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IB history route 2 HL&SL
Why is HISTORY important? “ Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it” — George Santayana
Where does the word HISTORY come from? The word history comes from Greek ἱστορία ( historia ), “knowledge acquired by investigation” and from the Proto- Indo- European *wid-tor- , “to know, to see». This root is also present in the English words wit , wise , and wisdom.
HISTORY defined: History is the study of the past, with special attention to the written record of the activities of human beings over time. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyze the sequence of events, and it often attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.
So for history to become history somebody needs to record it… But HOW? ? Most naturally through written word (chronicle, memoirs, eye-witness account) Then, you can paint a picture, or make a sculpture, even build a temple XX century open 2 new ways to record history -audio -video We, now, may study archeology – that is ancient artifacts of older civilizations And of course there’s oral history Historical sources
Each source is either PRIMARY (that is description of something you’re a witness to) Or SECONDARY (our interpretation of past events)
EVERYBODY LIES! The relation between evidence and fact, however, is rarely simple and direct. The evidence may be biased or mistaken, fragmentary. Historians, therefore, have to assess their evidence with a critical eye.
Historical method How do we fight for objectivity? ? EXTERNAL Criticism ( is this a real deal? ) WHEN source was made? WHO is author? (what’s his story – how is he biased) WHERE is the source produced? (is it the same place as described) What is BASE of the source? (any previous knowledge or sources used)
INTERNAL Criticism (what does the source say) TONE – sarcasm, irony, description POSITION – sources used, what’s author’s bias CREDIBILITY – are there any other sources describing the same event?
And FINALLY… Synthesis – What can we take from the trusted source and how this knowledge adds to our previous finding about described event
I. B History- Key Features 20 th Century World History- examined units Coursework element-the opportunity to research a topic of your own choice (doesn’t have to be 20 th Century) Study of new topic areas / builds on existing knowledge Standard and Higher Level options
Standard Level- at a glance Paper 1 — Source Analysis (30%) (Structured Questions) Paper 2 — Twentieth Century World History Topics (45%) (Essay Writing) Coursework- Historical Investigation on a topic of your own choice (25%)
Higher Level — at a glance Paper 1 — Source Analysis (20%) Paper 2 — Twentieth Century World History Topics (25%) Coursework- Historical Investigation Paper 3 — In depth study of a world region (e. g. Europe/ America / Asia) (35%)
Course topics Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states (Stalin’s Russia, Nazi Germany, Mao’s China) Democratic States – challenges and responses (Weimar Republic, FDR in 1950 -1970, USA 1950 -1970) Communism in crisis 1976– 89( Reforms in China and USSR History of Eastern and Western Europe 1929 -1991 (HL option)
HISTORY OF AMERICAS USA Great Depression, WW 11, Golden 50 es, JFK and Vietnam, Richard Nixon and Watergate, Roaming 60 es – Civil Rights Movement CANADA Great Depression, WW 11, Native citizens, Civil Rights CUBA Fidel Castro and revolution of 1958 BUT – has no connection to Russian State Exam in history, new topic with no previous knowledge. HL primaries
HISTORY OF EUROPE RUSSIA Alexander II, Stolypin, WW I and revolutions, Bolshevik’s seize of power, Civil War, WWII, Khrushchev’s reform, Eltzin’s Russia. EUROPE Eastern Europe – forming of Warsaw Pact, study of one WP country, modernization attempts and revolutions of 1989 Western Europe — Franco’s Italy There’re previous knowledge of the period, ability to use number of sources – textbooks, memoirs and etc
How History help me with other parts of I. B? TOK — ways of knowing Extended Essay- can choose to write it on a historical topic English B – writing strategies Any university entrance exam – TOEFL, IELTS, SAT – writing section