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PSYA 1 Memory Working Memory Model Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Starter • Without looking at your notes try and draw a diagram of the MSM • Homework essay to hand in!
Working Memory Model I can üAO 1 – Describe the Working Memory Model üAO 2 – Explain how key experiments provide evidence for the components of Baddeley’s model of Working Memory üAO 2 -Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the model
Working Memory Model This model has replaced the idea of Multi Store Model. Working Memory is only an explanation of STM not LTM. “Short- term memory is not a single unitary store, rather an alliance of several memory stores working together” (Baddeley 2004)
Working Memory Model Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
What do they mean is by “Working Memory”? That bit of memory that you are using when you are working on a complex task which requires you to store information as you go along. Eg: calculating a sum 21+12+52 you add 21 and 12 and hold that answer in working memory before adding the final number. Reading a sentence, you store the individual words in working memory, while determining the sentence’s meaning.
The Working Memory Model • The Diagram:
Central executive • Acts as a filter, dealing with sensory info of all types, and determines what info is attended to and allocates this info to “slave systems”. • Limited Capacity • Can accept info from any sense modality • Thought to be involved in higher cognitive processes such as comprehension, reasoning and problem solving • People attempting to drive whilst using a mobile phone are therefore dividing their attention and stretching their central executive.
Phonological Loop • Slave system • Deals with auditory information similar to the rehearsal system of the MSM • Baddeley (1986) further subdivided it into 1. Phonological Store – The Inner Ear holds small amount of speech-based This is crucial for conversation! 2. Articulatory Process – The Inner Voice repeats words in a loop to prevent them decaying Note: written language is converted into auditory code so it can be stored in the phonological store.
Visuo-spatial sketch pad “Inner Eye” • Visual and/or spatial information stored here – Visual = what things look like – Spatial = relationships between things • Limited capacity • It codes info in images • It can create and manipulate visual and spatial images e. g. a choice of routes you want to take • The scratchpad is essential for a host of human activities from walking and cycling to driving and playing computer games!
Task • Work out how many windows are in your house… • How did you do it? • Discuss your answer with the person next to you… • Did you use similar strategies?
How does Working Memory operate? • I formed a mental image of my house and counted the windows by walking through the house room by room. • Did you? • Or, did you form a mental image of your house and count the windows by imagining the outside of the house?
How does your working memory operate • The image of your house will be set up and manipulated by the visuo spatial sketch pad • The tally of windows will be held in the phonological loop as you count them. • The whole operation will be supervised by the central executive, which will allocate the tasks.
Evidence for the Working Memory Model.
Without my working memory • I couldn’t doodle while on the phone……. • WHY? ?
So STM is not a single store? Why did they think this? 1. If you do 2 things at the same time and they are both visual tasks, you perform them less well than if you do them separately. 1. If you do two things at the same time and one is visual and ones is sound based, then there is no interference. You do them as well together as you would do them separately.
The Working Memory Model Evidence fo WMM: The Dual-Process Task • Individuals seem able to carry out two cognitive tasks simultaneously as long as they use different slaves, eg. An auditory and a visual task • BUT if you ask someone to perform two auditory or two visual tasks at the same time, performance suffers • Both tasks could be performed at the same time. However as the number of digits in task 1 was increased the speed at which task 2 could be completed slowed. • This seems to show that there are two separate slave systems each with a very limited capacity, as suggested by the WMM
Evidence for WMM • Evidence for the Phonological Loop • Try out the experiment. Baddeley et al (1975) It was concluded that the loop’s capacity is determined by what it is possible to read or hear in two seconds. Since the loop is sound orientated it is confused by words sounding similar (think back to the encoding experiment for STM and LTM).
The Working Memory Model Evidence for the Phonological loop Explains why people can remember short words better than long words in STM (word length effect). Long words cannot be rehearsed on the loop because they wont fit as the PL has a limited capacity. If a person is given an articulatory suppression task e. g. saying the “the the” while reading the words. This ties up the articulatory processes and means you cant rehearse the short words or the long words so the word length effect disappears.
Evidence for the visuo spatial sketch pad Try it out.
• Evidence for visuospatial sketch pad Baddeley et al (1975 b) –gave participants a visual tracking task (they had to track a moving light with a pointer). At the same time they were given one of two tasks: Task 1 was to describe all the angles on the letter F, Task 2 was to perform a verbal tasks. • Baddeley (2003)-Visualising American football game whilst driving. He found the car began to swerve. Findings Task 1 very difficult, task 2 easy. WHY?
The Working Memory Model Evidence for WMM: Brain Imaging (Smith et al 1995) • MRI and PET scans have shown that different areas of the brain are active when using different aspects of memory, – Eg. Frontal Lobes (Attentional Task - Central Executive) Left Temporal Lobe (Spatial Task – VSS) Left Parietal (Verbal Task – Phonological Loop) • This supports the WMM
The Working Memory Model Evidence for WMM: Case of KF (Shallice and Warrington (1970) • Had motorbike accident which affected his memory • Good memory for visual information but not so good for speech This suggests that our brain has separate areas for visual memory and speech memory, as suggested by the WMM with the VSS and PL respectively.
The Working Memory Model Weakness One: • Very little is actually known about the Central Executive and many feel its function is too vague. • Even Baddeley stated that it was effectively just like ‘attention’ from the Multistore Model. • Some psychologists have gone further and suggested that the CE may actually contain several components that do different things.
The Working Memory Model Weakness Two: • Recent research has suggested that the VSSP be itself be fractionated into separate visual and spatial components • Eg. Farah (1988) Case Study of LH, who was involved in a road accident • Afterwards he performed better on spatial tasks than those involving visual imagery This supports the view that there are separate visual and spatial components in our memory. Separation of the VSS into separate components is not shown on the original WMM thus this model could be oversimplified.
Application of memory models to real life 1. Alice is rehearsing for a play at school and has to learn her lines – give advice , based on the MSM on how to learn her lines. What other suggestions can you offer? 2. Tom’s mother gets very annoyed when she tries to speak with him when he’s playing on the computer. Use the MSM and WM to explain why he doesn’t seem to hear her
How to answer 12 mark essay questions • Outline and evaluate the working memory model (12 marks) 6 marks outline 6 marks evaluation
Outline AO 1 of WMM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Writing evaluations 1. Choose either strengths or weaknesses of WMM Identify two key points and re-write them in your own words (50 words) 1. Join with another pair who looked at the opposite evaluation. Share your ideas and not down their ideas in your own words. 2. Write your own evaluation of WMM using the points you have gathered (about half a page). 3. Move round the class reading each others evaluations. Keep a record of ones you thought were good. Then take your cheque and make it out to the student with the best evaluation. (up to £ 100) on they back write why you liked it. -Who earned the most money?
• • However…. This is supported by…. An issue with this is…. . A strength of this is…. A limitation of this is An application of this is…. . This suggests that… This is further supported by…because. .
Homework 1. Research has found that people are slower when performing two visual tasks than when performing one visual and one verbal task. Explain how the WMM can explain this finding. Refer to parts of the model in your answer (4 Marks) 2. Explain one strength and one weakness of the WMM (4 marks)