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PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS SEC. 21 -3 PAGES 620 -624 • Define: trustbuster – arbitration – Square Deal – conservation – New Freedom • Identify: Teddy Roosevelt – Northern Securities – United Mine Workers Strike of Pa (1902) – Gifford Pinchot – William Howard Taft – Woodrow Wilson – Federal Reserve Act – Federal Trade Commission – Clayton Antitrust Act
THEODORE ROOSEVELT • Former NY Assemblyman, governor, Asst. Sec. of Navy- hero Span. Amer. war • Vice Presidential candidate in election 1900 – William Mc. Kinley- President • 1901 - Mc. Kinley assassinated – • TR becomes youngest president - brings progressive ideas to White House. • Favored big business, but supported regulations and progressive reform ideas. • Northern Securities – RR monopoly of rail service from Chicago to Pacific – owners J. P. Morgan and James Hill – violated Sherman Antitrust Act – Supreme Court decided it illegally limited trade – broke up trust – gov’t won case • “Trustbuster” – nickname – break up bad trusts – good trusts may keep operating
PA. COAL STRIKE • 1902 – United Mine Workers – demanded pay – 8 hr workday – recognize Union – winter approaching – people favored workers’ demands - owners refused to negotiate • TR angry – threatened to send in federal troops to work in mines – produce coal – owners agreed to arbitrate (settle dispute by accepting decision of impartial outsider). • Broke tradition of presidents using federal troops to side with owners and break up strike.
SUMMARIZE • Who were the President and Vice President in election of 1900? • How did T. Roosevelt become president? • What was the name of the railroad monopoly from Chicago to Pacific that Pres. Roosevelt went after? • What nickname did he get from this incident? • What vocab term means to settle dispute by accepting outside impartial decision?
TR’S SQUARE DEAL • Election 1904 – Promised “Square Deal” – fair equal treatment for all people • Meat Inspection Act - Dept. of Agriculture inspects food -plants • Pure Food & Drug Act - Food & Drug Admin. – correct labeling of ingredients – • Conservation – protection and preservation of natural resources • U. S. Forest Service – established national parks – set aside forest areas ( 150 million acres) (3 times more than any other president) – appointed Chief - Gifford Pinchot (Pa)
SUMMARIZE • What was Pres. Roosevelt’s campaign promise in 1904 to provide equal treatment for all people? • What two laws were passed to improve what people put in their bodies? • What vocab word means to protect or preserve the natural resources. • Who did Pres. Roosevelt appoint as Chief of the US Forest Service?
• Ohio lawyer, judge, governor of Philippines, Sec. of War under TR • TR wanted him to continue his progressive programs • Won election of 1908 over Dem. Wm. Jennings Bryan. • Ordered Justice Dept. to take legal action against certain trusts • Won more antitrust cases in 4 years than TR won in 7 • Introduced safety standards for mines and railroads – expanded more land for national forests – strengthened ICC to regulate telegraph, phone communications • Supported the 16 th Amendment (1913) – Graduated income tax • Gained 8 hr. day on federal projects • Only President to become Sup. Court Chief Justice (1921 -1930) WILLIAM H. TAFT
TAFT’S PROBLEMS • Pinchot Ballinger Affair Pinchot accused Sec. of Interior Richard Ballinger of allowing private interests to exploit coal – timber for personal profit. Ballinger removed 1 million acres of forest and mineral land from reserved list. • Taft supported Ballinger – dismissed (fired) Pinchot. • T. Roosevelt angry – decided to run again for President in 1912 - caused split in Republican party. • Standard Oil v US – Charged with violation of Sherman Antitrust Act – suit became an affair of personal honor • Dismantled Standard Oil and American Tobacco Co. • Failed to fight to lower tariffs
SUMMARIZE List several jobs Taft had before becoming president. Why did Pres. Roosevelt support him? Who won more cases as a trust buster? What areas did Pres. Taft improve? Which amendment was passed under Taft? What did it do? What incident caused a disagreement between Taft and Roosevelt? What monopoly company did Taft break up?
Election 1912 • Dem. – Woodrow Wilson –NJ Gov. ***wins due to Republicans split • Rep. – Wm. H. Taft • Progressive – Teddy Roosevelt “strong as a bull moose” – (Later called Bull Moose Party) • Wilson’s term “ New Freedom” • Believed gov’t must break up big business if it is destroying competition for small businesses • Adopted lower tariffs on sugar, wool, steel, farm equipment. • Set up regulatory commissions – group whose responsibility is to see that a company complies with existing laws of that industry. WOODROW WILSON
WILSON • Federal Reserve Act – regulate banking – create 12 regional banks supervised by a central board in Wash. D. C – keep portion of deposits in reserve for financial cushion • Federal Trade Commission – investigate corporations for unfair trade practices • Clayton Antitrust Act – strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act – companies could not work together to stop competition. Prohibited using injunctions in labor disputes unless necessary to prevent property damages – allowed strikes, boycotts, peaceful picketing
SUMMARIZE • Why did Wilson win the 1912 election? • Name given to Wilson’s ideas/administration. • Vocab term that means group whose responsibility it is to see that companies comply with existing rules/regulations of an industry. • Law that created regional banks to keep deposits for financial emergencies. • Group that would investigate corporations for unfair trade practices. • Law that strengthen Sherman Antitrust Act. • What was not allowed in labor disputes unless protecting property? What could be used?