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PROJECT PLANNING WANG SONG JIANG (Professor) MP: 13033336177 E-mail: richard 777 wang@163. com PROJECT PLANNING WANG SONG JIANG (Professor) MP: 13033336177 E-mail: richard 777 [email protected] com

A, Warming-Up 1, Introduction (1) Myself: Wang Songjiang (2) Students Yourselves…… 2, Teaching Program A, Warming-Up 1, Introduction (1) Myself: Wang Songjiang (2) Students Yourselves…… 2, Teaching Program (1) 36 Teaching hours dividing into 18 hours for teaching; (2) Another 18 for team-working in terms of Case Study by the form of Assignments; (3)Assignments taking 30% of scoring; (4)Final Paper Examination taking 70% of the scoring

B, Structure of Project Management 1, Project Planning; 2, Project Decision-Making; 3, Project Plan B, Structure of Project Management 1, Project Planning; 2, Project Decision-Making; 3, Project Plan Drawing-up; 4, Project Implementation Management; 5, Project Financing.

C, Project Life-Cycle Project proposal Project planning Project Decisionmaking New project Project plan Project C, Project Life-Cycle Project proposal Project planning Project Decisionmaking New project Project plan Project Financing Project ending Piloting & Testing Implementation M. &E.

D, Project Management Activities in Project Four Phases Definition/Starting 1. Project Proposal 2, Project D, Project Management Activities in Project Four Phases Definition/Starting 1. Project Proposal 2, Project Planning 3. Project Feasibility Study (DM) 4. Risks 5, HRM 6, CM 7, Financing Plan & Design 1. Project Plan 2. Scope /WBS 3. Product Design 4. Risks 5, HRM 6, CM 7, Financing Execution & Control 1. Schedule 2. Cost 3. Quality 4. Procurement 5, Risks 6, HRM 7, CM End & Delivery 1. Train customer 2. Transfer documents /Project 3. Release resources 4. Risks 5, HRM 6, CM

E, Project and Project Management What is project? What is project management? E, Project and Project Management What is project? What is project management?

Part One Project Planning It is a long time practice but still can be Part One Project Planning It is a long time practice but still can be challenged on theory and methodology. Without the planning, it can do nothing.

I, Problem Analysis Methodological outline - Problem listing - Problem tree analysis - Problem I, Problem Analysis Methodological outline - Problem listing - Problem tree analysis - Problem matrix - Case study

I-1, Problem List--Card Method Per card 1 idea 1 problem 1 thought Same logic= I-1, Problem List--Card Method Per card 1 idea 1 problem 1 thought Same logic= same color Clear writing never Not more than three lines per card -CAPITALES -handwritten

I-2, Linear Problem Sequence Poor housing Low income of households Low agricultural production Inadequate I-2, Linear Problem Sequence Poor housing Low income of households Low agricultural production Inadequate farming techniques Poor extension service

I-3, Circular Sequence Lack of cultivable land Increasing waste land Soil Erosion Over utilization I-3, Circular Sequence Lack of cultivable land Increasing waste land Soil Erosion Over utilization of land Degradation of land

I-4, Tree Sequence Flooding Disturbed water Balance in low Lying regions Disturbed Water balance I-4, Tree Sequence Flooding Disturbed water Balance in low Lying regions Disturbed Water balance Reduction In forest areas Bush fires Landsides

I-4 -1, Problem Tree Analysis -basic procedures-step 1 Identify major problems existing within the I-4 -1, Problem Tree Analysis -basic procedures-step 1 Identify major problems existing within the stated problem situation. -step 2 Write up short statement of the ‘starter problem’. -step 3 Write up causes of starter problem. -step 4 Write up effects of starter problem. -step 5 Form a diagram showing the causeeffect-relationship in form of a tree. -step 6 Review diagram as a whole and verify its validity and completeness.

I-4 -2, Starter Problem Identified Matrix Criteria/Weight Starter Problem 1 Starter Problem 2 Starter I-4 -2, Starter Problem Identified Matrix Criteria/Weight Starter Problem 1 Starter Problem 2 Starter Problem n Importance weight: 0 --1 1, 3, 5*weight 1, 3, 5 *weight Emergency weight: 0 --1 1, 3, 5 *weight Core weight: 0 --1 1, 3, 5 *weight Feasibility weight: 0 --1 1, 3, 5 *weight Note: 1 point=negative Note: 3 points=neutral Note: 5 points=positive

I-4 -3, Problem Analysis Is a set of techniques to: - Analyze an existing I-4 -3, Problem Analysis Is a set of techniques to: - Analyze an existing problematic situation in a systematic way. - Identify major problems in this context. - Define one important problem as the ‘starter problem’. - Visualize the cause-effect-relationships in a diagram. (problem tree)

I-4 -4, Cause-Effect-Relationship The causes and effects of a problem will be analyzed by I-4 -4, Cause-Effect-Relationship The causes and effects of a problem will be analyzed by separation and connection then if Pastures are overgrazed Reduction in grazing Areas Effect Cause

I-4 -5, Attention 1. Word problems as negative conditions Climate 2. One problem per I-4 -5, Attention 1. Word problems as negative conditions Climate 2. One problem per card Frequent bus accidents because of bad road condition Irregular rainfall Frequent bus accidents Bad road condition 3. A problem is not the absence of a solution but an existing negative state No pesticides available Harvest is infested by pests

4. Avoid general, meaningless formulations Underdevelopment Low regional income Bad infrastructure 5. Identify existing 4. Avoid general, meaningless formulations Underdevelopment Low regional income Bad infrastructure 5. Identify existing problems, not possible, imagined or future ones. 6. Around 30 -40 well formulated and arranged cards is enough. 7. The position in the problem tree does not indicate the importance of a problem.

I-4 -6, Problem Tree The ‘problem tree’ is a diagram showing the cause-effect-relationship of I-4 -6, Problem Tree The ‘problem tree’ is a diagram showing the cause-effect-relationship of an existing problematic situation effects ‘starter problem’ causes

I-4 -7, Problem Tree: bus example Loss of confidence in bus company effects Passengers I-4 -7, Problem Tree: bus example Loss of confidence in bus company effects Passengers hurt or killed Frequent bus accidents ‘Starter problem’ Drivers not careful enough causes People are late Bad road condition Bad condition of buses Buses are too old No ongoing maintenance

I-4 -8, Problem Matrix: bus example CAUSES EFFECTS Bad road condition Bad condition of I-4 -8, Problem Matrix: bus example CAUSES EFFECTS Bad road condition Bad condition of buses Drivers not careful No ongoing maintenance Passengers are killed Sum 1 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 sum 0 3 3 0 4 3 Direct relation 2 2 Indirect relation 2 3 0 No relation Vertical : has the bad road condition an effect on the condition of the buses. Horizontal: are the bad condition of the buses a cause for the bad road condition?

II, Objectives Analysis Methodological outline - objective and objectives analysis - objectives tree - II, Objectives Analysis Methodological outline - objective and objectives analysis - objectives tree - project region’s resources and culture - CASE STUDY

II-1, Objectives Analysis Is a set of techniques to: u describe the future situation II-1, Objectives Analysis Is a set of techniques to: u describe the future situation that will be achieved by solving the problem. u identify potential alternatives for the project u clarify the intentions of the project u identify the means-end-relationship.

II-2, Means-End-Relationship If cause A Mean X then To achieve effect B end Y II-2, Means-End-Relationship If cause A Mean X then To achieve effect B end Y Vegetation cover conserved Overgrazing is stopped

II-3, Objective Tree Analysis: basic procedures § Step 1 restate all problems of the II-3, Objective Tree Analysis: basic procedures § Step 1 restate all problems of the problem tree into positive conditions that are desirable and realistically achievable § Step 2 examine the means-end-relationships to assure validity and completeness of diagram § Step 3 if necessary - revise statements - add new objective - delete objective

II-4, Attention The positive future condition have to be: § Desirable Nomads reduced § II-4, Attention The positive future condition have to be: § Desirable Nomads reduced § Achievable Regional income increase § Realistic Regular rainfall § No hidden solutions Pesticides available

II-5, Objectives Tree In the ‘Objectives tree’ all negative condition of the ‘problem tree’ II-5, Objectives Tree In the ‘Objectives tree’ all negative condition of the ‘problem tree’ will be restated into positive condition that are: -desirable -realistically achievable All objectives are of the same importance

II-6, Objectives Tree: bus example grouping Confidence in bus company improved Less passengers are II-6, Objectives Tree: bus example grouping Confidence in bus company improved Less passengers are hurt Passengers are arrive at scheduled time Frequency of bus accidents considerable reduced Drivers drive carefully Old buses are regularly replaced Buses keep in good condition Road conditions improved Buses regularly maintained

II-7, Objectives Tree: bus example--Order 1 --Confidence in bus company improved 2 --Less passengers II-7, Objectives Tree: bus example--Order 1 --Confidence in bus company improved 2 --Less passengers are hurt 3 --Passengers are arrive at scheduled time 4 --Frequency of bus accidents considerable reduced 5 --Drivers drive carefully 8 --Old buses are regularly replaced 6 --Buses keep in good condition 7 --Road conditions improved 9 --Buses regularly maintained

II-7 -1, Objectives Tree: bus example—Project Design 1, Grouping: Put the objectives into one II-7 -1, Objectives Tree: bus example—Project Design 1, Grouping: Put the objectives into one group within the objective tree in terms of they are the same objectives or/and similar objectives or/and likely objectives. Group A=objective 2 and 3 Group B=objective 1, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 Group C=objective 7 2, Project Planning Project A (Group A): Improving of Passengers Safety Project B (Group B): Up-grading of Management for Bus Company Project C (Group C): Road Infrastructure Re-building Project

II-7 -2, Objectives Tree: bus example—Project Priority Matrix Criteria Weighting Project A Project B II-7 -2, Objectives Tree: bus example—Project Priority Matrix Criteria Weighting Project A Project B Project C Note: 1 point=negative Note: 3 points=neutral Note: 5 points=positiv e No. of Beneficiaries Degree of Participation Utilization of Local Resources Eco-Environment Impact Contribution to Employment Affordability Eco-Soc-Econ-Benefits Experience & Lessons Gender Issue Contribution to Social Rest ∑

II-7 -3, Objectives Tree: bus example—Project Priority Scoring 1, More Than Four Times Anonymous II-7 -3, Objectives Tree: bus example—Project Priority Scoring 1, More Than Four Times Anonymous Weighting and Scoring by Experts and Specialists ; 2, Experts and Specialists Team (1)7 -9 Persons; (2) Background should be the Economists/Management Researchers, Technologists, Administrators etc. (3) How to Deal with the Highest Points and the Lowest Points ?

III, Alternatives Analysis Decision techniques -terminology -’traditional’ decision techniques -multicriterial decision technique zopp –alternative III, Alternatives Analysis Decision techniques -terminology -’traditional’ decision techniques -multicriterial decision technique zopp –alternative analysis Case study

III-1, Alternatives Analysis: basic procedure u u Step 1 identify objectives you do not III-1, Alternatives Analysis: basic procedure u u Step 1 identify objectives you do not want to peruse Step 2 identify' means-ends-ladder’ as possible alternative project or step 3 step 4 project component label alternatives assess which alternative might represent an optimal project strategy by using cretins such as: - resource limitation - technical feasibility - ecological implications - social risks - political will - sustainability - cost-benefit-relation - self-help contribution - income generation

III-2, Case Study: guideline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. identify objectives you do not III-2, Case Study: guideline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. identify objectives you do not want to peruse identify' means-ends-ladder’ Label the identified options Identify selection criteria Prepare decision , make assumptions: cost, feasibility, etc 6. Select one project that you want to realize 7. Presentation of selection/decision procedure and results

III-3, List of Options § Apartment A Monthly rent : 80 DM Distance: 15 III-3, List of Options § Apartment A Monthly rent : 80 DM Distance: 15 min § Apartment B Monthly rent : 1200 DM Distance: 10 min § Apartment C Monthly rent : 180 DM Distance: 90 min D Monthly rent : 200 DM Distance: 40 min § Apartment E Monthly rent : 1000 DM Distance: 100 min § Apartment F Monthly rent : 650 DM Distance: 2 min G Monthly rent : 250 DM Distance: 50 min § Apartment

III-4, Table of Options/Criteria options criteria Apart. 1 Apart. 2 Apart. 3 Apart. 4 III-4, Table of Options/Criteria options criteria Apart. 1 Apart. 2 Apart. 3 Apart. 4 rent 80 DM 650 DM 200 DM space 10 m 2 50 m 2 18 m 2 35 m 2 distance 15 min 2 min 50 min 40 min Qualitative aspects bathroom, Bathroom No kitchen, Kitchen dirty Friendly landlord No own bathroom And kitchen, Unfriendly landlord Bathroom kitchen, 1200 DM Commission fee

III-5, Order-Matrix criteria order 1. rank 2. rank 3. rank 4. rank Criteria 1(rent) III-5, Order-Matrix criteria order 1. rank 2. rank 3. rank 4. rank Criteria 1(rent) A 1 A 4 A 3 A 2 Criteria 2(space) A 2 A 4 A 3 A 1 Criteria 3(distance) A 2 A 1 A 4 A 3 Criteria 4(quality) A 2 A 4 A 1 A 3 (partment)

III-6, Test of Total Dominance/Recessives § Total dominance § One option has the 1 III-6, Test of Total Dominance/Recessives § Total dominance § One option has the 1 st rank in regard to all criteria. select this option § Total recessives § One option has the last rank in regard to all criteria: exclude this option from further decision process

III-7, Voting-Matrix options 1. rank 2. rank 3. rank 4. rank Apartment 1(A 1) III-7, Voting-Matrix options 1. rank 2. rank 3. rank 4. rank Apartment 1(A 1) - 3 2 2 Apartment 2(A 2) 1 - 1 1 Apartment 3(A 3) 2 3 - 4 Apartment 4(A 4) 2 3 0 -

III-8, Advantage-Disadvantage-Table comparison A 1/A 2 A 1/A 3 A 1/A 4 A 2/A III-8, Advantage-Disadvantage-Table comparison A 1/A 2 A 1/A 3 A 1/A 4 A 2/A 3 A 2/A 4 A 3/A 4 Criteria 1 A A A D D D Criteria 1 D D D A A D Criteria 1 D D D A A D Advantage 1 2 2 3 3 0 disadvantage 3 2 2 1 1 4 Criteria Number of comparison: z=[n(n-1)/2]×c n= number of option c= number of criteria

III-9, Scope of Alternative(4 option) 1, 2, 3, 4 2, 1, 3, 4 3, III-9, Scope of Alternative(4 option) 1, 2, 3, 4 2, 1, 3, 4 3, 1, 2, 4 4, 1, 2, 3 1, 2, 4, 3 2, 1, 4, 3 3, 1, 4, 2 4, 1, 3, 2, 4 2, 3, 1, 4 3, 2, 1, 4 4, 2, 1, 3, 4, 2 2, 3, 4, 1 3, 2, 4, 1 4, 2, 3, 1 1, 4, 2, 3 2, 4, 1, 3 3, 4, 1, 2 4, 3, 1, 2 1, 4, 3, 2 2, 4, 3, 1 3, 4, 2, 1 4, 3, 2, 1 24 different rank orders

III-10, Decision compared to Apartment 1 Apartment 2 Is the ADVANTAGE of apartment 1(to III-10, Decision compared to Apartment 1 Apartment 2 Is the ADVANTAGE of apartment 1(to save 570 DM) outweighing the DISADVANTAGE to live in a 40 m 2 smaller room And to have a thirteen min longer walking distance and to have no Kitchen and to live in a dirty apartment A 1 D 2 D 3 D 4 YES NO A 1/A 4 A 2/A 4

IV, Project Planning Matrix (PPM) Presentation of the whole project in one matrix. The IV, Project Planning Matrix (PPM) Presentation of the whole project in one matrix. The ‘PPM’ provides a one stage summary: - Why a project is carried out. - What the project is expected to achieve. - How the project is going to achieve these results. - Which external factors are crucial for the success of the project. - How we can assess the success of the project. - Where we will find the data required to assess the success of he project.

IV-1, Logic of a Project combined hypotheses Then Overall goal If Project purpose Then IV-1, Logic of a Project combined hypotheses Then Overall goal If Project purpose Then If results activities

IV-2, Matrix indicators Overall goal Project purpose Results Activities Horizontal logic Vertical logic Important IV-2, Matrix indicators Overall goal Project purpose Results Activities Horizontal logic Vertical logic Important Means of verification assumptions

IV-3, Project Planning Matrix Working procedures Narrative summary indicators Means of vertification Overall goal IV-3, Project Planning Matrix Working procedures Narrative summary indicators Means of vertification Overall goal For long term sustainability STEP 2 STEP 4 STEP 3 STEP 1 Project Purpose Assumptions Project Results Project activities Necessary resources for activities STEP 5 Pro-condition for project

IV-4, Project Planning Matrix: Bus example indicators Overall goal Financial funds for public transportation IV-4, Project Planning Matrix: Bus example indicators Overall goal Financial funds for public transportation reduce Importation of new buses amounts to less than 50, 000 US$/year Project purpose After 2 years at least 65%of Citizens are using the public citizens are using public buses regularly transport assumptions Buses remain means of transportation Fuel costs remain stable Project results The buses are maintained regularly Repair of buses after 2 years Fares do not increase more lasts not more than 1 hour than incomes of citizens Project activities Bus drivers are introduced how to maintain buses Specification 6 -weeks-training-course for bus drivers Trained bus drivers do not leave bus company

IV-4 -1, Summary of Objectives/Activities(1 row) The Summary of objectives/activities shows the basic structure IV-4 -1, Summary of Objectives/Activities(1 row) The Summary of objectives/activities shows the basic structure of the project. - The project purpose describes the anticipated benefit of the project. It contributes to achieving the overall goal. - The project results are objectives which the project management must achieve. The project results are necessary requirements to achieve the project purpose. - The project activities are implemented in order to obtain the project results.

IV-4 -2, Indicators(2 row) - Indicators are measuring the contents of objectives in terms IV-4 -2, Indicators(2 row) - Indicators are measuring the contents of objectives in terms of: -Quantity how much? -Quality how well? -Time when? -Location where? - Indicators tell if an objective is achieved. - Indicators provide a basis for monitoring and evaluation.

IV-4 -3, Indicators: working procedure Objective: eg. Agricultural production increased Step 1 identify indicators IV-4 -3, Indicators: working procedure Objective: eg. Agricultural production increased Step 1 identify indicators “small farmers increase rice yield” Step 2 quantity 10. 000 small farmers (owing three acres or less) increase production by 50% Step 3 quality same quality of harvest as 1983 crops Step 4 time Between oct. 1984 and oct. 1985 Step 5 location 10. 000 small farmers in umbra province increase their rice Umbia province Yield by 50% between oct. 1984 and oct. 1985 maintaining Step 6 combine Same quality of crops as 1983

IV-4 -4, Means of Verification(3. row) § Means of verification give an exact description IV-4 -4, Means of Verification(3. row) § Means of verification give an exact description where to find the data necessary to verify the indicator. § Important questions: - what information? - by whom provided? - how reliable are the sources? - is special data-gathering required? § Indicators for which no suitable means of verification can be identified must be replaced by verifiable indicators.

IV-4 -5, Assumptions(4. row) Assumption are conditions that must exist if the project is IV-4 -5, Assumptions(4. row) Assumption are conditions that must exist if the project is to succeed but which are not under direct control of the project. Assumptions are : - important factors. - outside of project control. - necessary for project success.

IV-4 -6, Assessment of Assumptions 1. Question: “is the assumption important? ” yes No: IV-4 -6, Assessment of Assumptions 1. Question: “is the assumption important? ” yes No: don't include 2. Question: “how likely will it occur? ” Not likely Almost certain : don’t include Quite likely: -include it in PPM - try to influence it 3. Question: “can the project be re-designed” No : killer assumption -stop project -warn decision makes Yes: Redesign project

Part Two Project Decision-Making (PDM) The project decision-making has been practiced more than thousand Part Two Project Decision-Making (PDM) The project decision-making has been practiced more than thousand years, such as Great Wall, Pyramid and etc. Subjective-decision-making needs diversity theories, approaches, methods, means and measures to deal with the quite new future.

I, Financial Benefit Analysis on PDM I-1, NPV Method; I-2, B/C Ratio Method; I-3, I, Financial Benefit Analysis on PDM I-1, NPV Method; I-2, B/C Ratio Method; I-3, IRR Method; I-4, Pt Method; I-5, NPVR Method; I-6, Discount Rate; I-7, Sensitive Analysis.

I-8, Case Study: Financial Analysis on PDM i=10%; USD 10, 000 Time (yr) CI I-8, Case Study: Financial Analysis on PDM i=10%; USD 10, 000 Time (yr) CI Cash in CO Cash out 1 0 12 2 3 7 3 5 3 4 17 0 5 17 0 ∑ NCF=(CI-CO)i ANCF =∑NCFi

II, Economic Analysis on PDM II-1, Shadow Price; II-2, Social Discount Rate; II-3, CI II, Economic Analysis on PDM II-1, Shadow Price; II-2, Social Discount Rate; II-3, CI Structure; II-4, CO Structure; II-5, ENVP; II-6, EB/C Ratio; II-7, EIRR; II-8, EPt II-9, Relations between Economic Analysis and Financial Analysis on PDM

III, Social Benefit Analysis on PDM 1, Establishing of Social Benefit Evaluation System (1)Selection III, Social Benefit Analysis on PDM 1, Establishing of Social Benefit Evaluation System (1)Selection of Social Benefit Criteria by Experts and Specialists Team (2)Seletion of Weighting Score for each Criteria by Experts and Specialists Team (3)Selection of Experts and Specialists Team; Scoring ① 7 -9 Persons; ②Background should be the Economists/Management Researchers, Technologists, Administrators etc. ③ More Than Four Times Anonymous Weighting and Scoring by Experts and Specialists Team ④How to Deal with the Highest Points and the Lowest Points ? 2, Social Benefit Evaluation Matrix (see next page)

III, Social Benefit Analysis on PDM Criteria Weighting 0 -1 Economist Technologist Administrator No. III, Social Benefit Analysis on PDM Criteria Weighting 0 -1 Economist Technologist Administrator No. of Beneficiaries Degree of Participation Utilization of Local Resources Local Management Improving Contribution to Employment Affordability Conservation of Indigenous Knowledge/Culture Experience & Lessons Gender Issue Contribution to Social Rest ∑ Note: 1 point=negative Note: 3 points=neutral Note: 5 points=positive

IV, Ecological Benefit Analysis 1, Ecological Environment (Negative) Impact Assessment (EIA) 2, Long Term IV, Ecological Benefit Analysis 1, Ecological Environment (Negative) Impact Assessment (EIA) 2, Long Term Bio-diversity (Negative) Impact Assessment (BIA) 3, Methodology on EIA and BIA

Part Three Project Plan Drawing-up For a project to succeed, it must have a Part Three Project Plan Drawing-up For a project to succeed, it must have a good plan. However, the good plan will not ensure the success of the project.

I, Contents of Project Plan 1, Objective Design 2, Tasks Break-down—WBS 3, Procedure of I, Contents of Project Plan 1, Objective Design 2, Tasks Break-down—WBS 3, Procedure of Tasks Implementation—CPA & Ghantt Chart 4, Approaches, Methods, Means and Measures of Tasks Implementation—Marketing, Technology and Management or/and Administration 5, Relations between Implementers and Monitors— Organization Management, M & E 6, Cost Estimation and Controlling; Budgeting 7, Quality Control 8, Project Plan Matrix 9, Conclusions; Assessment; Recommendations 10, Others

II, Project Objective Drawing-Up 1, Only one objective (called as goal) drawing-up or summarizing II, Project Objective Drawing-Up 1, Only one objective (called as goal) drawing-up or summarizing from the objective group, which has been become the objective of the project plan. 2, The description of the objective within the project plan should be included at least four factors, to wit: (1)Quantitative criteria; (2)Clearn time period; (3)Resources input in monetary that namely as COST; (4)Approaches, methods, means and measures to carry out the objective.

III, Project Tasks Break-Down It uses the tool, namely WBS (Work Break-Down Structure) to III, Project Tasks Break-Down It uses the tool, namely WBS (Work Break-Down Structure) to break the tasks from the project objective until the tasks have been broken into the smallest task for implementing. The WBS can be formed as Table Form (or Flow-Chart Form in the next page), which illustrating in the bellowing hereunder. Coding 1, Goal Coding Tier 2 Coding Tier 3 Coding Tier. . . …n 1. 1 Tier 1 Objective 1 1. 1. 1 Task 1 1. 1 …… 1. 2 Objective 2 1. 1. 2 Task 2 1. 1. 2. 1 …… 1. 3 Objective 3 1. 1. 3 Task 3 1. 1. 3. 1 ……

WBS in Flow-Chart Form WBS in Flow-Chart Form

IV, Project Procedure of Tasks Implementation 1, Gantt Chart (see following page) 2, CPA IV, Project Procedure of Tasks Implementation 1, Gantt Chart (see following page) 2, CPA (1)Exmating Task Duration E(t)=(1*Optimistic Time+4*Most Likely Time+1*Pessimistic Time)/6 (2)Critical Path Analysis e. g. German Breakfast Gantt Chart and CPA (see the next page)

Geting-Up: 7: 00,Clothing: 5 minutes, Cleaning Face: 4 minutes, Boiling Water: 10 minutes, Take Geting-Up: 7: 00,Clothing: 5 minutes, Cleaning Face: 4 minutes, Boiling Water: 10 minutes, Take milk: 5 minutes, Cooking Milk: 5 minutes, Eating: 5 minutes (only one stove) Order Tasks Time Pre-Tasks Post-Tasks 1 Clothing 5 __ __ 2, 3 2 Boiling Water 10 1 5 3 Cleaning Face 4 1 4 4 Taking Milk 5 1 5 5 Cooking Milk 5 2, 4 6 6 Eating 5 5 __ __

Time 7: 05 Order Tasks 1 Clothing 5 2 Boiling Water 10 3 Cleaning Time 7: 05 Order Tasks 1 Clothing 5 2 Boiling Water 10 3 Cleaning Face 4 4 Taking Milk 5 5 Cooking Milk 5 6 Eating 5 7: 10 7: 15 7: 20 7: 25 7: 30

Boiling Water 10 Clothing 5 Cooking Milk 5 Cleaning Face 4 Taking Milk 5 Boiling Water 10 Clothing 5 Cooking Milk 5 Cleaning Face 4 Taking Milk 5 Eating 5

V, Approaches of Tasks Implementation 1, Technology (1)Technical Design (2)Engineering Activities (3)Qquipment and Facilities V, Approaches of Tasks Implementation 1, Technology (1)Technical Design (2)Engineering Activities (3)Qquipment and Facilities (4)Energy Supply (5)Others 2, Management (1)Organazation (2)Plan (3)Leadship (4)Cooperation, Coordination, Communication and Controlling 3, Marketing (1)Prodeuct Design (2)Pricing (3)Placing (4)Promotion (5)Public Relations (6)Politic Power (7)4 Cs (Customs’ Needs, Cost Affordability, Convenience, Cooperation )

VI, Relations between Implementers and Monitors—Organization Management, M & E 1, Organazation Structure (1)Bureaucracy VI, Relations between Implementers and Monitors—Organization Management, M & E 1, Organazation Structure (1)Bureaucracy Structure (2)Project Structure (3)Matrix Structure 2, M & E (Monitoring and Evaluation) (1)Pre-Project M & E (2)Project M & E (3)Post-Project M & E (4)Procedure of M & E

President Project coordination Human resources Engineering Marketing Finance and administration Manufacturing Electronics Software Mechanical President Project coordination Human resources Engineering Marketing Finance and administration Manufacturing Electronics Software Mechanical engineering Customer service Domestic sales International sales Design Procurement Purchasing Fabrication Assembly Testing Project Bureaucracy Organization Receiving and inspection Production scheduling

Zeus Electronics, Inc. President Human resources Marketing Engineering Finance and administration Manufacturing Procurement Project Zeus Electronics, Inc. President Human resources Marketing Engineering Finance and administration Manufacturing Procurement Project manager Project Organization Project team

President Human resources Director of projects Finance Engineering Manufacturing Marketing Design Electr. Soft. Mech. President Human resources Director of projects Finance Engineering Manufacturing Marketing Design Electr. Soft. Mech. Thch. Asse- Test. Cus. Dom. Intern. Quality administration engin. docu. mbly ing service sales Project 3 1 2 1/2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 Pro. A 3 Pro. A team Project C project manager 1 1 team Project B project manager 2 Pro. A team Project A project manager 1 1/2 Project Matrix Organization 2 2

VII, Cost Estimation and Controlling; Budgeting 1, Cost Estimation C(e)=Amount of Resources *Price/Per Unit VII, Cost Estimation and Controlling; Budgeting 1, Cost Estimation C(e)=Amount of Resources *Price/Per Unit Types, Quality, Input Time, Source of Resources 2, Budgeting

3, Earned Value (EV): Cost/Schedule Control System (1)BCWP (Budgeted Cost of Work Performed)=EV=(ACWP/BCWS)*ACWP (2)ACWP 3, Earned Value (EV): Cost/Schedule Control System (1)BCWP (Budgeted Cost of Work Performed)=EV=(ACWP/BCWS)*ACWP (2)ACWP ( Actual Cost of Work Performed)= Actual Cost (3)BCWS (Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled)=Planned Cost (4)CV (Cost Variance)=EV-ACWP (5)SV (Schedule Variance)=EV-BCWS (6)CIP (Cost Performance Index)=EV/ACWP (7)SCI (Schedule Performance Index)=EV/BCWS (8)BAC (Budget at Completion)=Total Cost (9)ETC (Estimate to Complete)=EAC-ACWP (10)EAC (Estimate at Completion) has four formulas: ①EAC=ACWP+ Remaining BCWS/CPI ②EAC=ACWP+ETC ③EAC=ACWP+ Remaining BCWS ④EAC=BAC/CPI

(11) Five Valuable Understanding ① Question: How much work should be done? Answer: Budgeted (11) Five Valuable Understanding ① Question: How much work should be done? Answer: Budgeted cost for work schedule Acronym: BCWS ② Question: How much work is done? Answer: Budgeted cost for work performed Acronym: BCWP/EV ③ Question: How much did the “is done” work cost? Answer: Actual cost of work performed Acronym: ACWP ④ Question: What was the total job supposed to cost? Answer: Budget at completion Acronym: BAC ⑤ Question: What do we now expect the total job to cost? Answer: Estimate at completion Acronym: EAC

(12) Case Study and Interpretation on EV ① Case: Task A---BCWS=$1, 000; ACWP=$850 ② (12) Case Study and Interpretation on EV ① Case: Task A---BCWS=$1, 000; ACWP=$850 ② EV (BEWP)=(ACWP/BCWS)*ACWP=($850/$1, 000)*$850=$722. 5 Interpretation of EV: Task A, which was supposed to complete today, is scheduled to cost $1, 000. I am only 85% done on this task. Thus I have done $722. 5 worth of work, which is my earned value. ③ CV=EV-ACWP=&722. 5 -$850=-127. 5 Interpretation of CV: I have done $722. 5 worth of work (EV), but it actually cost me $850. It has cost me $127. 5 more to do what I have done than I originally thought (CV). ④ SV=EV-BCWS=&722. 5 -&1, 000=-277. 5 Interpretation of SV: As of today, I was supposed to have done $1, 000 worth of work on Task A (BCWS). I have actually done $722. 5 worth of work (EV). Thus, I am behind in my schedule by &277. 5 worth of work (SV). ⑤ CIP=EV/ACWP=722. 5/850=85% Interpretation of CIP: I have done $722. 5 worth of work (EV). It has cost me $850 to do so (ACWP). Each dollar I actually spent generated 85% worth of work (CPI). ⑥ SCI=EV/BCWS=$722. 5/$1, 000=72. 25% Interpretation of SCI: I have done $722. 5 worth of work (EV). The value of work scheduled is $1, 000 (BCWS). Each dollar of scheduled work generated 72. 25% worth of work (SCI).

VIII, Quality Control 1, Four Absolutes of Quality Management (1)Quality is defined as “conformance VIII, Quality Control 1, Four Absolutes of Quality Management (1)Quality is defined as “conformance to requirements”, not as “goodness” or “elegance”. (2)The system for causing quality is “prevention” , not “appraisal or inspection or assessment etc”. (3)The performance standard of quality must be “zero defects”, not “that’s close enough”. (4)The measurement of quality is the detailed description, not indices.

VIII, Quality Control 2, TQM (Total Quality Management) (1)Definition Total: The everyone is involved VIII, Quality Control 2, TQM (Total Quality Management) (1)Definition Total: The everyone is involved in continuous improvement (including suppliers and customers). Quality: The implied and expressed customer requirements are fully met. Management: The senior executives are committed to approach. (2)Quality Control The quality control entails monitoring production processes to see that they produce goods according to an established standard. The important tool is the “control chart”.

① Variance ---The variance is non-conformance to requirements. ---The degree of the variance can ① Variance ---The variance is non-conformance to requirements. ---The degree of the variance can be measured by determining the level of departure from required performance levels. ②Control Chart Upper Control Limit (UCL) Outlier ○ 10. 5 mm ○○○○○ 10. 3 mm ○○○○○○○ 10. 3 mm Lower Control Limit (LCL) ③PDCA Step 1: Plan for quality (plan); Step 2: Implementation the plan (do); Step 3: Check to see how things are going (check); Step 4: Based on your “check” effort, adjust the process to improve performance (act). P A C D

IX, Project Plan Matrix Task Impleme nter Monitor Time Cost($ 10, 000) Quality Pre. IX, Project Plan Matrix Task Impleme nter Monitor Time Cost($ 10, 000) Quality Pre. Task Parallel -Task Post. Task Changing 1. 1. 1 Wang Smith Mar. 15 to Mar. 7 12 Criteria 1. 1. 0 1. 1. 9 1. 2. 4 Reasons, Appling, Approved, Recording 1. 2. 4 Bill Bush Apr. 2 to 34 May 5 Criteria 1. 3. 2 1, 7, 6 1. 2. 3 Reasons, Appling, Approved, Recording 1. 3. 6 Richard Duan June 7 to July 17 76 Criteria 1. 4. 5 1. 3. 3 1. 4. 5 Reasons, Appling, Approved, Recording 1. 7. 2 Lee Alli Aug. 3 to Sep. 27 10 Criteria 1. 6. 7 1. 9. 7 1. 7. 8 Reasons, Appling, Approved, Recording …… …… ……

X, Conclusions; Assessment; Recommendations 1, Conclusions 2, Assessment 3, Recommendations 4, Appendix 5, Project X, Conclusions; Assessment; Recommendations 1, Conclusions 2, Assessment 3, Recommendations 4, Appendix 5, Project Plan Report Format

Part Four Project Implementation Management Implementation is an execution to carry the project plan Part Four Project Implementation Management Implementation is an execution to carry the project plan into the project practicing. Without the project implementation, every thing is just in the “paper work”. The quality, cost and time schedule are called as “golden triangle” in the project implementation. Quality Cost Time

I, Time Schedule Management 1, Gantt Chart (see following page) 2, CPA (1)Exmating Task I, Time Schedule Management 1, Gantt Chart (see following page) 2, CPA (1)Exmating Task Duration E(t)=(1*Optimistic Time+4*Most Likely Time+1*Pessimistic Time)/6 (2)Critical Path Analysis e. g. German Breakfast CPA (see the next page)

Time April 20 Take TV Progr am May 10 May 20 June 10 June Time April 20 Take TV Progr am May 10 May 20 June 10 June 20 July 10 July 20 Aug. 10 Aug 20 3. 1 3. 2 3. 5 30 3. 3 Activiti es and Coordin 1. 1. 1. 2 1. 1. 3 ation 1 12 3 3. 6 30 15 3. 4 15 1. 2. 1 30 2. 3 19 2. 2 30 Survey 4. 1 15 21/5 Press Maga zine Assist ant Work 30 2. 4 10 4. 2 15 5. 3 49 26/6 60 90 Gantt Chart 15 1. 2. 3 1. 2. 4 10 4 1. 1. 6 1. 1. 5 1. 2. 2 5 10 4 2 6/8 4. 3 10 11/7 3. 9 20 25/8 5 2. 6 30 2. 5 25 5. 1 35 0 3. 8 5. 2 15 3 1. 1. 4 20 26/5 3. 7 Sep. 10 Sep. 16 5. 4 10 120 5. 5 28 13/9 进度时间 146天

II, Cost Management 1, Cost Estimation C(e)=Amount of Resources *Price/Per Unit Types, Quality, Input II, Cost Management 1, Cost Estimation C(e)=Amount of Resources *Price/Per Unit Types, Quality, Input Time, Source of Resources 2, Budgeting

3, Earned Value (EV): Cost/Schedule Control System (1)BCWP (Budgeted Cost of Work Performed)=EV=(ACWP/BCWS)*ACWP (2)ACWP 3, Earned Value (EV): Cost/Schedule Control System (1)BCWP (Budgeted Cost of Work Performed)=EV=(ACWP/BCWS)*ACWP (2)ACWP ( Actual Cost of Work Performed)= Actual Cost (3)BCWS (Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled)=Planned Cost (4)CV (Cost Variance)=EV-ACWP (5)SV (Schedule Variance)=EV-BCWS (6)CIP (Cost Performance Index)=EV/ACWP (7)SCI (Schedule Performance Index)=EV/BCWS (8)BAC (Budget at Completion)=Total Cost (9)ETC (Estimate to Complete)=EAC-ACWP (10)EAC (Estimate at Completion) has four formulas: ①EAC=ACWP+ Remaining BCWS/CPI ②EAC=ACWP+ETC ③EAC=ACWP+ Remaining BCWS ④EAC=BAC/CPI

(11) Five Valuable Understanding ① Question: How much work should be done? Answer: Budgeted (11) Five Valuable Understanding ① Question: How much work should be done? Answer: Budgeted cost for work schedule Acronym: BCWS ② Question: How much work is done? Answer: Budgeted cost for work performed Acronym: BCWP/EV ③ Question: How much did the “is done” work cost? Answer: Actual cost of work performed Acronym: ACWP ④ Question: What was the total job supposed to cost? Answer: Budget at completion Acronym: BAC ⑤ Question: What do we now expect the total job to cost? Answer: Estimate at completion Acronym: EAC

(12) Case Study and Interpretation on EV ① Case: Task A---BCWS=$1, 000; ACWP=$850 ② (12) Case Study and Interpretation on EV ① Case: Task A---BCWS=$1, 000; ACWP=$850 ② EV (BEWP)=(ACWP/BCWS)*ACWP=($850/$1, 000)*$850=$722. 5 Interpretation of EV: Task A, which was supposed to complete today, is scheduled to cost $1, 000. I am only 85% done on this task. Thus I have done $722. 5 worth of work, which is my earned value. ③ CV=EV-ACWP=&722. 5 -$850=-127. 5 Interpretation of CV: I have done $722. 5 worth of work (EV), but it actually cost me $850. It has cost me $127. 5 more to do what I have done than I originally thought (CV). ④ SV=EV-BCWS=&722. 5 -&1, 000=-277. 5 Interpretation of SV: As of today, I was supposed to have done $1, 000 worth of work on Task A (BCWS). I have actually done $722. 5 worth of work (EV). Thus, I am behind in my schedule by &277. 5 worth of work (SV). ⑤ CIP=EV/ACWP=722. 5/850=85% Interpretation of CIP: I have done $722. 5 worth of work (EV). It has cost me $850 to do so (ACWP). Each dollar I actually spent generated 85% worth of work (CPI). ⑥ SCI=EV/BCWS=$722. 5/$1, 000=72. 25% Interpretation of SCI: I have done $722. 5 worth of work (EV). The value of work scheduled is $1, 000 (BCWS). Each dollar of scheduled work generated 72. 25% worth of work (SCI).

III, Quality Management 1, Four Absolutes of Quality Management (1)Quality is defined as “conformance III, Quality Management 1, Four Absolutes of Quality Management (1)Quality is defined as “conformance to requirements”, not as “goodness” or “elegance”. (2)The system for causing quality is “prevention” , not “appraisal or inspection or assessment etc”. (3)The performance standard of quality must be “zero defects”, not “that’s close enough”. (4)The measurement of quality is the detailed description, not indices.

① Variance ---The variance is non-conformance to requirements. ---The degree of the variance can ① Variance ---The variance is non-conformance to requirements. ---The degree of the variance can be measured by determining the level of departure from required performance levels. ②Control Chart Upper Control Limit (UCL) Outlier ○ 10. 5 mm ○○○○○ 10. 3 mm ○○○○○○○ 10. 3 mm Lower Control Limit (LCL) ③PDCA Step 1: Plan for quality (plan); Step 2: Implementation the plan (do); Step 3: Check to see how things are going (check); Step 4: Based on your “check” effort, adjust the process to improve performance (act). P A C D

IV, Procurement Management 1, Procurement Planning (1)Make-or-buy analysis (2)Contract types and risks ①cost plus IV, Procurement Management 1, Procurement Planning (1)Make-or-buy analysis (2)Contract types and risks ①cost plus percentage of cost (CPPC); ②cost plus fixed fee (CPFF); ③cost plus incentive fee (CPIF); ④fixed price plus incentive fee (FPI); ⑤firm fixed price (FFP). (3)Contract incentives

IV, Procurement Management 2, Solicitation Planning (1)Contract origination (2)Evaluation criteria 3, Solicitation 4, Source IV, Procurement Management 2, Solicitation Planning (1)Contract origination (2)Evaluation criteria 3, Solicitation 4, Source selection (1)Evaluation prospective contractors (2)Contract negotiation ①Five steps; ②Negotiation tactics

IV, Procurement Management 5, Contract Administration (1)Standard clauses (2)Elements of a legally enforceable contract IV, Procurement Management 5, Contract Administration (1)Standard clauses (2)Elements of a legally enforceable contract (3)Changes and change control (4)Undifined work 6, Contract Closeout (1)Organizing for contract management ①Centralized contract ②Decentralized contract (2)Privity contract (3)Foreign currency exchange

Part Five Other Management The communication management is the special skills to solve problems Part Five Other Management The communication management is the special skills to solve problems in sociological approach, which can be the cheapest way to carry out it. The human resource management is the most important sector within the project management, because the every thing has to be carried out by people. The risk exists everywhere, which has to be controlled or at least minimized.

I, Communication Management 1, Communication Model (1)Active listening (2)Feedback 2, Communication Channels 3, Types I, Communication Management 1, Communication Model (1)Active listening (2)Feedback 2, Communication Channels 3, Types of Communication (1)Formal and informal (2)Verbal and written 4, Communication Requirements 5, Kickoff meeting 6, Barriers to Communication: barriers lead to conflict 7, Communication Role of Project: Project Manager & Customer 8, Building Effective Team Communication (1)Be an effective communication (2)Be a communication expediter (3)Avoid communication blockers (4)Use a “tight matrix” (5)Have a project “war room” (6)Make meetings effective

II, Human Resource Management 1, Forms of Organization (1)Bureaucracy (2)Project (3)Matrix 2, Project Manager II, Human Resource Management 1, Forms of Organization (1)Bureaucracy (2)Project (3)Matrix 2, Project Manager Role and Responsibilities (1)Functions (PLOC) (2)Roles (Owner, CEO, Implementer etc) 3, Types of Power (1)Legitimate (2)Corecive (3)Reward (4)Expert (5)Refernt 4, Project Conflict (1)Conflict is unavoidable (2)Sopurces of conflict 5, Conflict Management (1)Problem solving (2)Compromising (3)Wiyhdrawal (4)Forcing 6, Team Building (1)Goal of project team building (2)Symptoms of poor teamwork (3)Team building process 7, Motivation Theories (1)MASLOW’S Hierarchy of Needs (2)Mc. GREGOR’S Theory X and Theory Y (3)HERZHERG’S Theory of Motivation (4)Expectancy Theory 8, Personnel Issues (1)Fringe Benefit (2)Perquisites (3)Productivity (4)H. R. Functions (Training/TNA, Career planning, team building)

III, Risk Management Every project manager understands risks are inherent in projects. In the III, Risk Management Every project manager understands risks are inherent in projects. In the context of projects, risk is the chance that an undesirable event will occur and the consequences of all its possible outcomes. 1, Risk Management Flow-Chart Cost Risk Event Graph High Cost to fix risk event Chances of risks occurring Low Project life cycle

III, Risk Management 2, Risk Management Process Step 1: Risk Identification One common mistake III, Risk Management 2, Risk Management Process Step 1: Risk Identification One common mistake that is made early in the risk identification process is to focus on consequences and not on the events that could produce consequences. The focus in the beginning should be on risks that can affect the whole project as opposed to a specific section of the project or network. A risk profile is another tool that can help management teams identify and eventually analyze risks. Step 2: Risk Assessment Assessing each risk in terms of: 1. The undesirable event. 2. All the outcomes of the event’s occurrence. 3. The magnitude or severity of the event’s impact. 4. Chances/probability of the event happening. 5. When the event might occur in the project. 6. Interaction with other parts of this or other projects. Documentation of scenario analyses can be seen in various risk assessment forms used by companies.

Several techniques for risk assessing: ratio/range analysis, hybrid analysis approaches, failure mode and effects Several techniques for risk assessing: ratio/range analysis, hybrid analysis approaches, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), probability analysis, scenario analysis: semi quantitative (this approach uses time because most risk events are time dependent, impact project delays, and are easily understood by risk team members). Step 3: Risk Response Development When a risk event is identified and assessed, a decision must be made concerning which response is appropriate for the specific event. Responses to risk can be classified as mitigating (reduce the likelihood, and/or reduce the adverse impact), transferring, sharing, and retaining. ①Contingency Planning A contingency plan is an alternative plan that will be used if a possible foreseen risk event becomes a reality. The contingency plan represents preventive actions that will reduce or mitigate the negative impact of the risk event. Like all plans, the contingency plan answers the questions of what, where, when, and how much action will take place.

②Contingency Funding Contingency funds are established to cover errors in estimates, omissions, and uncertainties ②Contingency Funding Contingency funds are established to cover errors in estimates, omissions, and uncertainties that may materialize as the project is implemented. The size and amount of contingency reserves depends on “newness” of the project, inaccurate time and cost estimates, technical problems, mirror changes in scope, and problems not anticipated. ---Budget reserves. These reserves are identified for specific work packages or segments of a project found in the baseline budget or work breakdown structure. Budget reserves are for identified risks that have a low chance of occurring (small design changes and time and cost estimate errors). ---Management reserves. These reserve funds are needed to cover major unforeseen and potential risks and, hence, are applied to the total project. Management reserves are established after budget reserves are identified and are controlled by the project manage and the “owner” of the project.

Contingency Fund Estimate (Thousands of Dollars) Budget Project Activity Baseline Reserve Budget Design $500 Contingency Fund Estimate (Thousands of Dollars) Budget Project Activity Baseline Reserve Budget Design $500 $15 $515 Code 900 80 980 Test 20 2 22 Subtotal $1, 420 $97 $1, 517 Management reserve — — 50 Total $1, 420 $97 $1, 567

Step 4: Risk Response Control The last step in the risk management process is Step 4: Risk Response Control The last step in the risk management process is risk control—executing the risk response strategy, monitoring triggering events, initiating contingency plans, and watching for new risks. Establishing a change management system to deal with events that require formal changes in the scope, budget, and/or schedule of the project is an essential element of risk control.

III, Risk Management 3, Change Control Management A major element of the risk control III, Risk Management 3, Change Control Management A major element of the risk control process is change management. Changes come from many sources such as the project customer, owner, project manager, team members, and occurrence of risk events. Most changes easily fall into three categories: (1) Scope changes in the form of design or additions represent big changes. (2) Implementation of contingency plans, when risk events occur, represent changes in baseline costs and schedules. (3) Improvement changes suggested by project team members represent another category.

(4)Change control systems involve reporting, controlling, and recording changes to the project baseline. In (4)Change control systems involve reporting, controlling, and recording changes to the project baseline. In practice most change control systems are designed to accomplish the following: ①Identify proposed changes. ②List expected effects of proposed changes on schedule and budget. ③Review, evaluate, and approve or disapprove changes formally. ④Negotiate and resolve conflicts of change, conditions, and cost. ⑤Communicate changes to parties affected. ⑥Assign responsibility for implementing change. ⑦Track all changes that are to be implemented. Every approved change must be identified and reflected in the project WBS and baseline. Project control depends heavily on keeping the change control process current.

IV, Project Financing Management 1, Financing Management (1)Financing Definition (2) 22 Types of Financing IV, Project Financing Management 1, Financing Management (1)Financing Definition (2) 22 Types of Financing 2, Project Financing (1)Limited Recourse (2)Non-Recourse 3, Types of Project Financing ①BOT Build—Operate—Transfer ②BOOT Build—Own—Operate—Transfer ③BOO Build—Own—Operate ④BTO Build—Transfer—Operate ⑤BOD Build—Operate—Deliver ⑥BOR Build—Operate—Renewal of Concession ⑦BRT Build—Rent—Transfer ⑧BLT Build—Lease—Transfer

⑨BT Build—Transfer Immediately ⑩CAO Contract—Add—Operate ⑾DBFO Design—Build—Finance—Operate ⑿DBOT Design—Build—Operate—Transfer ⒀DBOM Design—Build—Operate—Maintain ⒁DCMF Design—Construct—Manage—Finance ⒂DOT ⑨BT Build—Transfer Immediately ⑩CAO Contract—Add—Operate ⑾DBFO Design—Build—Finance—Operate ⑿DBOT Design—Build—Operate—Transfer ⒀DBOM Design—Build—Operate—Maintain ⒁DCMF Design—Construct—Manage—Finance ⒂DOT Develop—Operate—Transfer ⒃FBOOT Fund—Build—Own—Operate—Transfer ⒄ROO Rehabilitate—Own—Operate ⒅ROT Rehabilitate—Operate—Transfer ⒆PPP Private—Public—Partnership ⒇TOT Transfer—Operate—Transfer

References Wang S. J. ed. (2000), Project Management, Kunming University of Science & Technology References Wang S. J. ed. (2000), Project Management, Kunming University of Science & Technology Wang S. J. (2001), Project Planning & Decision-Making, Yunnan Science & Technology Press Wang S. J. (2001), Sustainable Management of Resources, Yunnan Science & Technology Press Wang S. J. (2002), BOT Project Management—Guiding to Implementation, Yunnan Science & Technology Press Wang S. J. (2003), BOT Project Management in Yunnan’s Tourism Development, Yunnan University Press Wang S. J. (2005), TOT Project Management, Yunnan Science & Technology Press Wang S. J. (2006), TOT Project Management on Sino—Vietnam Economic Cooperation, Yunnan Science & Technology Press US Project Management Association, (2003), Project Management Body of Knowledge

Assignment Requirements 1, Teamwork with 5— 7 persons 2, The teamwork is mainly based Assignment Requirements 1, Teamwork with 5— 7 persons 2, The teamwork is mainly based on the case study of GMS countries, which documenting and documentation in the text book. 3, The teamwork results must be presented in the public, which takes 30% of the final examination. 4, The way to do the teamwork is participation, team discussion, knowledge and experience sharing and learning by doing.

Assignments 1, ASSIGNMENT 1: Problem Analysis in Problem List Form, which requires at least Assignments 1, ASSIGNMENT 1: Problem Analysis in Problem List Form, which requires at least 12 problems in each case study in each team, and public presentation by PPT. 2, ASSIGNMENT 2: Establishing of Problem Tree, which requires the result must be presented in public presentation by PPT. 3, ASSIGNMENT 3: Establishing of Objective Tree and Project Design, which should be in public presentation by PPT. 4, ASSIGNMENT 4: Drawing-up the Project Plan and the findings should be in public presentation by PPT.