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EE 8407 Topic 7 1  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 1 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 Power Converter Systems Graduate Course EE 8407 Bin Wu Ph. D, PEng Professor ELCE Department Ryerson University Contact Info Office: ENG 328 Tel: (416) 979 -5000 ext: 6484 Email: [email protected] ryerson. ca http: //www. ee. ryerson. ca/~bwu/ Ryerson Campus

EE 8407 Topic 7 2  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 2 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 Three-Level NPC Inverter Based MV Drive Topic 7 Multilevel Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Inverters Courtesy of ABB (ACS 1000)

EE 8407 Topic 7 3  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 3 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 Lecture Topics • Three-level NPC Inverter • Space Vector Modulation • Neutral Point Voltage Control • High-level NPC Inverters Multilevel NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 4  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 4 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Inverter Configuration Clamping diodes: D Z 1 and D Z 2 (Phase A)Three-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 5  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 5 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Switching State Complementary Switch pairs: S 1 and S 3 ; S 2 and S 4 ; Three-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 6  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 6 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Gate Signal Arrangements Inverter phase voltage v AZ has three levels: E , 0 and – E ONONONOPOPOPO 0 1 gv 2 gv 3 gv 4 gv AZv E EThree-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 7  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 7 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Inverter Output Waveforms 2 E AZv BZv CZv ABv 0 0 t t BZAZABvvv E E 2 E Three-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 8  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 8 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Space Vectors • Three-phase voltages 0)()()(tvtvtv. COBOAO • Two-phase voltages )( )( )( 3 4 sin 3 2 sin 0 sin 3 4 cos 3 2 cos 0 cos 3 2 )( )( tv tv tv CO BO AO • Space vector representation )()()(tvjtvt. V (2) (3) 3/43/20)()()( 3 2 )(j CO j BO j AOetvetvetvt. V where xjxejxsincos (3)(1) (2) (4)Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 9  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 9 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 Switching state [POO] on-state switches: Phase A: upper two switches [P] Phase B: middle two switches [O] Phase C: middle two switches [O]d. BOd. AOVtv. Vtv 6 1 )(, 3 1 )(d. COVtv 6 1 )( and Substituting (5) to (4) gives a space vector (5) (6) 0 1 3 1 j de. VV • Space Vectors (Example) from which Total switching states: 27 Total space vectors: 19 Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 10  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 10 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Space Vectors Diagram 19 space vectors: Zero vector: V 0 Small vectors: V 1 – V 6 Medium vectors: V 7 – V 12 Large vectors: V 13 – V 18 d. VV 3 2 13 6/ 3 3 7 jed. VV 3/ 3 2 14 jed. VV 0 V 3 V 2 V 4 V 5 V 8 V 6 V 15 V 18 V 12 V 11 V 10 V 9 V 17 V 16 V 3/1 d. VV Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 11  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 11 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 Space Vector Switching State Vector Classification Vector Magnitude 0 V [PPP][OOO] [NNN] Zero Vector (ZV) 0 P-type N-type P V 1 [POO] 1 V N V 1 [ONN] P V 2 [PPO] 2 V NV 2 [OON] P V 3 [OPO] 3 V NV 3 [NON] P V 4 [OPP] 4 V NV 4 [NOO] P V 5 [OOP] 5 V NV 5 [NNO] P V 6 [POP] 6 V NV 6 [ONO] Small Vector (SV) P-type Small Vector (PSV) N-type Small Vector (NSV) d. V 31 • Switching States and Space Vectors Redundancy: Zero vector – three switching states Small vectors – two states per vector. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 12  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 12 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 Space Vector Switching State Vector Classification Vector Magnitude 7 V [PON] 8 V [OPN] 9 V [NPO] 10 V [NOP] 11 V [ONP] 12 V [PNO] Medium Vector (MV) d. V 3 3 13 V [PNN] 14 V [PPN] 15 V [NPN] 16 V [NPP] 17 V [NNP] 18 V [PNP] Large Vector (LV) d. V 3 2 No redundant switching states for medium or large vectors • Switching States and Space Vectors Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 13  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 13 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Sector Definition V ref : Reference vector, rotating in space at a certain speed; All other vectors are stationary. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 14  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 14 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • SVM Principle • For a given length and position in space, V ref can be approximated by three nearby stationary vectors; • Based on the chosen stationary vectors, switching states are selected and gate signals are generated; • When V ref passes through sectors one by one, different sets of switches are turned on or off; • When V ref rotates one revolution in space, the inverter output voltage varies one cycle over time; • The inverter output frequency corresponds to the rotating speed of V ref ; • The inverter output voltage can be adjusted by the magnitude of V ref. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 15  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 15 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Dwell Time Calculation 4 b. TPNNc. T b. T 3 PON PPO OON 1 a. T ONN POO 2 c. T 39 13 V 7 V 1 V 14 V 0 V 2 V ref. V a. T • Use volt-second balancing principle • Select three nearest stationary vectors 721 and, VVV Sector I scba srefcba TTTT TVTV 271 Four Regions. Dwell time is the duty-cycle time of selected switches during the sampling period T s . (a)Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 16  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 16 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Dwell Time Calculation ]) 3 (sin 21[ ]1) 3 (sin 2[ ]sin 21[ asc asb asa m. TT T a , T b and T c – dwell times for V 1 , V 7 and V 2 d ref a V V m 3 – m odulation index. From equation (a) Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 17  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 17 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Switching Sequence (Seven-segment) General Design Requirements a ) The transition from one switching state to the next involves only two switches in the same inverter leg, one being turned on and the other turned off; and b ) The transition for V ref moving from one sector (or one region) to the next requires no or minimum number of switchings. Note: The switching sequence design is not unique, but the above requirements should be satisfied for switching frequency minimization. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 18  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 18 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Switching Sequence (Seven-segment) Assuming V ref is in Region 4 of Sector I, three vectors are selected: V 2 , V 7 and V 14 Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 19  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 19 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Switching Sequence (Seven-segment) Switching sequence requirement a ) is satisfied. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 20  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 20 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Switching Sequence (Seven-segment) Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 21  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 21 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Switching Sequence (Seven-segment) Switching sequence requirement b ) is satisfied. 2/2/1, fffspdevsw ssp. Tf/1 Device switching frequency: Sampling frequency: Fundamental frequency: 1 f. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 22  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 22 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Simulated Waveforms (Seven-segment) f 1 = 60 Hz , T s = 1/1080 sec, m a = 0. 8 , f sw = 570 Hz v AB is not half wave symmetrical; and contains both even- and odd-order harmonics. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 23  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 23 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Simulated Waveforms (Seven-segment) f 1 = 60 Hz , T s = 1/1080 sec, m a = 0. 8 , f sw = 570 Hz. Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 24  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 24 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Harmonic Content (Seven-segment) Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 25  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 25 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Laboratory Prototype at Ryerson Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 26  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 26 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Measured Waveforms Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 27  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 27 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Measured waveforms (with even-order harmonic elimination)Space Vector Modulation

EE 8407 Topic 7 28  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 28 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Neutral Point Voltage Deviation The neutral point voltage v z can be controlled by P- and N-types of small vectors. Neutral Point Voltage Control

EE 8407 Topic 7 29  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 29 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Neutral Point Voltage Control a. Na. Pa. TTT t T T a a. N a a. P 1 211 TNeutral Point Voltage Control

EE 8407 Topic 7 30  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 30 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Neutral Point Voltage Control R is used on purpose to make the dc voltage unbalance. Neutral Point Voltage Control

EE 8407 Topic 7 31  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 31 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Inverter Topologies High-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 32  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 32 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Switching State High-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 33  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 33 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Component Count Note: The number of clamping diodes increases substantially with the voltage level. High-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 34  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 34 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • IPD Modulation (four-level)High-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 35  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 35 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Harmonic Content (four-level, IPD Modulation)High-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 36  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 36 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • APOD Modulation (four-level)High-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 37  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 37 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • Harmonic Content (four-level, APOD Modulation)0. 20. 40. 6 a. M 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0 0 x y 612. 0 x y n=13, 17 n=11 n=19 0. 8 d n V VABHigh-Level NPC Inverters

EE 8407 Topic 7 38  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 38 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 • The 3 -level NPC inverter widely used in MV drives Main features — Low device count — No switches in series — Suitable for medium voltage operation • The practical use of 4 — or 5 -level NPC inverters not reported Main reasons — Difficulties in dc capacitor voltage control — Large number of clamping diodes Summary

EE 8407 Topic 7 39  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley -EE 8407 Topic 7 39 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press,