Портовое перегрузочное оборудование Реконструкция древнегреческого подъемного механизма, использующего

>Портовое перегрузочное оборудование Портовое перегрузочное оборудование

>Реконструкция древнегреческого подъемного механизма, использующего блоки и полиспасты, описанного Героном Александрийским, первый век A.D. Реконструкция древнегреческого подъемного механизма, использующего блоки и полиспасты, описанного Героном Александрийским, первый век A.D. fire engine. 2

>Гробница Haterius. Механизм с пятью тройными блоками.  Два человека – смазчики блоков. Гробница Haterius. Механизм с пятью тройными блоками. Два человека – смазчики блоков. Привод – пять человек. Один сигнальщик, один – ответственный за микроперемещения. 3

>Rudolf von Ems Rudolf von Ems "World Chronicle" 13 века. Строительство Вавилонской башни. 4

>Leonardo's Codex Atlanticus  Два мобильных крана для строительства каналов. Привод – ослы. Leonardo's Codex Atlanticus Два мобильных крана для строительства каналов. Привод – ослы. Поворот обеспечивает использование и для дноуглубления, и берегообразования. 5

>В 12-13 вв. строительство каменных соборов и церквей потребовало развития технологии 6 В 12-13 вв. строительство каменных соборов и церквей потребовало развития технологии 6

>Бригада использует спицы на барабане вместо рукояти – что позволяет работать двум людям. Бригада использует спицы на барабане вместо рукояти – что позволяет работать двум людям. 7

>Иллюстрация 12 в. из библии (Pierpont Morgan Library).  Только во Франции между 1170 Иллюстрация 12 в. из библии (Pierpont Morgan Library). Только во Франции между 1170 и 1270 было построено 80 соборов и более 50 церквей, в основном каменных. 8

>Использование лебедок и редукторов. 9 Использование лебедок и редукторов. 9

>В 1588 итальянский инженер Ramelli опубликовал альбом гравюр, показывающих различные подъемные устройства.  10 В 1588 итальянский инженер Ramelli опубликовал альбом гравюр, показывающих различные подъемные устройства. 10

>Стационарный подъемный кран 11 Стационарный подъемный кран 11

>Сложный механизм подъема и тормоза 12 Сложный механизм подъема и тормоза 12

>Использование различных механизмов для усиления силы человека 13 Использование различных механизмов для усиления силы человека 13

>Two main trends in port cargo operations: –   cargo handling with equipment Two main trends in port cargo operations: – cargo handling with equipment specialized for concrete cargo type; – handling with general equipment, allowing for different types of cargo. Specialization and generalization are two extreme poles, a balance between those provides optimal variant of technology for a particular operator In many ports ХХ century went under the domination of general-purposed electrical portal slewing cranes mounted on rails.

>Main criteria of crane selection for universal port complexes: терминалов можно выделить следующие основные Main criteria of crane selection for universal port complexes: терминалов можно выделить следующие основные - universality, or ability to handle different cargo types - efficiency, or amplitudes of working movements with safe weight and velocities providing sufficient speed of handling typical ships, rail sections, trucks or stacks - mobility, or amplitudes to move operatively between cargo fronts (berth, rail, truck) and stack working areas

>Demands for foundation and pavement. For mobile cranes  they are different whet working Demands for foundation and pavement. For mobile cranes they are different whet working and travelling Environmental impact Purchase price Operation costs Economic efficiency and competitiveness of cargo handling operations could be achieved by harmonization of all features of the port cranes

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>Rail mounted portal slewing cranes         Rail mounted portal slewing cranes Universal Efficient at all fronts Low mobile Low utilization in time

>Mobile cranes  Mobility tends to be a priority for insuring competitiveness in port Mobile cranes Mobility tends to be a priority for insuring competitiveness in port cargo handling operations Mobile cranes include: Mobile harbor cranes with cargo runner (MHC) Manipulators Balance (equilibrium) cranes

>MHC are highly efficient and universal thus handling any cargo and ships at different MHC are highly efficient and universal thus handling any cargo and ships at different erminals Impose high pressure on berth construction and pavement Moved from the waterfront, tend to have excessive and expensive efficiency and overcapacity for handling trucks and rail (sometimes open storage areas, too).

>Hydraulic manipulators on self-propelling chassyes  Developed from excavators with accurate and precise movement Hydraulic manipulators on self-propelling chassyes Developed from excavators with accurate and precise movement typical for robots. к Main manufacturers MANTSINEN (Finland); FUCHS (Germany); SENNEBOGEN (Germany); HITACHI (Japan).

>Manipulators consist of rotating  superstructure mounted on the chassis (platforms of different height Manipulators consist of rotating superstructure mounted on the chassis (platforms of different height or portals) with pneumatic wheels or crawlers

>Usually the operator cabin is mounted on telescopic arm, providing perfect view of cargo Usually the operator cabin is mounted on telescopic arm, providing perfect view of cargo loading/unloading and cutting the need of a signalman

>Manipulator consists of hydraulically empowered arm and handle, with cargo handling device attached to Manipulator consists of hydraulically empowered arm and handle, with cargo handling device attached to the end of the handle

>This type of the boom system provides:  Precision positioning of the cargo handling This type of the boom system provides: Precision positioning of the cargo handling device on the cargo or place of discharge, Elimination of sway, Operation in any wind conditions Possibility to expose vertical pressure on the cargo surface, which is very serious advantage Delivery of hydraulic or electric power to cargo handling device, which opens wide opportunities for automation (intellectual handling devices)

>Manipulators create  a problem of cargo operation control, since the weighting  capacity Manipulators create a problem of cargo operation control, since the weighting capacity depends not only on the outreach, but also on the lifting height.

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>Balance (equilibrium) cranes Balance (equilibrium) cranes

>Balanced boom system Balanced boom system

>Load and pressure on the berth construction and territory pavement often play a key Load and pressure on the berth construction and territory pavement often play a key role in the type of crane’s selection

>Pressure on berths and surface for MHC and manipulators  is a function of Pressure on berths and surface for MHC and manipulators is a function of load momentum and construction of the movement chassis. Manipulators are smaller than MHCs, thus imposing lower pressure (especially crawlers). Accordingly, manipulators are easier to introduce in ports

>Сравнение основных технико-эксплуатационных характеристик универсальных портовых кранов Сравнение основных технико-эксплуатационных характеристик универсальных портовых кранов

>Conclusions Mobility of crane today is one of the most important feature  2. Conclusions Mobility of crane today is one of the most important feature 2. Mobility for a port user is the ability to move not father than between different cargo fronts and terminal zones. 3. In this case MHC and manipulators possess slightly excessive mobility for port applications.

>4. Solving a problem of increasing the mobility of portal slewing cranes to the 4. Solving a problem of increasing the mobility of portal slewing cranes to the level permitting easy movement between cargo fronts could effectively increase the competiveness of the equipment. 5. Use of manipulators in ports today is restricted by the handling of relatively small ships (less then 9000 DWT). The sizes and construction of holds of river ships and short sea vessels make possible to handle them much more efficiently than with portal cranes. 6. This information is useful but not sufficient for the professional selection of the equipment. The decision should be based on thorough technical and economical analyses and qualitative characteristics of the complex project with mandatory study of civilian engineering aspects.

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