an enhanced ability to recover.
Victim Taxonomies based on the Psycho/Social Coping Model I. Pre-victimization conditions which increase vulnerability are: 1. high-risk milieu 2. distorted problem-appraisals 3. psychic disabilities 4. social disabilities 5. physical disabilities 6. limited time 7. underdeveloped coping (inexperience) 8. faulty coping (maladaptive) Persons with these vulnerability conditions do not cope well and are at high risk of being victimized in their personal milieu.
Victim Taxonomies based on the Psycho/Social Coping Model continued II. During-victimization conditions which facilitate adaptive coping (Dussich, 1988; Mohino, et al. , 2004): 1. use of resourcefulness 2. self-delivered reassurances 3. positive thinking - learned optimism (Seligman, 1992) 4. logical analysis 5. rational action 6. regulate negative emotions (Folkman & Moskowitz, 2004) 7. positive reappraisal 8. problem solving 9. diminished vulnerability Persons who use these techniques increase their chances of coping adaptively.
Victim Taxonomies based on the Psycho/Social Coping Model continued III. General Post-victimization conditions related to resources, appraisal, coping and recovery: 1. Victims with adequate personal resources, who problem-appraise accurately, facilitate adaptive coping and enhance their recovery. 2. Victims with inadequate personal resources, who problem-appraise inaccurately, facilitate maladaptive coping and continue their suffering.
Victim Taxonomies continued… IV. Specific Post-victimization conditions which facilitate recovery: 1. healing milieu 2. positive intervention 3. psychic strengths 4. social strengths 5. physical strengths 6. time abundance 7. developed coping (mastery) 8. appropriate coping (adaptive) 9. approach coping (Griffith, et al. 2000) Persons with these resiliency conditions cope well and have a high chance of recovering from their victimization.
Main thesis of the Psycho/Social Coping Model for victimization and recovery. Persons with few resources specific to their lifestyle have a higher likelihood of becoming victims; if they become victims, they have a poorer chance of surviving; and, if they survive, they will not recover well and suffer more. On the other hand, those with more resources specific to their life-style have a higher chance to avoid victimization, if victimized, will cope better, recover sooner and suffer less.
Implications -The P/SCM is herein used to understand the behaviors of general victims (those who are harmed by any force) (Mendelsohn, 1976; Dussich, 1988; Holley & Brewster, 2006). ; and, is also used to assist in helping victims recover (regardless how they were harmed). -The P/SCM suggests that a “holistic multi-resource approach” is essential to understand all forms of victimization and recovery. -Limited resources make persons vulnerable to victimization. To prevent victimization, lacking resources must be identified so that these vulnerable persons can be given resources that are specific to their unique needs.
Implications cont. -The P/SCM suggest that persons who have been victimized must be empowered with tailored resources to prevent their re-victimization or their conversion to offending. -Notions of victim guilt or blame only have a place in legal considerations, not for understanding victim behavior and helping victims recover. Guilt or blame are usually considerations when dealing with crime victims. -Recovery is best facilitated by providing tailored resources that are person-specific, culture-sensitive & situationrealistic. -Appropriate coping can be taught and is a method that has been shown to reduce violence in many settings, especially schools (Lodge & Frydenberg, 2005). -Some victims may need to learn new coping skills that were never taught them at home. Of special importance are problem solving skills: how to assess problems realistically, search for alternative solutions based on their consequences, selection of the best options, carrying out the selected option, and, evaluating the results (Andrews, 1990).
Thank you for your attention!
References Andrews, A. B. (1990). Crisis and Recovery Services for Family Violence Survivors. In A. Roberts (Ed. ), (pp. 206 -232) Helping crime victims: Research, policy, and practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Aspinwall, L. G. & Taylor, S. E. (1997). A stitch in time: self-regulation and proactive coping. Psychology Bulletin. 121: 417 -36. Dussich, J. P. J. (1988) Social Coping: A Theoretical Model for Understanding Victimization and Recovery, in Victimology: International Action and Study of Victims, Zvonimir Paul Šeparović (ed. ), Zagreb: Somobar. Folkman, S. & Moskowitz, J. T. (2004). Coping: Pitfalls and Promise. Annual Review of Psychology, 55: 745 -74. Frydenberg, E. & Lewis, R. (1999). Academic and general well-being: The relationship with coping. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling. 9, 19 -36. Frydenberg, E. & Lewis, R. (2002). Adolescent well-being: Building young people’s resources. In E. Frydenberg (ed. ) Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions and challenges. (Pp. 175 -194). London: Oxford University Press. Griffith, M. A. , Dubow, E. F. & Ippolito, M. F. (2000). Developmental and Cross-Situational Differences in Adolescents’ Coping Strategies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 29, No. 2. Holley, P. D. & Brewster, D. (2006) A 21 st Century General Victimology: Combining General Victimology with Theory. Presented at the 12 th International Symposium on Victimology, World Society of Victimology, Orlando, Florida, August 20 -25. Janis, I. (1965). Psychodynamic Aspects of Stress Tolerance. In S. Klausner (ed. ). The Quest for Self-Control. New York: Free Press. Kopp, S. (1982). An End to Innocence. New York: Bantam. Lazarus, R. S. (1981). The stress and coping paradigm. In C. Eisdorfer, D. Cohen, A. Kleinman & P. Maxim (Eds. ), Models for clinical psychopathology (pp. 177 -214). New York: Spectrum.
References continued Lodge, J. & Frydenberg, E. (2005). The Role of Peer Bystanders in School Bullying: Positive Steps Toward Promoting Peaceful Schools. Theory into Practice, Fall, 44, (4). Meichenbaum, D. H. (1973). Therapist Manual for Cognitive Behavior Modification, Unpublished Manuscript, Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo. Meichenbaum, D. H. , Turk, D. & Burstein, S. (1975). The Nature of Coping with Stress. In I. G. Sarason, and C. D. Spielberger (eds. ). Stress and Anxiety, Vol. 1, New York: John Wiley and Sons. Mendelsohn, B. (1976). Victimology and Contemporary Society’s Trends. Victimology, Spring, 1, 1, 8 -28. Mohino, S. , Kirchner, T. & Forns, M. (2004). Coping Strategies in Young Male Prisoners. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 33, No. 1, February, pp. 41 -49. Seligman, M. P. (1973). Fall Into Helplessness. Psychology Today, 7. Seligman, M. (1992). Learned optimism. New South Wales, Australia: Random House. Schwarzer, R. & Knoll, N. (2003). Positive coping: mastering demands and searching for meaning. In Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 9, ed. A. M. Anezu, C. M. Nezu, P. A. Geller, New York: Wiley.