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Primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from 50 Te. V to 1015 Primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from 50 Te. V to 1015 e. V observed with the new Tibet AS core detector array J. Huang for the Tibet ASγCollaboration Institute of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences China, Beijing 100049 ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany, August 10 - 15, (2012)

Contents • Knee of the spectrum. • Two Possible explanations for the sharp knee. Contents • Knee of the spectrum. • Two Possible explanations for the sharp knee. • New hybrid experiment (YAC+Tibet-III). • Test of hadronic interaction models and compositions models. • Primary proton, helium spectra obtained by (YAC-I + Tibet-III). • Expected results by (YAC-II + Tibet-III). • Summary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Merit of high altitude Tibet experiment 1014 -1017 e. V AS array at high Merit of high altitude Tibet experiment 1014 -1017 e. V AS array at high altitude (4300 m a. s. l. ) l. Tibet-III array: 37000 m 2 with 789 scint. l. YAC array: 500 m 2 with 124 scint. l. MD array: 5000 m 2 with 5 pools of water Cherenkov muon D. s. Measure: energy spectrum around the knee and chemical composition using sensitivity of air showers to the primary nuclei through YAC detection of high energy AS core. Pb 7 r. l. Iron Scint. Box J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Tibet YAC array (Yangbajing Air shower Core arary) Cosmic ray(P, He, Fe…) Particle density & Tibet YAC array (Yangbajing Air shower Core arary) Cosmic ray(P, He, Fe…) Particle density & spread Separation of particles Tibet-III: Energy and direction of air shower J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

 All-particle spectrum measured by Tibet-III array  from 1014 ~1017 e. V (Ap. J All-particle spectrum measured by Tibet-III array  from 1014 ~1017 e. V (Ap. J 678, 1165 -1179 (2008)) Model Index of spectrum QGS. + HD 4. 0± 0. 1 R 1= -2. 67± 0. 01 QGS. + PD 3. 8± 0. 1 SIB. + HD J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Knee Position (Pe. V) 4. 0± 0. 1 R 2= -3. 10± 0. 01 R 1= -2. 65± 0. 01 R 2= -3. 08± 0. 01 R 1= -2. 67± 0. 01 R 2= -3. 12± 0. 01 5 5/ 31

Energy spectrum around the knee measured by many experiments   Tibet      KASCADE    HEGRA CASA/MIA    BASJE      Akeno DICE J. Huang Energy spectrum around the knee measured by many experiments   Tibet      KASCADE    HEGRA CASA/MIA    BASJE      Akeno DICE J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Normalized spectrum J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Normalized spectrum J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

 A sharp knee is clearly seen (Ap. J 678, 1165 -1179 (2008)) What A sharp knee is clearly seen (Ap. J 678, 1165 -1179 (2008)) What is the origin of the sharp knee? There were many models: nearby source, new interaction threshold, etc. In the following, I would introduce our two analyses for the origin of the sharp knee. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 8 6/ 31

Two possible explanations for the sharp knee ( M. Shibata, J. Huang et al. Two possible explanations for the sharp knee ( M. Shibata, J. Huang et al. APJ 716 (2010) 1076 ) For explaining the sharp knee we proposed two composition models (called Model A and Model B) that are based on: 1) the up-to-now available experimental results; 2) some physics (or theoretical) assumptions. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 9 7/ 31

 For ‘the up-to-now available experimental results’, we request: a) In the enery region For ‘the up-to-now available experimental results’, we request: a) In the enery region lower than 100 Te. V the directly measured p, He, …, iron spectra by CREAM, ATIC, JACEE, RUNJOB etc should be smoothly connected by the modeling spectra; b) In the energy region higher than 100 Te. V the modeling p and He spectra should be consistent with our indirectly measured p and He spectra; c) The superposed spectrum of all elemental spectra in the modeling should be consistent with our measured all-particle spectrum. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 10

Some physics (or theoretical ) assumptions for both Model A and Model B • Some physics (or theoretical ) assumptions for both Model A and Model B • Diffusive shock acceleration in SNRs is assumed; • Multiple galactic sources were considered. • For each source there is an ‘acceleration limit’ ε(Z) which --- is proportional to the charge Z of accelerated nuclei, --- denotes the energy the accelerated particles start to deviate from the power law; • εmax is introduced that denotes the ‘Maximum acceleration limit’ among multiple sources. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 11 8/ 28

In this physics picture the knee is caused by the‘minimum acceleration limit’ε(Z), (see details In this physics picture the knee is caused by the‘minimum acceleration limit’ε(Z), (see details in the paper). Taking different ε(Z) and εmax the obtained all particle spectrum shows a smooth structure (see the figure below). The sharp knee cannot be produced. To explain the sharp knee we proposed two approaches, called Model A and Model B. (Ap. J , 716: 1076 -1083(2010)) J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 12

Model A: Sharp knee is due to nearby sources (Ap. J , 716: 1076 Model A: Sharp knee is due to nearby sources (Ap. J , 716: 1076 -1083 (2010)) Substracting the smooth spectrum from the measured all particle spectrum, a power-law spectrum with index -2 is obtained (see the dotted line in the figure). This is very consistent with the assumption of CR particles coming from nearby source(s). Extra component can be approximated by: Jing Huang (ISVH 2010 -Fermilab) Germany) J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, 13 9/ 28

Model B: Sharp knee is due to nonlinear effects in the defuse shock acceleration Model B: Sharp knee is due to nonlinear effects in the defuse shock acceleration It was suggested (Malkov & Drury 2001; Ptuskin & Zirakashvili 2006) that: In the diffuse shock acceleration mechanism, the nonliner effect at supernova shock fronts is present that may produce a harder cosmic ray spectrum in the source. We included this effect by introducing an additional term in our formalism that showed to produce a dip below the ‘minimum acceleration limit’ of the spectrum of each element (see the figure). J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 14 10/ 28

Their superposition can well produce the all-particle spectrum including the sharp knee. (Model B) Their superposition can well produce the all-particle spectrum including the sharp knee. (Model B) J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) (Ap. J , 716: 1076 -1083 (2010)) 15

Two possible explanations for the sharp knee ( APJ 716 (2010) 1076 ) 2) Two possible explanations for the sharp knee ( APJ 716 (2010) 1076 ) 2) Model B: Sharp knee is due to 1) Model A: Sharp knee is due nonlinear effects in the diffusive shock to nearby sources acceleration (DSA) All-particle knee = CNO? All-particle knee = Fe knee? J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Short summary l Two scenarios (model A and model B) are proposed to explain Short summary l Two scenarios (model A and model B) are proposed to explain the sharpness of the knee. l In model A, an excess component is assumed to overlap the global component, and its spectrum shape suggests that it can be attributed to nearby source(s) because it is surprisingly close to the expected source spectrum of the diffuse shock acceleration. CNO dominant composition is predicted by this model at the knee. l In model B, a hard observed energy spectrum of each element from a given source is assumed. The sharp knee can be explained by a rigidity-dependent acceleration limit and hard spectrum due to nonlinear effects. Iron-dominant composition is predicted by this model at the knee and beyond. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 11/ 28

   In order to distinguish between Model A and Model B and many other    In order to distinguish between Model A and Model B and many other models, measurements of the chemical composition around the knee, especially measurements of the spectra of individual component till their knee will be essentially important. Therefore, we planed a new experiment: These aims will be realized by our new experiments 1) to lower down the energy measurement of individual YAC (Yangbajing AS Core array) ! component spectra to *10 Te. V and make connection with direct measurements; 2) to make a high precision measurement of primary p, He, …, Fe till 100 Pe. V region to see the rigidity cutoff effect. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 15/ 31

YAC project Y A C J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) YAC project Y A C J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

New hybrid experiment (YAC+Tibet-AS+MD) This hybrid experiment consists of low threshold Air shower core New hybrid experiment (YAC+Tibet-AS+MD) This hybrid experiment consists of low threshold Air shower core array (YAC) and Air Shower (AS ) array and Muon Detector ( MD ). Pb 7 r. l. Scint. Iron YAC 2 will measure the primary energy spectrum of 4 mass groups of P, He, 440 at 50 Te. VAS 1016 e. V range covering the knee. – Tibet AS (37000 m 2) : Primary energy and incident direction. YAC 2 ( 500 m 2 ): High energy AS core within several x 10 m from the axis. MD Tibet-MD ( 5000 m 2 ) : Number of muon. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 16/ 31

YAC Detector 7 r. l. Pb Iron Scint. Box 50 cm Plastic scintillaors (4 YAC Detector 7 r. l. Pb Iron Scint. Box 50 cm Plastic scintillaors (4 cm× 50× 1 cm, 20 pcs) 80 cm WLSf Low gain PMT R 5325 High gain PMT R 4125 l Observe shower electron size under lead plate (burst size Nb) induced by high energy E. M. particles at air-shower core. l WLSF (wave length shifting fibers) is used to collect the scintillation light for the purpose of good uniformity. l Two PMTs are used to cover wide dynamic range (1 MIP is calibrated by single muon). l For High gain PMT , Nb: 1 – 3000 MIPs l For Low gain PMT , Nb: 1000 - 106 MIPs J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

YAC 1 is well running now ( data taking started from 2009. 04. 01) YAC 1 is well running now ( data taking started from 2009. 04. 01) YAC 1 Total : 16 YAC detectors Effective area: 10 m 2 J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 19/ 31

Detector Calibration 1. PMT linearity, use of LED light source; 2. Linearity of PMT+scintillator, Detector Calibration 1. PMT linearity, use of LED light source; 2. Linearity of PMT+scintillator, a. probe calibration; b. accelerator beam calibration. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Probe Calibration ( The determination of the burst size is calibrated usingle muon peak Probe Calibration ( The determination of the burst size is calibrated usingle muon peak ) Single muon calibration 1 MIP Using a probe detector, we can obtain the single particle peak for each YAC detector. (High gain & Low gain): 1 < N < 106 b J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 24

 PMT linearity In order to record the electromagnetic showers of burst size from PMT linearity In order to record the electromagnetic showers of burst size from 1 to 10^6 particles, a wide dynamic range of PMT is required. For each PMT (high gain and low gain) used in YAC-I the linearity has been measured by using LED light source and optical filters. In the test we fixed the positions of LED, filter and PMT. By using different filters we can get light of different intensity, and then, we can check the Linearity of PMTs. High gain PMT R 4125 106 1 MIP 106 MIPs Low gain PMT R 5325 Input light Nb_top PMT output charge [p. C× 0. 25] Dynamic range and linearity Proton Iron Primary Energy (Ge. V) 1017 e. V J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 25

Electron beam calibration of YAC to get ADC count vs number of particles YAC Electron beam calibration of YAC to get ADC count vs number of particles YAC 106 MIPs YAC Thick IC Thin IC The Beam BEPC: Beijing Electron-Positron Collider 17/ 28

Calibration using BEPC The experimental sketch Saturation of PMT & Saturation of scintillator Thin Calibration using BEPC The experimental sketch Saturation of PMT & Saturation of scintillator Thin IC Thick IC Number of particles (Beam) l The accelerator-beam experiment shows a good linearity between the incident particle flux and YAC-ADC output below 5× 106 MIPs. l the saturation effect of the plastic scintillator satisfies YAC detector’s requirement. 18/ 28

- Full M. C. Simulation Hadronic interaction model • CORSIKA (Ver. 6. 204 ) - Full M. C. Simulation Hadronic interaction model • CORSIKA (Ver. 6. 204 ) – QGSJET 2–    = Air Shower simulation = CORSIKA 6. 204 (QGSJET 2, SIBYLL 2. 1) Primary composition model ( 1 ) Primary energy: E 0 >1 Te. V ( 2 ) All secondary particles are traced until their energies become 300 Me. V in the atmosphere. ( 3 ) Observation Site : Yangbajing (606 g/cm 2 ) • NLA (above-mentioned    = Detector simulation = Nonlinear effects model ). • – SIBYLL 2. 1– • HD model Simulated air-shower events are reconstructed with the same detector configuration and structure as the YAC array using Epics (uv 8. 64) (Heavy Dominant model: see M. Shibata, J. Huang et al. APJ 716 (2010) 1076 ) J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 28 20/ 28

Primary cosmic-ray composition spectrum assumed in MC ( M. Shibata, J. Huang et al. Primary cosmic-ray composition spectrum assumed in MC ( M. Shibata, J. Huang et al. APJ 716 (2010) 1076 ) J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

The difference between NLA and HD model NLA: ‘He rich’ model HD : ‘He The difference between NLA and HD model NLA: ‘He rich’ model HD : ‘He poor’ model u The proton spectrum of the two models is connected with the direct experiment in the low energy and consistent with the spectrum obtained from the Tibet (EC+AS) experiment in the high energy. u The He spectrum of HD model coincides with the results from RUNJOB and ATIC-I, we called ‘He poor’ model. u However, the He spectrum of NLA coincides with the results from JACEE, ATIC-II, CREAM, we called ‘ He rich’ model. u The sum of all single-component spectra can reproduce the sharp knee in all particle spectrum. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 16/ 31

Test of the hadronic interaction models above 10 Te. V J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Test of the hadronic interaction models above 10 Te. V J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Tests of hadronic interaction models and composition models (Some preliminary results from YAC 1 Tests of hadronic interaction models and composition models (Some preliminary results from YAC 1 data samples) l 1) The shape of the distributions of sum. Nb are consistent 30 Te. V 90 Te. V between the YAC-I data and simulation data in all four cases, indicating that form *10 Te. V to 1000 Te. V, the particle production spectrum of QGSJET 2 and SIBYLL 2. 1 may correctly reflect the reality within our experimental systematic uncertainty of a level about 10%. 260 Te. V J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 1800 Te. V

 Comparison of event absolute intensities between Expt. and MC 2) But note that, Comparison of event absolute intensities between Expt. and MC 2) But note that, as seen from the next two figures, for given NLA composition model used a steeper He spectrum, if comparing with 90 Te. V 30 Te. V the new results from PAMELA and CREAM. It can be estimated that NLA model is under-estimated the number of He events for about 40%. If involving this factor, QGSJET 2 results can go higher and be possible better consistent with data. A further analysis is going on. 260 Te. V 1800 Te. V

Comparison of the NLA composition model with the PAMELA and CREAM’s results NLA is Comparison of the NLA composition model with the PAMELA and CREAM’s results NLA is under-estimated the number of He events for about 40%. If Black line: Proton , He spectrum from PAMELA and CREAM experiment involving this factor, QGSJET 2 results can go higher and be possible better consistent with our data. Y=a *E**γ p p He He all P He PAMELA (Science 332(2011)69) CREAM(Ap. JL, 714: L 89–L 93, 2010 May 1) 1 Te. V ap: 10465(m 2 ssr)-1(Ge. V/n)1. 7 γp=-2. 66 250 Ge. V a. He: 774. 3(m 2 ssr)-1(Ge. V/n)1. 7 γHe=-2. 58

Primary proton, helium spectra analysis J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Primary proton, helium spectra analysis J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Primary proton, He spectra analysis Identification of proton events ANN (a feed-forward artificial neural Primary proton, He spectra analysis Identification of proton events ANN (a feed-forward artificial neural network) is used. Input event features: Ne, ΣNb, Nbtop, Nhit, , < Nb. Rb>, θ Classification: proton/others Primary proton energy determination E 0=f(Ne, s) based on proton-like MC events J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Core event selection Event selection condition for AS core event was studied by MC Core event selection Event selection condition for AS core event was studied by MC and following criteria were adopted to reject non core events whose shower axis is far from the YAC array. Nb>200, Nhit≧ 4, Nbtop ≧ 1500, Ne>80000 | AS axis by LDF – burst center| < 5 m Statistics of core events in MC simulation and experiment Live Time is 106. 05 days. QGSJET+HD SIBYLL+HD QGSJET+NLA SIBYLL+NLA YAC 1 Selected Events 216942 304785 80861 64331 5035 J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Core event selection Base on the above core event selection condition, we found the Core event selection Base on the above core event selection condition, we found the AS axis estimated by LDF is within 5 m from our YAC detector array. 105 <= Ne <= 106 R <= 5 m 3464/3483=99. 5% R< 5 m J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Interaction model dependence in (YAC 1+Tibet-III) experiment These figures shows that QGSJET and SIBYLL, Interaction model dependence in (YAC 1+Tibet-III) experiment These figures shows that QGSJET and SIBYLL, both models produce distribution shapes consistent with our experimental data. Air shower size (Ne) spectra Top burst size (Nb_top)spectra Total burst size (sum Nb) spectra Mean lateral spread (Nb. R)spectra

Primary (P+He) separation by ANN for MC events QGSJET Purity – 95. 2% Efficiency Primary (P+He) separation by ANN for MC events QGSJET Purity – 95. 2% Efficiency – 62% P+He Other Nuclei SIBYLL Purity – 94. 5% Efficiency – 63% P+He Other Nuclei

Primary proton separation by ANN for MC events QGSJET Purity – 79% Efficiency – Primary proton separation by ANN for MC events QGSJET Purity – 79% Efficiency – 46% P roton Other SIBYLL Purity – 78% Efficiency – 40% P roton J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Other

Comparison of the air-shower size (Ne) between MC and Expt. data (From this two Comparison of the air-shower size (Ne) between MC and Expt. data (From this two figures, we can see that, the air-shower size (Ne) has the shape very close to the MC prediction before and after ANN selection. Some other quantities have the same behavior as well. ) l Before ANN ( all events) Air shower size spectrum J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) l After ANN (Tcut<=0. 3) Proton-like events Air shower size spectrum

Air shower size to primary energy The primary energy (E 0 ) of each Air shower size to primary energy The primary energy (E 0 ) of each AS event is determined by the air-shower size (Ne) which is calculated by fitting the lateral particle density distribution to the modified NKG function. Modified NKG function J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

The lateral fitting for MC data and Expt. Data MC Data Expt. Data MC The lateral fitting for MC data and Expt. Data MC Data Expt. Data MC data: Fe E 0 =4. 8 Pe. V SIBYLL-fit : Zenith angle=13. 6 degree SIBYLL-fit : QGSJET-fit : Ne = 4. 20*106 Ne = 4. 35*106 Age = 1. 22 QGSJET-fit : Ne = 1. 13*107 Ne = 1. 19*107 Age = 1. 14 Age = 1. 25 The shower size of an event is estimated by fitting the lateral distribution of the shower using the modified NKG functions, which are optimized by the MC by using QGSJET and SIBYLL models independently. In the left figure, MC shower of 4. 8 Pe. V is fitted by two NKG functions giving almost the same results. The right figure shows the same situation for an experimental sample. The difference between QGS-fit and SIBYLL-fit is within 5% in this case.

Size resolution (MC Data) (based on QGSJET+HD model ) (1. 0 ≦ sec(Θzenith) < Size resolution (MC Data) (based on QGSJET+HD model ) (1. 0 ≦ sec(Θzenith) < 1. 1 ) QGSJET+HD Ne resoultion: ~7% (Ne>105 ) QGSJET+HD

Air shower size to primary energy E 0=1. 88*( Ne/1000. 0)0. 92 )  (Te. Air shower size to primary energy E 0=1. 88*( Ne/1000. 0)0. 92 )  (Te. V) Energy resolution ~ 22% ( 100 Te. V

Check the systematic errors by ANN P+He The primary energy of (P+He)-like or P-like Check the systematic errors by ANN P+He The primary energy of (P+He)-like or P-like or Helium-like events is in a good agreement with the true primary energy spectrum. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Proton Helium

(SΩ)eff calculated by MC (1) Nb >= 200 Nhit >= 4 Nbtop >= 1500 (SΩ)eff calculated by MC (1) Nb >= 200 Nhit >= 4 Nbtop >= 1500 Ne >= 80000

Primary (P+He) spectra obtained by (YAC 1+Tibet-III) preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Primary (P+He) spectra obtained by (YAC 1+Tibet-III) preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Primary proton , helium spectra obtained by (YAC 1+Tibet-III) preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Primary proton , helium spectra obtained by (YAC 1+Tibet-III) preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) preliminary

The phenomenological model ( Please see J. R, Horandel, Astroparticle Physics 19 (2003) 193 The phenomenological model ( Please see J. R, Horandel, Astroparticle Physics 19 (2003) 193 -220 ) J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Results and discussions preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Results and discussions preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Results and discussions preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Results and discussions preliminary J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Results and discussions Proton+Helium QGSJET+HD Proton preliminary SIBYLL+HD preliminary Various systematic errors are under Results and discussions Proton+Helium QGSJET+HD Proton preliminary SIBYLL+HD preliminary Various systematic errors are under study now ! J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

YAC 2 is also well running now ( data taking started from 2011. 8. YAC 2 is also well running now ( data taking started from 2011. 8. 1) YAC-II 50 cm Pb 80 cm Total : 124 YAC detectors Cover area: ~ 500 m 2 J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 16/ 28

Expected results by (YAC 2+Tibet-III) YAC 2 will measure the primary energy spectrum of Expected results by (YAC 2+Tibet-III) YAC 2 will measure the primary energy spectrum of 4 mass l Solid lines: input 14 – 1016 e. V range groups of P, He, 440 at 10 l Symbols: reconstructed l Expected primary energy spectra covering the knee. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) 56

Summary (1) YAC 1 shows the ability and sensitivity in checking the hadronic interaction Summary (1) YAC 1 shows the ability and sensitivity in checking the hadronic interaction models. (2) The experimental distribution, sum. Nb has the shape very close to the MC predictions of QGSJET+NLA, QGSJET+HD , SIBYLL+NLA and SIBYLL+HD. Some other quantities, such as Ne, Nb_top, have the same behavior as well. (3) Some discrepancies in the absolute intensities are seen. Data normally shows a higher intensity than MC. Taking a more hard He spectrum as given by CREAM can improve this situation. A further study is going on. (4) (YAC 1+Tibet-III ) could measure protons and heliums spectra at > 50 Te. V which is shown to be smoothly connected with direct observation data at lower energies and also with our previously reported results at higher energies. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

(5) We obtained the primary energy spectrum of proton, helium and (P+He) spectra between (5) We obtained the primary energy spectrum of proton, helium and (P+He) spectra between 50 Te. V and 1 Pe. V , and found that the knee of the (P+He) spectra is located around 400 Te. V. (6) The interaction model dependence in deriving the primary proton, helium and (P+He) spectra are found to be small (less than 25% in absolute intensity, 10% in position of the knee ), and the composition model dependence is less than 10% in absolute intensity, and various systematic errors are under study now ! (7) Next phase experiment YAC 2 will measure the primary energy spectrum of 4 mass groups of P, He, 440 at 1014 – 1016 e. V range covering the knee. J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany)

Thank you for your attention !! Thank you for your attention !!

 Model dependence at ANN For (P+He) sepration: J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) Model dependence at ANN For (P+He) sepration: J. Huang (ISVHECRI 2012, Berlin, Germany) For Proton sepration: