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1  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE1 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 Power Converter Systems Graduate Course EE 8407 Ryerson Campus. Bin Wu Ph. D, PEng Professor ELCE Department Ryerson University Contact Info Office: ENG 328 Tel: (416) 979 -5000 ext: 6484 Email: [email protected] ryerson. ca http: //www. ee. ryerson. ca/~bwu/

2  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE2 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 Multi-pulse SCR Rectifiers

3  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE3 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 Lecture Topics • Six-pulse SCR Rectifier (Building Block) • 12 -, 18 — and 24 -pulse SCR Rectifiers • THD and PF Multi-pulse SCR Rectifiers

4  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE4 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 Why Use Multi-pulse SCR Rectifiers? • To reduce line THD • To improve input power factor • To avoid semiconductor devices in series. Multi-pulse SCR Rectifiers

5  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE5 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Converter Configuration • Assumption: 1) Ideal SCRs — no power loss 2) dc current ripple free • Use constant current source I d as a load Ld. Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

6  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE6 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Waveforms • Average dc voltage)( 3/ 1 3/ area 2/ 6/ tdv V ab d 1 A cos 35. 1 cos 23 LL LL V V avbvcv 6 626 56 76 96 11 0 2 gi 3 gi 4 gi 5 gi 6 gi 1 gi v 23 t t Pvavbv Nv cvavbvv 0 dv 0 abvacvbcvbavcavcbvabvacv d. V d. I 1 A ai 11 ai 0 bi 0 ci t t t d. I III 1 216, SS O N 21, SS ON Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

7  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE7 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Fourier Analysis . . 19 sin 19 1 17 sin 17 1 13 sin 13 1 11 sin 11 1 7 sin 7 1 5 sin 5 1 sin 32 1111 tttt. Iida • RMS current dd ddaa II td. Itdi. I 816. 0 3 2 )()( 2 1 2/1 6 11 6 7 26 5 6 2 2/12 0 2 • THD 311. 0 78. 0 )78. 0()816. 0(22 1 2 d dd a aa I II THD Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

8  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE8 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Power Factor (PF) • Displacement Power Factor coscos 1 121 DPF • Overall Power Factor cos 955. 0 1 cos 21 THD PFSix-pulse SCR Rectifier

9  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE9 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Waveforms at Various Firing Angles Pv 90 avbvcv 2 Nv 2 dv t 2 Pv Nv 45 avbvcv Pv 135 avbvcv Nv 0 2 abvacvbcvcavcbvbavdv d. V 2 abvacvbcvcavcbvbav 2 NPdvvv d. V dv d. V 2 abvacvbcvcavcbvbav dv Pv 180 Nv 2 avbvcv t t t 0 0 0 NPdvvv v v 45(a)90(b) 135(c)180(d) Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

10  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE10 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Effect of Line Inductance L sai bi ci 1 S 3 S 5 S 4 S 6 S 2 S G ND s. L av bv cv s. Lv d. Id. L dv L O A D P N a c b. Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

11  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE11 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Waveform During SCR Commutationt a i bici 1 ai d I 6 2 1 2 a v cv av. P v 6/56/9 t. P v 0 0 6 1 2 /)( ca vv A i. Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

12  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE12 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • DC Voltage Reduction (caused by commutation) • S 1 and S 5 on (during commutation)dt di Lvvc sc a sa. P from which dt di. Lvv vcasca P 22 • Since i a + i c = I d , and i d is constant 0 dt dica from which 2 ca P vv v Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

13  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE13 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • DC Voltage Reduction 6 6 )(tdvv. APa dtdi. Lvvaspa/ • Since dsa I s. ILdi. LA d 0 • Shaded Area A γ • Average dc voltage loss ds ILA V 3 3/ • Average dc output voltage d s LLd. I L VV 3 cos 35. 1 Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

14  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE14 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Commutation Interval • A γ can be rearranged as)(coscos 2 )( 2 6 6 LLac. V td v A )() 6 sin(2 tdt. Vv. LLac where • Substitute )(coscos 2 LL ds V IL from which d LL s. I V L 2 coscos 1 Six-pulse SCR Rectifier ds. IL into the above equation

15  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE15 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Line Current Waveformsaibi 1 ai aibi 22320 2. 00 1. 00 0. 00 -1. 00 -2. 00 (b) = 30°, Ia 1 = 1 pu (a) = 0°, Ia 1 = 1 pu 1. 41 pu L s = 0. 05 pu. Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

16  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE16 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Line Current THD 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 THD (% ) IA 1 (pu) 20 23 26 29 32 A B C A: Ls= 0 B: Ls= 0. 05 pu C: Ls= 0. 10 pu = 0° 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 THD (% ) IA 1 (pu) 20 23 26 29 32 A: = 20° B: = 40° C: = 60° Ls = 0. 05 pu A B C (a)(b) Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

17  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE17 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Power Factor 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 PF A: = 0° B: = 20° C: = 40° Ls= 0. 05 pu IA 1(pu) 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 A B C Six-pulse SCR Rectifier

18  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE18 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Topology. Ais. L ai 0 30 ai~ aaiii. A~lk. L dv L O A D d. I • Main Benefits — Low line current THD — No SCRs in series 12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

19  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE19 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Application Example • Used for current source inverter (CSI) fed drive 0 30 d. L M f. C 12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

20  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE20 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Waveforms of Idealized Rectifier ( L s = L lk = 0 )2 t t ai ai ai~ Ai d. I 2 d. I 3 1 d. I 32 1 t t t 6/6/50 0 0 ai~12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

21  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE21 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Fourier Analysis . . 19 sin 19 1 17 sin 17 1 13 sin 13 1 11 sin 11 1 7 sin 7 1 5 sin 5 1 sin 32 tt ttttt. Ii da • Secondary currents . . )30(19 sin 19 1 )30(17 sin 17 1 )30(13 sin 13 1 )30(11 sin 11 1 )30(7 sin 71 )30(5 sin 51 )30 sin(32 ~ tttt. Ii da 12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

22  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE22 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Fourier Analysis (continued) • Secondary currents referred to the primary side. . }19 sin 19 1 17 sin 17 1 13 sin 13 1 11 sin 11 1 7 sin 7 1 5 sin 5 1 {sin 3 tt ttttt. Ii da . . }19 sin 19 1 17 sin 17 1 13 sin 13 1 11 sin 11 1 7 sin 71 5 sin 51 {sin 3 ~ tt ttttt. Ii da . . }25 sin 25 1 23 sin 23 1 13 sin 13 1 11 sin 11 1 {sin 32 ~ t tttt. Iiii daa. A • Primary line current 12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

23  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE23 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Line Current THD • Secondary side %1. 31. . . 1 2/12 13 2 11 2 7 2 5 1 2 a aaaa a aa i I IIII I II THDa • Primary side %3. 15. . . 1 2/12 25 2 23 2 11 1 2 A AAAA A AA i I IIII I II THDA 12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

24  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE24 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Line Current Waveform (L s 0 )(b) (a) 1. 50 0. 75 0. 00 -0. 75 -1. 50 1 Ai ai 21 ai 2 0234 Ai Harmonics n 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 THD (%)/1 aan. II 18. 8 12. 7 6. 78 5. 05 2. 77 2. 01 1. 01 0. 75 24. 6 (%)/1 AAn. II 0 0 6. 78 5. 05 0 0 1. 01 0. 75 8. 61 12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

25  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE25 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • THD and PF 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 THD (% ) IA 1(pu) 4 7 10 13 16 A B C A: Ls=0 B: Ls= 0. 05 pu C: Ls= 0. 10 pu Llk= 0. 05 pu = 0° (a) 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 PF A: = 0° B: = 20° C: = 40° Ls= 0 Llk= 0. 05 pu IA 1(pu) 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 A B C 12 -pulse SCR Rectifier

26  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE26 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Rectifier Configuration. Ais. L Z ai 20 0 Z 20 ai ai~ aaaiiii. A~ lk. L d. I dv L O A D d. L 18 -pulse SCR Rectifier

27  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE27 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 40. 60 0. 30 0. 00 -0. 30 -0. 60 1. 50 0. 75 0. 00 -0. 75 -1. 500234 ai~ 32 Ai (a) (b) (c) 1~ai aiai Harmonics n 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 THD (%)/1 aan. II 18. 8 12. 7 6. 78 5. 05 2. 77 2. 01 1. 01 0. 75 24. 6 (%)/1 AAn. II 0 0 2. 77 2. 01 0 0 3. 54 • Waveforms 18 -pulse SCR Rectifier

28  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE28 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Line Current THD 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 THD (% ) IA 1(pu) 2 4 6 8 10 A B C A: Ls = 0 B: Ls= 0. 05 pu C: Ls= 0. 10 pu Llk= 0. 05 pu = 0° 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 THD (% ) IA 1 (pu) 2 4 6 8 10 A: = 20° B: = 40° C: = 60° Ls= 0. 05 pu Llk= 0. 05 pu A B C 18 -pulse SCR Rectifier

29  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE29 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Rectifier Configuration 24 -pulse SCR Rectifier

30  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE30 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 4 • Line Current THD 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 THD (%) IA 1 (pu) 0 2 4 6 8 A B C A: Ls= 0 B: Ls= 0. 05 pu C: Ls= 0. 10 pu Llk = 0. 05 pu = 0° 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 THD (% ) IA 1(pu) 0 2 4 6 8 A B C A: = 20° B: = 40° C: = 60° Ls = 0. 05 pu Llk = 0. 05 pu 24 -pulse SCR Rectifier

31  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE31 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic




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