- Размер: 8.2 Mегабайта
- Количество слайдов: 29
Описание презентации Презентация WHY DID REVOLUTION HAPPEN по слайдам
WHY DID REVOLUTION HAPPEN? ?
Russia on the dawn of a century O Development of capitalism transforms Russia O Integration into the global capitalist system O Russia as the weakest link in the global chain Why is it the weakest link? O To enable Russian capitalism to grow and consolidate, the state had to institute effective reforms
For the Tzar and Fatherland O Most undeveloped agriculture in Europe O Agrarian sector before and after revolution 1905 was responsible for 50% of national income and employed 66% of population O Rapid development of industry — especially big factories in big cities O Birth of middle class O BUT social system still depend on land rights – nobility
Social forces of change O Industrial working class O Peasants O Radical intellectuals O Nationalists in non-Russian areas of the Empire
1904: How Russia expected to beat Japan
Russo-Japanese war of 1904 -05: A Japanese cartoon
Viva la revolution!! O January 1905 O Defeats of the Russian army and navy in war with Japan trigger off discontent over socioeconomic condition O January 9: The Bloody Sunday O In St. Petersburg, 140, 000 workers, led by a priest, march to the Royal Palace with a petition to the Tsar, asking for reforms O They are met with troops who fire on the crowds
Troops waiting to stop the demonstration
St. Petersburg, January 9,
The Bloody Sunday: 200 killed, 800 wounded
Classic confrontation between state and society O Repression backfires O Society revolts against the state, demanding: O Resolution of pressing social issues, such as land reform O Political freedoms O Accountable government O Peace
Participants: O Industrial workers O Peasants O Soldiers O Students O Intellectuals O Businessmen O Clergy O Non-Russian nationalities
The government’s response O Peace with Japan O Repression O Reforms, beginning with the Tsar’s October 1905 Manifesto, granting political freedoms and parliamentary elections O By 1907, the revolution subsides O But no viable new form of state-society relations has been created O Stalemate O The Tsar is a reactionary, rejects democracy O The nobility is stuck in the old order O The capitalist class is too dependent on the state, too afraid to show initiative
O The gap between the rulers and the ruled O Reforms stimulate radical protest O THE ATTRACTIONS OF SOCIALISM O When the state resorts to repression, that only makes the state-society gap even wider O Russia’s options: O A liberal-capitalist path: what it would require O An authoritarian-capitalist path: what it would require O A non-capitalist path
Why revolution fail? O RUSSIAN ARMY STAYED LOYAL TO TZAR O Mutinies in the armed services did not continue after the war i. e. the mutinies at Kronstadt and the mutiny on the Potemkin O When faced with serious disorder in the towns and in the countryside the army stood behind the Tsar O Loyal troops returned to destroy the soviets
The Tsar was able to divide his opposition O He secured the loyalty of the moderate liberals O In doing so he managed to buy of the peasants, defeat the workers and arrest their leaders O The church and the civil service retained all their old powers O Censorship was reintroduced and the powers of the Duma was severely limited
The Tsar was able to divide his opposition O The alliance of peasants, workers and liberals fell apart after the first Duma was proposed O Each group had a different agenda
Neither the peasants or liberals were ready for a revolution O Peasant unrest diminished with the announcement that redemption payments would be reduced then abolished O This reduced the unrest along with winter O Peasant union declined as those who continued to protest faced no mercy
The War to end all wars O The summer of 1914 marked a watershed in world history: O For the first time ever, a world war began O Since 1914, we’ve experienced 3 world wars O They are historically connected with each other – like links of a chain O They may be viewed as 4 stages of one continuous period of global conflict
World War I: 1914 -1918 Resulted from convergence between: — -Rivalries between states (Germany-Britain, France-Germany, Russia-Austria, Russia-Turkey, etc. ) — -Social tensions within states — -Nationalist struggles against empires The war for power and influence inside the global capitalist system
O It was expected to be brief O The reality: a bloody 4 -year stalemate O Ended by revolutions in Russia (1917) and Germany (1918) O 15 mln. deaths, incl. 9 mln. combat O The flu pandemic of 1918 -1919: 20 -40 mln. deaths: a direct environmental effect of “the Great War”
Russia and World War I O Declaration of war in Russia evoked a moment of “patriotic union” O Military defeats and domestic strains rekindled the smouldering social and political conflict. O By early 1915 German divisions had dealt a string of shattering defeats. O “ Relentless” German advance O Russia needed “total war” – a complete mobilization of resources, human and material.
Russia’s Problems O Russia’s stock of ammunition and weapons was low. O Neither domestic production nor imports could satisfy the huge demand of this first modern war. O As morale plummeted, the army replaced decimated officer corps with young officers from lower social ranks– non-aristocrats who had minimal training and little authority over peasant soldiers.
Russian soldiers pledge allegiance to the Tsar: World War I
Russian WWI poster: “The Great European War”
Russian infantry attack,
Eastern and Central European losses in World War I (incl. civilians): O Russia – 3. 3 mln. , 3. 75 mln. wounded O Germany – 2 and 4. 2 mln. O Austro-Hungary – 2 and 2. 6 mln. O Turkey – 3. 6 and 0. 76 mln. O Bulgaria – 0. 2 and 0. 15 mln. O Serbia – 0. 5 and 0. 2 mln. O Romania – 0. 5 and 0. 2 mln. O Total: 12 mln. killed and 11 mln. wounded O HUMAN TOLL: 23 mln.
Sad end O People grew tired of a war O Hard to support something you don’t understand O Unlike 1812 and wars of 19 cent this war wasn’t fought on Russian soil (almost) O Unmodernized economy wasn’t ready to compete with arm race O Drawn to despair capital women decided to voice their protest on their International Women Day O … the revolution has started!!!!