Скачать презентацию POSITION before the noun FORM Singular ORDER Opinion Скачать презентацию POSITION before the noun FORM Singular ORDER Opinion

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POSITION: before the noun FORM: Singular ORDER: Opinion / fact opinion size shape age POSITION: before the noun FORM: Singular ORDER: Opinion / fact opinion size shape age material colour origin purpose / type

order of adjectives opinion size shape age colour origin material purpose/type noun nice big order of adjectives opinion size shape age colour origin material purpose/type noun nice big round old blue French glass fruit bowl What is it like? How big is it? What size is it? What shape is it? How old is it? What age is it? What colour is it? Where is it from? Where does it come from? What is it made of? What is it for? What type/kind/sort is it?

ADVERBS THAT MODIFY ADJECTIVES Adjectives can be divided BASE ADJECTIVES BIG HOT TIRED COLD ADVERBS THAT MODIFY ADJECTIVES Adjectives can be divided BASE ADJECTIVES BIG HOT TIRED COLD INTERESTING BAD GOOD DIRTY SURPRISED AFRAID CLEVER LITTLE into 2 categories: STRONG ADJECTIVES ENORMOUS BOILING EXHAUSTED FREEZING FASCINATING HORRIBLE WONDERFUL FILTHY ASTONISHED TERRIFIED BRILLIANT TINY

We can modify adjectives with INTENSIFIERS / ADVERBS BASE ADJECTIVES rather, a bit, completely(negative We can modify adjectives with INTENSIFIERS / ADVERBS BASE ADJECTIVES rather, a bit, completely(negative adjectives) very, really, extremely, fairly, quite STRONG ADJECTIVES Absolutely, totally, utterly, (really) EXAMPLES: Very good; fairly small; rather stupid Absolutely fantastic; totally exhausted

QUESTIONS ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ASKING FOR INFORMATION ASKING FOR CONFIRMATION ASKING FOR PERMISSION QUESTIONS ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ASKING FOR INFORMATION ASKING FOR CONFIRMATION ASKING FOR PERMISSION MAKING REQUESTS MAKING OFFERS MAKING INVITATIONS MAKING SUGGESTIONS SHOWING FRIENDLY INTEREST

QUESTIONS • What’s your D. O. B? • Do you need advice? • Is QUESTIONS • What’s your D. O. B? • Do you need advice? • Is it O. K. if I sit here? • Could you give me more details, please? • Can I help? • Would you like to go to the cinema? • Shall I help you to carry the shopping? • How are things at home?

TWO basic types of questions INFORMATION WH- questions CONFIRMATION / CONTRADICTION YES-NO questions TWO basic types of questions INFORMATION WH- questions CONFIRMATION / CONTRADICTION YES-NO questions

YES – NO Questions Inversion of the AUXILIARY verb with the SUBJECT TO BE: YES – NO Questions Inversion of the AUXILIARY verb with the SUBJECT TO BE: Affirmative: You are in my class. Question : Are you in my class? Affirmative: You were in my class. Question : Were you in my class? Affirmative: You are going home. Question : Are you going home?

PRESENT PERFECT. She has been to London recently PERFECT Has she been to London PRESENT PERFECT. She has been to London recently PERFECT Has she been to London recently? PAST PERFECT He had already left when you arrived Had he already left when you arrived? FUTURE. They will finish before 5 p. m. Will they finish before 5 p. m. ? CONDITIONAL You would do it Would you do it?

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS WH – WHAT WHERE WHO WHEN WHY WHICH WHOSE an object a INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS WH – WHAT WHERE WHO WHEN WHY WHICH WHOSE an object a place a person a time a reason between two possession

OBJECT QUESTIONS begin with the interrogative pronoun what, where, who, why, when, whose, which, OBJECT QUESTIONS begin with the interrogative pronoun what, where, who, why, when, whose, which, how • Combinations with • • • “WHAT” + noun What time. . What day. . What colour. . What size. . What shape… What nationality… • Combinations with “HOW” + adjective • How old… • How often…. • How much… • How many…. • How far… • How long

 QUESTION WORD WHEN AUXILIARY VERB DO SUBJECT MAIN VERB I FINISH? ARRIVE? WHAT QUESTION WORD WHEN AUXILIARY VERB DO SUBJECT MAIN VERB I FINISH? ARRIVE? WHAT TIME WILL YOU WHERE HAS HE GONE? WHAT DID WE KNOW? HOW MUCH SHOULD YOU TAKE? WHO CAN THEY SEE?

SUBJECT QUESTIONS When the subject of the question is the interrogative pronoun the verb SUBJECT QUESTIONS When the subject of the question is the interrogative pronoun the verb remains affirmative, so you do not use: DO, DOES, DID • WHO, WHICH, WHAT, HOW MUCH/MANY • Who wants to go out? • Which animals live in the jungle? • What happened next? • How much money is spent on useless products? • How many people live in Ferrara?

QUESTIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS • • • Where are you from? Who did he talk QUESTIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS • • • Where are you from? Who did he talk to? What are they talking about? What will you spend the money on? What is the book about? What are we waiting for?

FIRST CONDITIONAL If + simple present + simple future If I’m lucky, I’ll catch FIRST CONDITIONAL If + simple present + simple future If I’m lucky, I’ll catch a big fish. If I catch a big fish, we’ll have it for dinner. If I go home without a fish. my wife won’t be pleased If he doesn’t catch a fish soon, he’ll move to another place he may move

FIRST CONDITIONAL Represents a possibile situation (more realistic) SECONDITIONAL Represents an improbable situation (less FIRST CONDITIONAL Represents a possibile situation (more realistic) SECONDITIONAL Represents an improbable situation (less realistic) IF + SIMPLE PAST + CONDITIONAL

3 rd conditional : If + past perfect + past conditional ( imaginary situations 3 rd conditional : If + past perfect + past conditional ( imaginary situations in the past) e. g. If Tom had studied harder, he would have passed the exam. PAST PERFECT = HAD + PP PAST CONDITIONAL = WOULD HAVE + PP IF + HAD ………. , WOULD HAVE …….

3 rd conditional : If + past perfect + past conditional ( imaginary situations 3 rd conditional : If + past perfect + past conditional ( imaginary situations in the past) e. g. If Tom had studied harder, he would have passed the exam. PAST PERFECT = HAD + PP PAST CONDITIONAL = WOULD HAVE + PP IF + HAD ………. , WOULD HAVE …….

FUTURE FORMS There are various ways of interpreting the future: PRESENT CONTINUOUS ( I FUTURE FORMS There are various ways of interpreting the future: PRESENT CONTINUOUS ( I am doing) (INTENTIONAL FUTURE I am going to do) SIMPLE FUTURE ( I will do ) FUTURE CONTINUOUS ( I will be doing ) FUTURE PERFECT ( I will have done ) MAY / MIGHT ( I may do )

PRESENT CONTINUOUS USE: to show you are talking about your FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS: e. g. PRESENT CONTINUOUS USE: to show you are talking about your FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS: e. g. Appointments & organised events, official arrangements TIME EXPRESSIONS e. g. Tonight, at eight, this…weekend, next…. . in April, The time element is IMPORTANT

THE INTENTIONAL FUTURE . USE (i) to talk about your intentions and decisions already THE INTENTIONAL FUTURE . USE (i) to talk about your intentions and decisions already taken (before the moment of speaking) e. g. I’m going to concentrate on my career from now on. I’m going to buy a new car next week (ii) To indicate an imminent action based on present evidence: e. g. Look at those black clouds. It’s going to rain. TIME EXPRESSIONS: In this form time expressions are secondary, as the emphasis is on the INTENTION of the speaker and not the TIME of the action

THE SIMPLE FUTURE USE: (i) to state a new decision (at the moment of THE SIMPLE FUTURE USE: (i) to state a new decision (at the moment of speaking) e. g. A: I’m going to have lunch now. B: O. K. I’ll come with you (ii) To make predictions & express opinions. e. g. I think the government will make new cuts. I know…. . I’m sure …… I hope there will not be any more cuts.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS USE: to talk about something happening around a certain time in the FUTURE CONTINUOUS USE: to talk about something happening around a certain time in the future e. g. In five years’ time I’ll be retiring This time next week I’ll be travelling to the USA FUTURE PERFECT USE: to talk about something completed by a certain time in the future. e. g. I will have worked in this department for 10 years by next June.

SIMPLE PAST vs PRESENT PERFECT DEFINED TIME vs UNDEFINED TIME Last …. . Just SIMPLE PAST vs PRESENT PERFECT DEFINED TIME vs UNDEFINED TIME Last …. . Just Ago Already Yesterday Ever In … 1990 Never On …Monday Yet When I was young Today ® When / What time…. ? ®In …London ®Since / For ®How long?

PRESENT PERFECT vs SIMPLE PAST The PRESENT PERFECT can express an action at an PRESENT PERFECT vs SIMPLE PAST The PRESENT PERFECT can express an action at an indefinite time before now E. g. I’ve been to Europe and Asia, but I’ve never been to America Peter has broken his leg. So now he cannot walk. If our attention moves to the time of an action then we must use THE SIMPLE PAST E. g. I went to the United States in 1987. Peter broke his leg when he was in the mountains in April.

WHAT ARE MODAL VERBS? The modal verbs are used to express concepts of : WHAT ARE MODAL VERBS? The modal verbs are used to express concepts of : • NECESSITY • POSSIBILITY • OBLIGATION • ABILITY • ADVICE • REQUESTS • DEDUCTION

CAN & MUST • NO • NO INFINITIVE GERUND “S” IN 3 RD PERSON CAN & MUST • NO • NO INFINITIVE GERUND “S” IN 3 RD PERSON PRESENT “DO/DOES” “TO” IN THE FOLLOWING VERB THE MISSING PARTS ARE PROVIDED BY OTHER VERBS: • CAN = TO BE ABLE ; MAY • MUST = TO HAVE TO

To know how / to be able Could May/Might May/ to be allowed To know how / to be able Could May/Might May/ to be allowed

OBLIGATION MUST • Personal obligation – the speaker has made the decision. He imposes OBLIGATION MUST • Personal obligation – the speaker has made the decision. He imposes the obligation on himself. e. g. I must telephone my dentist for an appointment. I’m gaining weight, I must go on a diet. I must check the time of the meeting. HAVE TO • External obligation Somebody else has made the decision. The obligation has come from outside the speaker. e. g. All children have to go to school. I have to do an exam next week.

MUST NOT • Prohibition- the idea of DO NOT HAVE TO • It is MUST NOT • Prohibition- the idea of DO NOT HAVE TO • It is not necessary - the sense of obligation has been removed. e. g. Ann is not well, she mustn’t Ann is rich, she doesn’t have to work. Entrance to the museum is You mustn’t smoke in a free- you don’t have to pay. petrol station. You don’t have to wear a It’s a secret. You mustn’t uniform for this job. tell anyone. You mustn’t enter this room when the patient is having an X-ray. obligation is maintained e. g.