- Количество слайдов: 47
Prohibition • At midnight, January 16, 1920, the United States went dry; breweries, distilleries, and saloons were forced to close their doors. • before the 18 th Amendment was ratified, about 65 percent of the country had already banned alcohol
Prohibition • Dry forces linked prohibition to a series of Progressive goals – Ending wife beating and child abuse – Concern about the impact of drinking on labor productivity – Outlawing drinking would eliminate corruption, end machine politics, and help Americanize immigrants
Prohibition • The Volstead Act – defined intoxicating beverages as anything with more than 0. 5 percent alcohol. (Now beer and wine illegal) – Enforcement of Prohibition assigned to the Internal Revenue Service – In 1930 to the Justice Department
Prohibition • Fostered corruption and contempt for law and law enforcement • Popular culture glamorized bootleggers like Chicago's Capone • Organized crime filled that vacuum left by the closure of the legal alcohol industry.
Race • Some of the most vicious racial violence in American history took place between 1917 and 1923 • Movement north and to competition with whites for factory jobs • Black veterans returned from World War I insisting on the civil rights that they had fought for in Europe
Race • In Chicago, Ill. , Longview, Texas, Omaha, Neb. , Rosewood, Fla. , Tulsa, Okla. , and Washington, D. C. , white mobs burned and killed in black neighborhoods.
The Lost Generation
The Lost Generation
The Lost Generation
The Lost Generation • The Authors – F. Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby) – T. S. Elliot (The Hollow Men) – Ernest Hemingway (A Farewell to Arms)
The Great Migration • In 1910, three out of every four black Americans lived on farms, and nine out of ten lived in the South • Hoping to escape tenant farming, sharecropping, and peonage, 1. 5 million Southern blacks moved to cities.
The Great Migration • Confined to all-black neighborhoods, African Americans created cities-within -cities during the 1920 s. • The largest was Harlem, in upper Manhattan, where 200, 000 African Americans lived in a neighborhood that had been virtually all-white fifteen years before
The Harlem Renaissance • The first self-conscious literary and artistic movement in African American history. • Harlem became the capital of black America, attracting black intellectuals and artists from across the country and the Caribbean
The Harlem Renaissance • Embracing their Blackness • Authors and Poets – Langston Hughes – Paul Laurence Dunbar – Zora Neale Hurston – W. E. B. Du. Bois
The Harlem Renaissance • Jazz, the only truly American art form blooms – Louis Armstrong – Billie Holiday – Duke Ellington – Cab Calloway – Bessie Smith – Count Basie – Ella Fitzgerald
Marcus Garvey • The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) • Black working class movement • Had at one time 4 million members • Back to Africa Movement • Convicted of mail fraud, sent to prison then deported back to Jamaica
Politics of the 1920’s • Warren G. Harding (Rep) – Elected in 1920 under the slogan –”A return to normalcy” – Pro-business – Conservative cultural values – Isolationist foreign policy – Teapot Dome Scandal • Albert Fall Harding dies in office
• Replaces Harding when he dies • Reelected in 1924 • Lowest turnout in Presidential electoral history • The Business of America is Business! • Return to laissez faire
The Economy • Andrew Mellon set about lowering taxes and reducing national debt • proposed a series of tax cuts-in 1921, 1924, and 1926 • Approved reduced income tax rates across the board • got the estate tax lowered • strong supporter of tax cuts for the rich
A Consumer Society • The growth of exciting new opportunities to buy cars, appliances, and stylish clothing • Americans wore ready-made, exact-size clothing. • First to play electric phonographs • Use electric vacuum cleaners • Listen to commercial radio broadcasts • Drink fresh orange juice year round.
A Consumer Society • Cigarettes, cosmetics, and synthetic fabrics • Cars were the symbol of the new consumer society • The telephone and electricity became emblems of the consumer economy.
A Consumer Society • Labor Saving devices – Refrigerators – washing machines – vacuum cleaners – toasters – Canned and frozen food (Clarence Birdseye)
Advertising • Advertising agencies hired psychologists (including John B. Watson, the founder of behaviorism, and Edward Bernays, Sigmund Freud's nephew) to design the first campaigns • By 1929, American companies spent $3 billion annually to advertise their products
Installment Credit • Installment credit soared during the 1920 s. • Banks offered the country's first home mortgages. • Manufacturers of everything-from cars to irons--allowed consumers to pay "on time. " • About 60 percent of all furniture and 75 percent of all radios were purchased on installment plans
The Chain Stores • Chains of stores multiplied across the country, like Woolworth's, the five-and-dime chain. The largest grocery chain, A&P, had 17, 500 stores by 1928 • Interlocking networks of banks and utility companies played a critical role in promoting the financial speculation of the late 1920 s--which would be one of the causes for the Great Depression.
Henry Ford • In 1913, Ford had revolutionized American manufacturing by introducing the automated assembly line • By using conveyor belts to bring automobile parts to workers, he reduced the assembly time for a Ford car from 12 ½ hours in 1912 to just 1 ½ hours in 1914. • Declining production costs allowed Ford to cut automobile prices--six times between 1921 and 1925. • The cost of a new Ford was reduced to just $290. This amount was less than three months wages for an average American worker; it made cars affordable for the average family. • To lower employee turnover and raise productivity, Ford introduced a minimum wage of $5 in 1914 --twice what most workers earned--and shortened the workday from nine hours to eight hours. Twelve years later, Ford reduced his work week from six days to five days.
Mass Entertainment • The record chart, the book club, the radio, the talking picture, and spectator sports--all became popular forms of mass entertainment • Sales of radios soared from $60 million in 1922 to $426 million in 1929
Mass Entertainment Radio • Radio drew the nation together by bringing news, entertainment, and advertisements to more than 10 million households by 1929. • Radio blunted regional differences and imposed similar tastes and lifestyles • The record player enter American life in full force
Mass Entertainment Movies • The popularity of the movies soared as films increasingly featured glamour, sophistication, and sex appeal • Talking movies revolutionize movies in 1927 with “The Jazz Singer”
Mass Entertainment Sports • Prize fighters like Jack Dempsey became national idols. • Team sports flourished, such as football and baseball • Heroes like Babe Ruth and Red Grange
• World War I revealed that the economy functioned effectively without foreign immigration • Chief proponent of immigration restriction American Federation of Labor • Make the quotas proportionate to the current population • Future immigration would not change the balance of ethnic groups.
• In 1924, Congress reduced the number of immigrants allowed into the United States each year to two percent of each nationality group counted in the 1890 census. • It also barred Asians entirely.
The Ku Klux Klan • A new version of the Ku Klux Klan arose during the early 1920 s through the use of ads • Throughout this time period, immigration, fear of radicalism, and a revolution in morals and manners fanned anxiety in large parts of the country. • Roman Catholics, Jews, African Americans, and foreigners were only the most obvious targets of the Klan's fear-mongering. • Bootleggers and divorcees were also targets.
Fundamentalism • Religion was a pivotal cultural battleground during the 1920 s • religious traditionalists sought to preserve the basic tenets of their religious faith. • Literal interpretation of the Bible and the actuality of the virgin birth, the atonement, the resurrection, and the second coming of Christ.
Fundamentalism • Early fundamentalist doctrine attacked competing religions--especially Catholicism, which it portrayed as an agent of the Antichrist • Insisted on the literal truth of the Bible, a strict return to fundamental principles, and a thoroughgoing rejection of modernity
Court is in Session • Sacco and Vanzetti • Loeb and Leopold • The Scopes Trial
Court is in Session
You’ve Come a Long Way Baby! • Domestic service remained the largest occupation, followed by secretaries, typists, and clerks-all low-paying jobs • Female professionals consistently received less pay than their male counterparts. • They were concentrated in traditionally "female" occupations such as teaching and nursing.
You’ve Come a Long Way Baby! • Organized women's movement declined in influence, partly due to the rise of the new consumer culture • To popularize smoking among women, advertisers staged parades down New York's 5 th Avenue, imitating the suffrage marches of the 1910 s, in which young women carried "torches of freedom"--cigarettes.
Flappers or Back seat Betties