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PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS SEC. 21 -3 PAGES 620 -624 • Define: trustbuster – arbitration – PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS SEC. 21 -3 PAGES 620 -624 • Define: trustbuster – arbitration – Square Deal – conservation – New Freedom • Identify: Teddy Roosevelt – Northern Securities – United Mine Workers Strike of Pa (1902) – Gifford Pinchot – William Howard Taft – Woodrow Wilson – Federal Reserve Act – Federal Trade Commission – Clayton Antitrust Act

THEODORE ROOSEVELT • Former NY Assemblyman, governor, Asst. Sec. of Navy- hero Span. Amer. THEODORE ROOSEVELT • Former NY Assemblyman, governor, Asst. Sec. of Navy- hero Span. Amer. war • Vice Presidential candidate in election 1900 – William Mc. Kinley- President • 1901 - Mc. Kinley assassinated – • TR becomes youngest president - brings progressive ideas to White House. • Favored big business, but supported regulations and progressive reform ideas. • Northern Securities – RR monopoly of rail service from Chicago to Pacific – owners J. P. Morgan and James Hill – violated Sherman Antitrust Act – Supreme Court decided it illegally limited trade – broke up trust – gov’t won case • “Trustbuster” – nickname – break up bad trusts – good trusts may keep operating

PA. COAL STRIKE • 1902 – United Mine Workers – demanded pay – 8 PA. COAL STRIKE • 1902 – United Mine Workers – demanded pay – 8 hr workday – recognize Union – winter approaching – people favored workers’ demands - owners refused to negotiate • TR angry – threatened to send in federal troops to work in mines – produce coal – owners agreed to arbitrate (settle dispute by accepting decision of impartial outsider). • Broke tradition of presidents using federal troops to side with owners and break up strike.

SUMMARIZE • Who were the President and Vice President in election of 1900? • SUMMARIZE • Who were the President and Vice President in election of 1900? • How did T. Roosevelt become president? • What was the name of the railroad monopoly from Chicago to Pacific that Pres. Roosevelt went after? • What nickname did he get from this incident? • What vocab term means to settle dispute by accepting outside impartial decision?

TR’S SQUARE DEAL • Election 1904 – Promised “Square Deal” – fair equal treatment TR’S SQUARE DEAL • Election 1904 – Promised “Square Deal” – fair equal treatment for all people • Meat Inspection Act - Dept. of Agriculture inspects food -plants • Pure Food & Drug Act - Food & Drug Admin. – correct labeling of ingredients – • Conservation – protection and preservation of natural resources • U. S. Forest Service – established national parks – set aside forest areas ( 150 million acres) (3 times more than any other president) – appointed Chief - Gifford Pinchot (Pa)

SUMMARIZE • What was Pres. Roosevelt’s campaign promise in 1904 to provide equal treatment SUMMARIZE • What was Pres. Roosevelt’s campaign promise in 1904 to provide equal treatment for all people? • What two laws were passed to improve what people put in their bodies? • What vocab word means to protect or preserve the natural resources. • Who did Pres. Roosevelt appoint as Chief of the US Forest Service?

 • Ohio lawyer, judge, governor of Philippines, Sec. of War under TR • • Ohio lawyer, judge, governor of Philippines, Sec. of War under TR • TR wanted him to continue his progressive programs • Won election of 1908 over Dem. Wm. Jennings Bryan. • Ordered Justice Dept. to take legal action against certain trusts • Won more antitrust cases in 4 years than TR won in 7 • Introduced safety standards for mines and railroads – expanded more land for national forests – strengthened ICC to regulate telegraph, phone communications • Supported the 16 th Amendment (1913) – Graduated income tax • Gained 8 hr. day on federal projects • Only President to become Sup. Court Chief Justice (1921 -1930) WILLIAM H. TAFT

TAFT’S PROBLEMS • Pinchot Ballinger Affair Pinchot accused Sec. of Interior Richard Ballinger of TAFT’S PROBLEMS • Pinchot Ballinger Affair Pinchot accused Sec. of Interior Richard Ballinger of allowing private interests to exploit coal – timber for personal profit. Ballinger removed 1 million acres of forest and mineral land from reserved list. • Taft supported Ballinger – dismissed (fired) Pinchot. • T. Roosevelt angry – decided to run again for President in 1912 - caused split in Republican party. • Standard Oil v US – Charged with violation of Sherman Antitrust Act – suit became an affair of personal honor • Dismantled Standard Oil and American Tobacco Co. • Failed to fight to lower tariffs

SUMMARIZE List several jobs Taft had before becoming president. Why did Pres. Roosevelt support SUMMARIZE List several jobs Taft had before becoming president. Why did Pres. Roosevelt support him? Who won more cases as a trust buster? What areas did Pres. Taft improve? Which amendment was passed under Taft? What did it do? What incident caused a disagreement between Taft and Roosevelt? What monopoly company did Taft break up?

Election 1912 • Dem. – Woodrow Wilson –NJ Gov. ***wins due to Republicans split Election 1912 • Dem. – Woodrow Wilson –NJ Gov. ***wins due to Republicans split • Rep. – Wm. H. Taft • Progressive – Teddy Roosevelt “strong as a bull moose” – (Later called Bull Moose Party) • Wilson’s term “ New Freedom” • Believed gov’t must break up big business if it is destroying competition for small businesses • Adopted lower tariffs on sugar, wool, steel, farm equipment. • Set up regulatory commissions – group whose responsibility is to see that a company complies with existing laws of that industry. WOODROW WILSON

WILSON • Federal Reserve Act – regulate banking – create 12 regional banks supervised WILSON • Federal Reserve Act – regulate banking – create 12 regional banks supervised by a central board in Wash. D. C – keep portion of deposits in reserve for financial cushion • Federal Trade Commission – investigate corporations for unfair trade practices • Clayton Antitrust Act – strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act – companies could not work together to stop competition. Prohibited using injunctions in labor disputes unless necessary to prevent property damages – allowed strikes, boycotts, peaceful picketing

SUMMARIZE • Why did Wilson win the 1912 election? • Name given to Wilson’s SUMMARIZE • Why did Wilson win the 1912 election? • Name given to Wilson’s ideas/administration. • Vocab term that means group whose responsibility it is to see that companies comply with existing rules/regulations of an industry. • Law that created regional banks to keep deposits for financial emergencies. • Group that would investigate corporations for unfair trade practices. • Law that strengthen Sherman Antitrust Act. • What was not allowed in labor disputes unless protecting property? What could be used?