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Proprietary Carolina Chapter 5 a 8 -1. 3: Summarize the history of English settlement Proprietary Carolina Chapter 5 a 8 -1. 3: Summarize the history of English settlement in New England, the 8 -1. 3 mid-Atlantic region, and the South, with an emphasis on South Carolina as an example of a distinctly southern colony 8 -1. 4: Explain the significance of enslaved and free Africans in the 8 -1. 4 developing culture and economy of the South and South Carolina, including the growth of the slave trade and resulting population imbalance between African and European settlers; African contributions to agricultural development; and resistance to slavery, including the Stono Rebellion and subsequent laws to control slaves. 8 -1. 5: Explain how South Carolinians used their natural, human, and 8 -1. 5 political resources uniquely to gain economic prosperity, including settlement by and trade with the people of Barbados, rice and indigo planting, and the practice of mercantilism. 1

Chapter 5 Timeline • 1566 Spain attempts Ft San Felipe on the remains of Chapter 5 Timeline • 1566 Spain attempts Ft San Felipe on the remains of Charles Fort’s • 1576 Spain attempts Ft San Marcos on the remains Ft San Felipe’s • 1607 Jamestown, VA is the First permanent English settlement in America • 1619 Africans first arrive in America ü 1663 Carolina colony given to Lord Proprietors 1566 Spain attempts Ft San Felipe on Charles Fort’s remains 1576 Spain attempts Ft San Marcos on Ft San Felipe’s 1607 Jamestown, VA 1 st permanent settlement in America 1619 Africans first arrive in America 1663 Carolina colony given to Lord 2 Proprietors

The Charter of Carolina • In 1649, during a revolution in England, King Charles The Charter of Carolina • In 1649, during a revolution in England, King Charles I was executed • His sons were able to escape to France King Charles I –Where they stayed until it was safe to come back • On May 8, 1660, Charles II (oldest son of Charles I) became King of England King Charles II 3

The Charter of Carolina ØKing Charles II issued a charter that gave 8 men The Charter of Carolina ØKing Charles II issued a charter that gave 8 men land in America ØAs thanks for helping him get the throne back ØOpportunity for them to earn money Charter of Carolina ØThey became known as the Lords Proprietors 4

The Charter of Carolina The land given to the Lords Proprietors: ØEverything from the The Charter of Carolina The land given to the Lords Proprietors: ØEverything from the top of Florida to the bottom of Virginia, Ø From the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean ØThey called the colony Carolina 5

The Charter of Carolina The proprietors were wealthy, titled land owners in England (investors) The Charter of Carolina The proprietors were wealthy, titled land owners in England (investors) • The charter gave them control of the government of the colony • Carolina colony started as a proprietary colony BUT… • The proprietors never left England & made all of the laws for Carolina without ever seeing it 6

The Charter of Carolina In 1664 Barbadians -people Barbados Island from Attempted to establish The Charter of Carolina In 1664 Barbadians -people Barbados Island from Attempted to establish a colony named Charles Town near Cape Fear, NC • It failed within 3 years because of hostile Native Americans and… • Lacked the Lords Proprietors’ support • Location of Cape Fear 7

 • ________started the successful Charles Town colony on Albemarle Point. • He got • ________started the successful Charles Town colony on Albemarle Point. • He got money to start the colony by asking the other proprietors to______. • How did the proprietors plan to get my from the colony? 8

Charles Town Begins Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, Cooper One of the Lord’s Proprietors, started Charles Town Begins Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, Cooper One of the Lord’s Proprietors, started the successful Charles Town colony on Albemarle Point by finally asking the other proprietors to invest money in the colony. In return for their investment, they would make $$ from the settlers by collecting a Quitrent = Rent They had to pay the king a small amount each year, but It was minimal compared to the $$ they were making 9

Charles Town Begins Finding settlers to move to Carolina fairly easy • The Bubonic Charles Town Begins Finding settlers to move to Carolina fairly easy • The Bubonic Plague –transmitted by fleas on the brown rat, swept through England –started in part by houses being too close together & poor sanitation • The Great London Fire burned a large portion of the city –Helped to stop the spread of the plague Fleas would bite infected rats and give the disease to humans by biting them. Brown Rat London, 1611 The Great London Fire 10

Charles Town Begins The settlers left England in August, 1669 • They sailed to Charles Town Begins The settlers left England in August, 1669 • They sailed to Ireland • Then on to Barbados –They picked up more passengers –Including wealthy planters and their African slaves 11

Charles Town Begins • At 1 st, the settlers headed for Port Royal near Charles Town Begins • At 1 st, the settlers headed for Port Royal near Beaufort • Where Charlesfort and Ft San Marcos were located • They were welcomed by the Kiawah tribe on Bull’s Island But decided not to settle there after they inspected it • They eventually landed on the area that is now known as Charles Town Harbor Bull’s Island 12 Charles Town Harbor

“Fundamental Constitution of Carolina” 13 “Fundamental Constitution of Carolina” 13

Charles Town Begins The settlers carried with them the “Fundamental Constitution of Carolina” 1. Charles Town Begins The settlers carried with them the “Fundamental Constitution of Carolina” 1. Set up the nobility system the proprietors planned to set up 2. The government that the colonists were expected to follow 3. The most important thing: It guaranteed religious freedom This was the first time that a written constitution guaranteed this freedom 14

Charles Town Begins Albemarle Point in April, 1670 v. The settlers eventually signed the Charles Town Begins Albemarle Point in April, 1670 v. The settlers eventually signed the Treaty of Madrid with Spain after the Spanish tried to destroy Charles Town v. The treaty declared that all settlements NORTH of St. Augustine, FL, belonged to the English v. Helped pave the way for success for Charles Town Original location of Charles Town 15

Charles Town Grows The settlers had a hard time the 1 st year • Charles Town Grows The settlers had a hard time the 1 st year • surviving disease • a lack of knowledge about the climate and region • Native American attacks ØCharles Town had to be moved from Albemarle Point to Oyster Point because is was poorly designed and was becoming overcrowded New location of Charles Town ØThe capital of the Carolina colony for many years 16

Charles Town Grows Charleston Today Colonial Charles Town When Charles Town was moved, it Charles Town Grows Charleston Today Colonial Charles Town When Charles Town was moved, it was designed in a symmetrical grid to allow more room for growth. 17

Charles Town Grows The Headright Method üSettlers got land based on the number of Charles Town Grows The Headright Method üSettlers got land based on the number of people in the family, or household ü Slaves and indentured servants were included in the count üMore people = üMore land 18

Charles Town Grows Not everyone could afford to move to Carolina colony Wealthy landowners: Charles Town Grows Not everyone could afford to move to Carolina colony Wealthy landowners: • Needed laborers • Paid for passage in exchange for labor = indentured servants –Would then have to work off their debt Drayton Hall Plantation Using the Headright Method, landowners received a lot of land This helped start the large farms of the plantation system 19

 • List the different groups that came to the Carolina Colony in the • List the different groups that came to the Carolina Colony in the later 1600 s. (nationalities and religions) • What was the largest group to come to Carolina? 20

Charles Town Grows 1 st settlers of Charles Town • Englishmen from Barbados • Charles Town Grows 1 st settlers of Charles Town • Englishmen from Barbados • They already had an established plantation system Other colonists were from Switzerland & Ireland & And even France Germany Scotland, Religious groups: Huguenots, Jews, Anglicans, and other Christian denominations Came to Carolina for freedom to worship The largest group of people to come to the colonies were African slaves from Barbados. 21

Describe how the following contributed to the Carolina colony economy: 1. Indian Trade 2. Describe how the following contributed to the Carolina colony economy: 1. Indian Trade 2. Cattle 3. Naval Stores 4. Rice 22

Carolina Economy Carolina colony’s economy grew quickly The Lords Proprietors wanted to make $$ Carolina Economy Carolina colony’s economy grew quickly The Lords Proprietors wanted to make $$ off of the colonists’ quitrent (rent) BUT… settlers had to be able to make $ Colonists made money by trading with the Native Americans Settlers - traded guns, beads, trinkets, and alcohol Native Americans -traded furs & deerskins Colonists shipped to England to make clothes 23

Carolina Economy Settlers raised cattle §The cattle was traded to Caribbean islands for sugar Carolina Economy Settlers raised cattle §The cattle was traded to Caribbean islands for sugar §African slaves were experienced herdsmen & horsemen §Their knowledge was used to help increase the cattle trade…$$$ Carolina African slaves were the first “cowboys” 24

Carolina Economy Another way settlers got money was through naval stores which was used Carolina Economy Another way settlers got money was through naval stores which was used to make ships water tight Pine trees tapped for pitch §Pitch & tar were gotten from pine trees §grew all over the Carolina Colony Slaves would harvest the naval stores, as well as the wood from the trees to make barrels & buckets, hardwood for furniture, and shingles for English houses. Wooden shingles on the side of a house 25

Carolina Economy Rice Settlers made the most $$ from rice It started out as Carolina Economy Rice Settlers made the most $$ from rice It started out as a staple crop –a crop that most people eat or can use Slaves in a rice field • The early colonial rice did not grow well • Carolina Gold was brought over from Madagascar • The African slaves had grown this rice for centuries and knew everything about planting rice. 26

 • The good relationship between the settlers and the Natives was ruined when… • The good relationship between the settlers and the Natives was ruined when… 27

Carolina Economy ØNative Americans were traded as slaves ØWere kidnapped or captured by rivals Carolina Economy ØNative Americans were traded as slaves ØWere kidnapped or captured by rivals and sold into slavery in the Caribbean. ØThis ruined the settlers good relationship with the Native Americans 28

Royal Colony of Carolina 5 b 29 Royal Colony of Carolina 5 b 29

A Divided Colony In the early years: • There was only 1 governor in A Divided Colony In the early years: • There was only 1 governor in Carolina • As the colony grew bigger the colonists started to argue • They complained that the Lords Proprietors were not spending the time and energy needed to effectively govern the colony 30

The Carolina Colony was ruled by _________ and _________. • The Grand Council was The Carolina Colony was ruled by _________ and _________. • The Grand Council was considered “__________” because it controlled _____________. The Grand Council had three groups: 1. ______ 2. ____________ 31

A Divided Colony Carolina Colony: The Lords Proprietors ruled through Ø A governor and A Divided Colony Carolina Colony: The Lords Proprietors ruled through Ø A governor and a Grand Council ØThe Grand Council was considered the “government for the colony” colony ØIt controlled the law making & the courts The Grand Council consisted of 3 groups: 1. Representatives chosen by the Lords Proprietors 2. Representatives elected by Carolina Nobles 3. Representatives of the freemen (the regular colonists) 32

A Divided Colony In 1682, the Council changed the power of the groups represented A Divided Colony In 1682, the Council changed the power of the groups represented by the nobility and proprietors, and took away some of their power. 1. There needed to be a majority of EACH group to pass a law. (Majority Rule) 2. A jury system was established Names were drawn out of a box by a child to ensure fairness. The jury would then make a decision about the case brought before them. 3. People who were not members of the Anglican Church wouldn’t be taxed to support the Anglican Church 33

The Commons House of Assembly “ “ The Council (not Grand Council) • Consisted The Commons House of Assembly “ “ The Council (not Grand Council) • Consisted of _______ The Commons House and the Council became known as the _____. Over time the Commons house gained ________. 34

A Divided Colony In 1692 The proprietors set aside the Fundamental Constitutions & created A Divided Colony In 1692 The proprietors set aside the Fundamental Constitutions & created the Commons House of the Assembly –Became the voice of the people The Council then only consisted of representatives of the Proprietors • The 2 bodies (Commons House of Assembly and The Council) became known as the Assembly a bicameral legislature • Bicameral – a legislative (law making) body containing 2 houses • The Commons House gained more power 35

Northern Carolina differed from Southern Carolina • Primary northern crop… • Northern coast had… Northern Carolina differed from Southern Carolina • Primary northern crop… • Northern coast had… • Northern Carolina aligned itself with… What did these differences lead to? 36

A Divided Colony Geographically – The northern part of the Carolina colony never fit A Divided Colony Geographically – The northern part of the Carolina colony never fit in: • It had sounds not harbors • Tobacco was the cash crop, not rice • It had close ties with Virginia shipping ports 1689, Carolina colony was split North Carolina & South Carolina 37

A Divided Colony In 1680, The Proprietors stopped using the headright method ØDecided it A Divided Colony In 1680, The Proprietors stopped using the headright method ØDecided it was time to stop granting free land ØProprietors made settlers sign contracts that required them to pay rent on the land ØColonists became upset because they wanted to own the land free of rent 38

A Divided Colony Other Problems: The Barbadians • About ½ of the population of A Divided Colony Other Problems: The Barbadians • About ½ of the population of the colony • Thought they deserved more power • Got angry when the governor that they liked was forced out by the Lords Proprietors The colony needed strong leadership, but got fighting instead 39

Fighting the Spanish • In 1702 Carolina attacked __ ______. • Describe the attack Fighting the Spanish • In 1702 Carolina attacked __ ______. • Describe the attack and a mishap 40

Conflicts in the Colony §The Spanish had been attacking settlers in the southern part Conflicts in the Colony §The Spanish had been attacking settlers in the southern part of Carolina colony. • When the Spanish king died, England attacked Spain to keep his land from going to his closest relative who was French. • With 500 colonists, Carolina attacked St. Augustine in 1702 • They laid siege against the city for six weeks, which ended when South Carolinians burned the settlement Unfortunately, they also burned their own ships and had to walk home In 1706 the Spanish retaliated, attacking Charles Town. The fighting finally ended in 1714 41

The Tuscarora War • Where and When? • Describe what happened and why • The Tuscarora War • Where and When? • Describe what happened and why • Phase 1 • Phase 2 • Phase 3 42

The Indian Wars Colonists were constantly fighting with Native Americans v. One conflict with The Indian Wars Colonists were constantly fighting with Native Americans v. One conflict with the Tuscarora tribe occurred in 1711 in North Carolina v. The Tuscarora massacred several families when they heard that Swiss colonists were going to push them off their land v. South Carolina responded by sending 500 friendly Native Americans and 30 settlers. v. A peace treaty was signed but by 1712, they were fighting again v. South Carolina stayed until the end of the war, and Tuscarora were wiped out as a threat 43

The Yemassee War • When and Where? • Describe what happened 44 The Yemassee War • When and Where? • Describe what happened 44

Conflicts in the Colony The Yemassee War (1715 -1717) Involved almost every Native American Conflicts in the Colony The Yemassee War (1715 -1717) Involved almost every Native American tribe that traded with the settlers This was fought entirely within South Carolina. ØThe Yemassee attacked Port Royal –Because traders had charged high prices and cheated them in business deals 1 st the militia defeated the Yemassee After a 2 nd attack, the Cherokee helped the settlers Thomas Hepworth House in rd phase of this war lasted until The 3 Beaufort has gun ports in basement the peace treaty was signed on the back of the house to help defend against Yemassee attacks 45

 • What happened to the Yemassee after the war? • What did the • What happened to the Yemassee after the war? • What did the colonist gain after the war? 46

Conflicts in the Colony By the end of the war… üMost of the Yemassee Conflicts in the Colony By the end of the war… üMost of the Yemassee were dead üThe survivors moved back to Florida and were absorbed into the Seminoles Proprietors This war lasted longer & cost more: $$ and lives than any other Native American war In the end - more land was open to settlement Colonists learned to depend on themselves, and not the Lords Proprietors, for protection 47

 • The Proprietors thought the colonists 1. __________ 2. __________ • The colonist • The Proprietors thought the colonists 1. __________ 2. __________ • The colonist thought the Proprietors 1. ________ 2. ________ 48

Conflict Between Proprietors and Colonists felt: ØThe proprietors were too far away ØNot investing Conflict Between Proprietors and Colonists felt: ØThe proprietors were too far away ØNot investing enough money or supplies in the colony Proprietors Colonists The Proprietors felt: ØThat the colonists were not obedient enough ØWhere costing them valuable profits 49

 • Describe the difference between a proprietary colony and a royal colony. • • Describe the difference between a proprietary colony and a royal colony. • What happened to SC in 1729 50

Chapter 5 Change in Government The Council v. Protested to the king about the Chapter 5 Change in Government The Council v. Protested to the king about the neglect of the proprietors v. Appealed to the king to make Carolina a royal colony v. Whose governor would be appointed by the king rather than proprietors In 1729 the king reached a financial agreement with the Proprietors v. Both North and South Carolina became royal colonies 51