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Potential of European forest belt in energy production and carbon management Veli Pohjonen & Potential of European forest belt in energy production and carbon management Veli Pohjonen & Pertti Hari University of Helsinki Brussels 14. 3. 2006

European forest belt is a vast resource: European Forest Institute European forest belt is a vast resource: European Forest Institute

European forest belt is 12 % greener - from 1981 to 1999 ref: Zhou European forest belt is 12 % greener - from 1981 to 1999 ref: Zhou et al. 2001

European forests grow more: surplus 260 mill. m 3 a-1 excluding Former Soviet Union; European forests grow more: surplus 260 mill. m 3 a-1 excluding Former Soviet Union; source: European Forest Institute

Finland: forests grow more, surplus 25 mill. m 3 a-1 Finland: forests grow more, surplus 25 mill. m 3 a-1

Trees grow better also in northern latitudes in Lapland, Finland • Scientists were surprised Trees grow better also in northern latitudes in Lapland, Finland • Scientists were surprised of the growth vigor of young Lapland forests (2004) • During the last decade (1990 s) the annual growth increased by 49 % source: Helsingin Sanomat

Measurements of gas exchange of Scots pine have been done since 1992 at northern Measurements of gas exchange of Scots pine have been done since 1992 at northern tree line in Värriö Research Station, 200 km behind Arctic Circle

Explanations behind increased growth • Successfull conservation • Improved silviculture • Sustained management • Explanations behind increased growth • Successfull conservation • Improved silviculture • Sustained management • Young, vigorous trees dominate • Nitrogen deposition • Climate change: temperature and CO 2 rise

EU 25: top 10 countries in forest growth available for wood supply source: Finnish EU 25: top 10 countries in forest growth available for wood supply source: Finnish Forest Research Insitute

Forests available for wood supply: they are outside conservation areas; they are typically at Forests available for wood supply: they are outside conservation areas; they are typically at thinning age

Sustained forestry • takes care of continuity, diversification of landscapes and conservation of biodiversity Sustained forestry • takes care of continuity, diversification of landscapes and conservation of biodiversity • After thinning the forests grow timber for mechanical wood industries

Research gaps 1. Woody biomass growth of young forests in changing climate 2. Woody Research gaps 1. Woody biomass growth of young forests in changing climate 2. Woody biomass growth of young forests in various parts of European forest belt 3. Woody biomass growth of young stands by various tree species (currently known best for Scots pine)

Comparison of energy use and forest growth • Energy use in EU • Forest Comparison of energy use and forest growth • Energy use in EU • Forest growth in EU • Ratio • Energy use in Finland • Forest growth in Finland • Ratio • Energy use in Lapland • Forest growth in Lapland • Ratio 72 EJ (exajoules) 3. 8 EJ 5. 3 per cent 1488 PJ (petajoules) 509 PJ 34 per cent 53 PJ 67 PJ 126 per cent

Forest energy is local • it is important regionally, in well-forested, remote areas • Forest energy is local • it is important regionally, in well-forested, remote areas • it can contribute to energy mix at national level • it cannot solve all energy needs at European level • also other forms of energy (solid, liquid and gaseous) are needed

Carbon dioxide management • Drop CO 2 emissions by 10 per cent • EU Carbon dioxide management • Drop CO 2 emissions by 10 per cent • EU 25 emissions now 4 064 mill. tn a-1 CO 2 • EU: drop 406 mill. tn a-1 • Finland: drop 7. 3 mill. tn a-1 • Lapland: drop 0. 26 mill. tn a-1 • Is the forest growth sufficient?

Comparison of CO 2 drop by one tenth and forest growth • Reduction in Comparison of CO 2 drop by one tenth and forest growth • Reduction in EU • From forest growth in EU • Ratio 406 mill. tn CO 2 384 mill. tn CO 2 95 per cent • Reduction in Finland • Forest growth in Finland • Ratio 7. 3 mill. tn CO 2 49 mill. tn CO 2 660 per cent • Reduction in Lapland • Forest growth in Lapland • Ratio 0. 26 mill. tn CO 2 6. 7 mill. tn CO 2 2600 per cent

Forest energy can contribute to reduction of CO 2 emissions • Forest energy can Forest energy can contribute to reduction of CO 2 emissions • Forest energy can solve the CO 2 emission reductions only in less populated remote areas • Forest energy can contribute to CO 2 emission reductions at national and European level • But again: also other forms of renewable energy (solid, liquid and gaseous) are needed to reduce CO 2 emissions at European level

Big potential to drop CO 2 emissions is in coal and steel, see case Big potential to drop CO 2 emissions is in coal and steel, see case Finland source: Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry

Forest energy development • Forest chips for local applications: successful development since 1956 (Pöttinger Forest energy development • Forest chips for local applications: successful development since 1956 (Pöttinger chipper from Austria) • Wood pellets: development for local applications since 1976, for large-scale applications since 1992 • Research into forest biomass energy as reduction agent in metallurgical industries in 2000 s (in Finland: universities, Rautaruukki Oyj)

Transport of forest energy into CO 2 emission centres Rule of thumb for maximum Transport of forest energy into CO 2 emission centres Rule of thumb for maximum transport: • Forest chips, saw dust or shavings: 100 km (by truck) • Round wood 1000 km (by train) • Wood pellets 5000 km (by ship)

Unprocessed wood: why to transport air (and water)? Densify - press the wood into Unprocessed wood: why to transport air (and water)? Densify - press the wood into plain cell walls !

Wood pellets from Scots pine shavings Wood pellets from Scots pine shavings

Pellets have been developed for 30 years • near to 200 factories in Europe Pellets have been developed for 30 years • near to 200 factories in Europe • Small scale (house) use is well advanced • Large scale use started in Hässelby, Sweden in 1992; Denmark also active • Raw materials: shavings from carpenter industries, have become limited source: The Bioenergy International

Research gaps and needs for wood energy transport (e. g. as pellets) 1. Densify Research gaps and needs for wood energy transport (e. g. as pellets) 1. Densify more 2. Diversify raw material (use of saw dust and chips, by tree species) 3. Raw material drying (thermal and other means) 4. Optimize production (reduce costs) 5. Co-firing with coal 6. Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS)

Target of pellet development: to get it recognized in Commodity price lists see e. Target of pellet development: to get it recognized in Commodity price lists see e. g. ”pink sheet” in http: //www. worldbank. org/ Commodity Jan-Dec Jan-Feb Dec Jan Feb 2004 Unit Jan-Dec 2005 2006 Energy Coal, Australia $/mt 52. 95 47. 62 45. 44 38. 23 43. 19 47. 70 Crude oil, avg, spot $/bbl 37. 73 53. 39 61. 08 56. 43 62. 46 59. 70 Crude oil, Brent $/bbl 38. 30 54. 43 61. 75 56. 75 63. 57 59. 92 Crude oil, Dubai $/bbl 33. 46 49. 29 57. 94 53. 13 58. 31 57. 58 Natural gas, Europe $/mmbtu 4. 28 6. 33 7. 96 7. 49 7. 96 7. 95 Natural gas, US $/mmbtu 5. 89 8. 92 8. 07 12. 83 8. 66 7. 49 ? ? ? ? ? ? Wood pellet, Europe €/tn

Reintroduce woody biomass in steel industries • Wood, as charcoal was the original reduction Reintroduce woody biomass in steel industries • Wood, as charcoal was the original reduction agent until 1800 s • Wood still in use in Brazilian steel industries • Most promising route: injection to the blast furnace from below • Possibility for 10 per cent reduction power and CO 2 emissions drop

How to process the biomass for injection? By Airgrinder? How to process the biomass for injection? By Airgrinder?

Research gaps and needs • How woody biomass should be injected into blast furnace: Research gaps and needs • How woody biomass should be injected into blast furnace: as wood powder (by airgrinder)? as pellets? or as charcoal? • How do different tree species behave in woody biomass injection • Co-firing of processed woody biomass with coal • Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS)

A glimpse into economics: CO 2 emissions trading caused structural change in raw energy A glimpse into economics: CO 2 emissions trading caused structural change in raw energy price relationships; prices in Finland, March 2006

A glimpse into sustainability • CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is under research A glimpse into sustainability • CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is under research for coal-fired energy production; CCS will neutralize CO 2 emissions from coal • CCS will be used with woody biomass energy as well; CCS will render CO 2 emissions negative, from woody biomass plants. • CCS with woody biomass may give sustained way to reduce carbon dioxide from the atmosphere • CCS needs long-term research

In conclusion • Woody biomass growth in the European forest belt has increased • In conclusion • Woody biomass growth in the European forest belt has increased • More woody biomass becomes available for bioenergy production • In EU forest energy can theoretically cover max 5 per cent • Impact of forest energy on CO 2 emissions reduction is bigger • Forest energy can contribute to the renewable energy mix • Other energy forms (solid, liquid and gaseous) are needed • In long run woody biomass energy may have a sustained role in CCS • There is a need for wide, integrated R & D project at EU framework

Into research project in FP 7 • Whole chain from tree seedling into processed Into research project in FP 7 • Whole chain from tree seedling into processed biomass and energy use needs to be included • Research and development in three parts, based by existing gaps 1. Woody biomass growth and management of young forests in various parts of Europe and by various tree species 2. Harvesting and processing the woody biomass for transport and storage for use in populated and industrialized areas 3. Use of processed woody biomass, including applications for Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS)

References and sources • The Bioenergy International; www. bioenergyinternational. com • European Forest Institute References and sources • The Bioenergy International; www. bioenergyinternational. com • European Forest Institute (EFI); www. efi. fi • Finnish Forest Research Institute. Metsätilastollinen vuosikirja 2005. Statistical yearbook 2005; www. metla. fi • Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry; www. ktm. fi • World Bank Commodity prices (”Pink Sheet): http: //www. worldbank. org/ ; search ”pink sheet” • Helsingin Sanomat 6. 9. 2004; www. helsinginsanomat. fi • Zhou, L. et al. 2001. Variations in northern vegatation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D 17): 20, 069 -20, 083.