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1  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE1 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 Power Converter Systems Graduate Course EE 8407 Ryerson Campus. Bin Wu Ph. D, PEng Professor ELCE Department Ryerson University Contact Info Office: ENG 328 Tel: (416) 979 -5000 ext: 6484 Email: [email protected] ryerson. ca http: //www. ee. ryerson. ca/~bwu/

2  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE2 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 CHB Inverter Fed Drive Source: Toshiba — General Electric H-bride power cells. Topic 6 Multilevel Cascaded H-Bride (CHB) Inverters

3  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE3 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 Lecture Topics • H-Bridge Inverter • CHB Inverter Topologies • Phase Shifted PWM • Level Shifted PWM • PWM Scheme Comparison. Multilevel CHB Inverters

4  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE4 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • To increase inverter operating voltage without devices in series • To minimize THD with low switching frequencies f sw • To reduce EMI due to lower voltage steps Why Use Multilevel Inverters? Switching frequency for high power converters: f sw = 60 Hz ~ 1000 Hz Multilevel CHB Inverters

5  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE5 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Per-Phase Diagram Multilevel Inverter Topologies

6  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE6 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • H-bridge Power Cell H-Bridge Inverter

7  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE7 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 H-bridge Power Cell • Typical Industrial Applications 0 0 0 M 30 30 A B C Neutral H-bridge Phase Shifting Transformer Utility Grid Five-level CHB inverter H-Bridge Inverter

8  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE8 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Bipolar Modulation Bipolar PWM: v AB from — V d to + V d or from + V d to — V d 1 gv 3 gv d. V 0 -1. 0 0 BNv ANv 0 ABv d. V 1 ABv 2 mvcrv 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 12 fm 32 fm 2 fm 23 fm 14 fm 1 n dn. VVAB/ 0 (a) W aveform s (b) Harm onic spectrum d. V n 1102030405060 H-Bridge Inverter

9  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE9 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Bipolar Modulation (FFT) d n. V VAB 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 0. 20. 40. 60. 8 2 f m 0 0 32 fm 12 fm 0. 707 f m a m 1 n. H-Bridge Inverter

10  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE10 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Unipolar Modulation (1)0 -1. 0 mv 2 1 gv 3 gv 0 BNv ANv d. V 0 ABv d. V 0 0. 2 0. 4 dn. VVAB/ 32 fm 14 fm 0. 6 12 fm mvcrv 1 n (b) Harm onic spectrum (a) W aveforms n 1102030405060 • Two modulation waves v m and v m — • One carrier wave v cr • Unipolar PWM: v AB from 0 to + V d or from 0 to — V d. H-Bridge Inverter

11  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE11 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • One modulating wave: v m • Two carrier waves: v cr and v cr — 0 -1. 0 0 ABv d. V mvcrv 1 gv 3 gv • Unipolar Modulation (2) H-Bridge Inverter

12  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE12 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Five-Level CHB Inverter Converters in cascade, but no switching devices in series. Complementary Switch pairs: S 11 and S 41 ; S 31 and S 21 ; S 12 and S 42 ; S 32 and S 22 ; CHB Inverter Topologies

13  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE13 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Output Voltage and Switching Status (five-level) Waveform of v AN is composed of five voltage levels: 2 E , 0, -E , and -2 ECHB Inverter Topologies

14  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE14 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Seven- and Nine-Level Inverters (Per phase diagram) CHB Inverter Topologies

15  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE15 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Unequal dc Bus Voltages CHB Inverter Topologies

16  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE16 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Unequal dc Bus Voltages (Two-cell seven-level topology) CHB Inverter Topologies

17  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE17 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Carrier Based PWM – Phase Shifted. Amv 1 crv 2 crv 3 crv 11 g v 31 gv 1 Hv 12 gv 32 gv 2 Hv 13 gv 3 Hv 0 ANv E 3 E 01. 0 -1. 0 E 1 crv 2 crv 3 crv. E 321 HHHvvvv. AN • # of voltage levels: m = 7 • # of carriers: m c = m — 1 = 6 • Phase shift: 360 ° / m c = 60 ° Carriers for H 1 bridge: v cr 1 and v cr 1 — Carriers for H 2 bridge: v cr 2 and v cr 2 — Carriers for H 3 bridge: v cr 3 and v cr 3 — m = 7 Phase Shifted PWM

18  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE18 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Inverter Waveforms (7 -level, phase shifted)1 Hv 2 Hv 3 Hv 0 ANv 0 ABv 3 E 6 E • Switching occurs at different times • f sw(device) = 60 m f = 600 Hz • Inverter phase voltage levels: 7 • Low EMI • Line-to-line voltage levels: 13 • Close to a sinusoid • Low THDPhase Shifted PWM

19  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE19 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • FFT (7 -level, phase shifted) • Lowest harmonics: around 2 m f • Lowest harmonics: around 6 m f • Containing triplen harmonics • No triplen harmonics • Equivalent f sw(inverter) = 60(6 m f ) = 3600 Hz. Phase Shifted PWM

20  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE20 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Harmonic Content (7 -level, phase shifted)0 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 a m 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 d n V VAB 16 fm 56 fm 76 fm 116 fm x y 2241. x y 1 n. Phase Shifted PWM

21  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE21 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Carrier Based PWM – Level Shifted • # of voltage levels: m = 5 • # of carriers: m c = m — 1 = 4 IPD provides the best harmonic profile. IPD APOD PODLevel Shifted PWM

22  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE22 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 cr 1 v cr 2 v cr 3 v g 11 v g 31 v 1 Hv 12 gv 32 gv 2 Hv 13 gv 3 Hv 0 ANv 3 E m. Av -cr 1 v -cr 3 v -cr 2 v 3 H 2 H 1 HANvvvv E E E • # of voltage levels: m = 7 • # of carriers: m c = m — 1 = 6 • f sw(device) : — not equal to f cr , and — not the same for all switches. • Device conduction angle: — not equal. • Necessary to swap switching pattern. • Gating Arrangement (7 -level)Level Shifted PWM

23  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE23 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Inverter Output Voltages (seven-level) • m = 7 • v AB close to a sinusoid • Low THD, low EMI • f sw(inv) = f c = 3600 Hz • Switching occurs at different times • f sw(device) = f cr / m c = 600 Hz (avg)Level Shifted PWM

24  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE24 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Prototype at Ryerson (Seven-level CHB Inverter) Level Shifted PWM

25  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE25 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Measured Waveforms (IPD, 7 -level) Inverter phase voltage v AZ Line-to-line voltage v ABLevel Shifted PWM

26  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE26 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • PWM at Low m a — Phase shifted PWM: THD = 96. 7% — Level shifted PWM: THD = 48. 8% • At m a = 0. 2: 1 Hv 2 Hv 3 Hv 0 ANv 0 ABv E 2 E 1 Hv 2 Hv 3 Hv 0 ANv 0 ABv 2 E E (a) Phase-shifted m odulation (b) Level-shifted m odulation (IPD) THD = 96. 7% THD = 48. 8% PWM Scheme Comparison

27  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE27 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) PWM Scheme Comparison

28  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE28 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 6 • Summary PWM Scheme Comparison

29  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE29 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic




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