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PKI Technology & Interoperability Lisa Pretty Executive Director December 1999 PKI Forum Overview PKI Technology & Interoperability Lisa Pretty Executive Director December 1999 PKI Forum Overview

Speakers u Overview & Interoperability – Lisa Pretty, PKI Forum u Hardware Security Modules Speakers u Overview & Interoperability – Lisa Pretty, PKI Forum u Hardware Security Modules – Bill Franklin, n. Cipher u Tokens – Bill Wehrmacher, Data. Key

Certificate Lifecycle Certificate Revocation CA Directory Services Certificate Generation Certificate Expiration End Entity Certificate Certificate Lifecycle Certificate Revocation CA Directory Services Certificate Generation Certificate Expiration End Entity Certificate Publication Certificate Archiving RA Verification of Applicant

PKI Interoperability u Three different aspects to PKI interoperability – Component interoperability – Enterprise PKI Interoperability u Three different aspects to PKI interoperability – Component interoperability – Enterprise interoperability – Application interoperability

PKI Component Interoperability u u Ability to mix and match COTS PKI products CA PKI Component Interoperability u u Ability to mix and match COTS PKI products CA Depends upon specification-based messages exchanged between components to support: – Certificate requests – Certificate renewal – Certificate revocation RA Repository Client

Factors For Component Interoperability u Algorithm suite u Certificate management protocols – Certificate issuance Factors For Component Interoperability u Algorithm suite u Certificate management protocols – Certificate issuance – Certificate revocation u Transport mechanisms

Enterprise Interoperability u The ability to connect two enterprise PKIs into a larger functional Enterprise Interoperability u The ability to connect two enterprise PKIs into a larger functional PKI – More than just crosscertification – Clients must be able to find and validate meaningful certification paths Enterprise A PKI CA Repository A RA Client CA Repository B RA Enterprise B PKI

Factors for Enterprise Interoperability u Algorithm suite u Certificate format and extension set u Factors for Enterprise Interoperability u Algorithm suite u Certificate format and extension set u Certificate policies u Certificate status information formats u Path building and validation across PKIs

Application Interoperability u The ability of PKI-aware applications to: – Share PKI certificates, key Application Interoperability u The ability of PKI-aware applications to: – Share PKI certificates, key -pairs, and processing modules – Rely on different PKI environments to implement security services Enterprise A PKI CA Repository A RA Client CA Repository B RA Enterprise B PKI

Factors for Application Interoperability u Ability to share cryptographic modules OR export/import cryptographic materials Factors for Application Interoperability u Ability to share cryptographic modules OR export/import cryptographic materials – Cryptographic application programming interfaces (APIs) u Access to path validation and path building utilities u Consistency of processing u Feature sets

Hardware Security Modules (HSM) and PKI Bill Franklin Dir. of Technology, n. Cipher December Hardware Security Modules (HSM) and PKI Bill Franklin Dir. of Technology, n. Cipher December 1999 PKI Forum Overview

Hardware Security Modules u u Hardware security modules (HSM) perform cryptographic operations, protected by Hardware Security Modules u u Hardware security modules (HSM) perform cryptographic operations, protected by hardware (PCI boards, SCSI boxes, smart cards, etc. ) These operations include: – Random number generation – Key generation (asymmetric and symmetric) – Private key hiding (security) from attack (no unencrypted private keys in software or memory) • Private keys used for signing and decryption • Private keys used in PKI for storing Root Keys

About Public Key, ---? u We assume you understand something about public key technology: About Public Key, ---? u We assume you understand something about public key technology: – Public-private key pairs; generation and life cycle – Asymmetric encryption – Symmetric encryption – Use of asymmetric encryption to establish keys for subsequent symmetric encryption – Criticality of private keys (and root keys)

Why Use HSMs? u. A number of public key operations require the use of Why Use HSMs? u. A number of public key operations require the use of private keys as part of various processes: – Cryptographically or digitally signing an object, a file, etc. – Decrypting an encrypted object or file u These processes happen in active memory, which is vulnerable to attack and copying of a private key in open use, unencrypted

HSM – Immediate Needs u SSL predominates in e-commerce: – Allows secure electronic transactions HSM – Immediate Needs u SSL predominates in e-commerce: – Allows secure electronic transactions u Effect on servers: – SSL negotiation (asymmetric) creates heavy overhead – increasingly a bottleneck – Private keys have to be brought into decryption and signing processes, interactively 1. So, SSL can drive: – Insecurity if private keys not protected fully – Bottlenecks in processing, even bringing servers down

HSM Basics u HSMs generally hook directly to the server, providing a protected area HSM Basics u HSMs generally hook directly to the server, providing a protected area for the private key to be generated and reside, as well as to participate in a protected manner in critical processes, such as signing and decryption -- such that the private key is never in active memory or software in an unencrypted state.

PKI Implications ¿ ¿ If you have just spent $15 M implementing a global PKI Implications ¿ ¿ If you have just spent $15 M implementing a global PKI – and your root is compromised, or some other important signing key… What will it cost you to refit all new certificates – as well as inspecting and changing all the operations associate with the compromised key(s)? It will be more than you spent setting up initially! Or, transactions are suddenly 8000% over design expectations – how will you scale?

Desirable Characteristics u HSMs should: – Resist physical and programming attacks of all types Desirable Characteristics u HSMs should: – Resist physical and programming attacks of all types (our catechism is: NO Private keys unencrypted in software or memory – any time); generate random numbers and keys in HSM – Make private keys securely available to transaction processes in real time, securely – particularly CAs – Allow “k of n” security for access to HSMs with security “in depth” – Accelerate cryptographic processing – Be scalable and support failover – Operate with load balancing schemas – Work with PKCS#11, MS CAPI and other APIs

Need Further Information u Check with the PKI Forum site for members which have Need Further Information u Check with the PKI Forum site for members which have HSMs (www. pkiforum. org) u Work with your integrator or consultants to identify the best solutions for your implementations and operations u Work with your PKI vendor concerning solutions for HSM u But: Use HSM to assure your security!

HSM Example: n. Cipher HW PCI slide 20 SCSI HSM Example: n. Cipher HW PCI slide 20 SCSI

Example: n. Cipher Hardware RISC Processor Array Each CPU can perform - 37 1/2 Example: n. Cipher Hardware RISC Processor Array Each CPU can perform - 37 1/2 1024 bit decryptions per second Secure Memory

Example: n. Cipher Hardware The master processor performs crypto operations and parsing to other Example: n. Cipher Hardware The master processor performs crypto operations and parsing to other chips Other CPU’s perform only crypto operations slide 22 “Master” Processor

The smart token’s role in PKI interoperability. W. H. (Bill) Wehrmacher Datakey, Inc. December The smart token’s role in PKI interoperability. W. H. (Bill) Wehrmacher Datakey, Inc. December 1999 PKI Forum Overview

1 st: Do no harm! Then help if you can! 1 st: Do no harm! Then help if you can!

Just what is a Smart Token? u Physical Device – Potential for two Factor Just what is a Smart Token? u Physical Device – Potential for two Factor Authentication – Potential for secure portable Credentials u Computing Device – Potential for Strong Authentication – Potential for Non Repudiation u Convenient Form Factors – Potential for regular use

What do you mean by interoperate? u The definitions for tokens are the same What do you mean by interoperate? u The definitions for tokens are the same definitions about PKI in general. – I want my PKI trust system interoperate with others’ PKI trust systems – I want my PKI credentials to work across applications u There is more with Tokens – “OK, now I have keys and Certificates on my token, I should be able to plug it into any PKI enabled application, in any workstation and have it just work. ”

What does the user mean by interoperate? u “OK, – – – you’ve convinced What does the user mean by interoperate? u “OK, – – – you’ve convinced me, I need tokens. Now I can work anywhere, any time, on any computer, with any application, and on…” “OK, now I have keys and Certificates on my token, I should be able to plug it into any PKI enabled application, in any workstation and just have it work… Right? ”

Define where you want interoperability u At card edge. . . u At Card Define where you want interoperability u At card edge. . . u At Card Operating System. . . u At card terminal. . . u At connection API. . . u At Cryptographic API. . . u Across desktop platforms. . . u Across PKI Systems. . .

Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Support Services CAPI/CSP, Cryptoki Crypto Modules and Algorithms PC/SC, OCF etc. Token Connectivity APIs ISO 7816 Key & Certificate Management Auditing etc. Token Connectivity hardware Tokens

At Card Edge with ISO 7816? A little like saying RS 232 Compatible – At Card Edge with ISO 7816? A little like saying RS 232 Compatible – Card will fit in slot – Contacts will line up – Power and signals will go to right place – Card will identify itself with Answer To Reset – Many low level commands will work – Most functional commands won’t Probably not core definition of interoperability, but will be part of the equation

Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Support Services CAPI/CSP, Cryptoki Crypto Modules and Algorithms PC/SC, OCF etc. Token Connectivity APIs ISO 7816 Key & Certificate Management Auditing etc. Token Connectivity hardware Tokens

At Card Edge Operating System: u u CARDOS DKCCOS EMV Java. Card u u At Card Edge Operating System: u u CARDOS DKCCOS EMV Java. Card u u Multos SEIS Spy. COS Windows for Smart Cards Not really practical to interoperate here…

At Operating System Algorithm Suite: u u u RSA DSA ECC PGP Others, new At Operating System Algorithm Suite: u u u RSA DSA ECC PGP Others, new and old u u u DES and derivatives RCx IDEA CAST Others, new and old Necessary to support wide range of applications

Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Support Services CAPI/CSP, Cryptoki Crypto Modules and Algorithms PC/SC, OCF etc. Token Connectivity APIs ISO 7816 Key & Certificate Management Auditing etc. Token Connectivity hardware Tokens

At Token Terminal u Platform Dependent – PC/SC • Win. Tel 32 Platforms only At Token Terminal u Platform Dependent – PC/SC • Win. Tel 32 Platforms only • Limited performance with Cryptographic Smart Cards – Open. Card. Framework • Java oriented

Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Support Services CAPI/CSP, Cryptoki Crypto Modules and Algorithms PC/SC, OCF etc. Token Connectivity APIs ISO 7816 Key & Certificate Management Auditing etc. Token Connectivity hardware Tokens

At Cryptographic or other API u u u Cryptoki (PKCS#11): Lowest Level of popular At Cryptographic or other API u u u Cryptoki (PKCS#11): Lowest Level of popular APIs CAPI (Microsoft Cryptographic API) Both supported by existing products Activ. Card: Activ. Card Gold Datakey: Signa. SURE CIP Gem. PLUS: Gem. Safe u Both Litronic: Net. Sign Schlumberger Others Supported by PKI products For a list, see the PKI Forum Member list and there are others

Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Token Interoperability Stack Applications: Secure and non-secure PKI functions: Security Mechanisms and protocols Security Support Services CAPI/CSP, Cryptoki Crypto Modules and Algorithms PC/SC, OCF etc. Token Connectivity APIs ISO 7816 Key & Certificate Management Auditing etc. Token Connectivity hardware Tokens

Perhaps now you have token hooked up. What next? Rule #1: Do no harm Perhaps now you have token hooked up. What next? Rule #1: Do no harm u Share PKI data across platforms – If PKI can operate in multiple environments, a smart token should not prevent it u All Cryptoki applications are not created equal – Cryptoki recommends, does not specify. – Applications can store data on tokens in incompatible formats. – PKI data can be PKI specific or PKI general

Token Vendors u Smart Card tokens – – – – – Activ. Card Bull Token Vendors u Smart Card tokens – – – – – Activ. Card Bull Datakey Gem. Plus Giesecke & Devrient Litronic Oberthur Schlumberger Many others u Other Smart Tokens – – Activ. Card Crypto. Card Security Dynamics Many others These are not “recommended” vendors, just those who came to mind. There are many others and you should search out the ones that best fit your needs.

Please feel free to contact me W. H. (Bill) Wehrmacher Director of Technical Services Please feel free to contact me W. H. (Bill) Wehrmacher Director of Technical Services Datakey, Inc. bill. [email protected] com +1 952 808 -2337 407 West travelers Trail Burnsville Minnesota 55337

www. PKIForum. org www. PKIForum. org