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PISTANG PINOY: an Overview of Philippine Festivals Riya Brigino Lopez Prepared for the participants PISTANG PINOY: an Overview of Philippine Festivals Riya Brigino Lopez Prepared for the participants of the 8 th seminar workshop on DOT’s Tunay na Pyestang Pinoy May 7 -9, 2008/ Balibago, Angeles City

7, 100 islands 7, 100 more festivals …and the number is still growing… 7, 100 islands 7, 100 more festivals …and the number is still growing…

Classification of festivals/celebrations based on cultural traditions 1. ANIMISTIC 2. celebrations flowered before the Classification of festivals/celebrations based on cultural traditions 1. ANIMISTIC 2. celebrations flowered before the arrival of the Western powers and still exists today

cont. classification of festivals… 2. CHRISTIAN celebrations introduced during the Spanish colonial period, adopted, cont. classification of festivals… 2. CHRISTIAN celebrations introduced during the Spanish colonial period, adopted, transformed from the 16 th century to the present

cont. classification of festivals… 3. MUSLIM celebrations and or festivals developed after Islam’s arrival cont. classification of festivals… 3. MUSLIM celebrations and or festivals developed after Islam’s arrival in the 14 th century and have been observed until now

cont. classification of festivals… 4. SECULAR festivals/celebrations started during the American colonial period and cont. classification of festivals… 4. SECULAR festivals/celebrations started during the American colonial period and has since been multiplied to thousands

samples of ANIMISTIC celebration 1. Cañao (Cordillera) celebration in the form of rituals as samples of ANIMISTIC celebration 1. Cañao (Cordillera) celebration in the form of rituals as thanksgiving and or celebration of rites of passage Purpose: promotion of the welfare of the community, survival, harmony among settlers

cont. sample of ANIMISTIC celebration 2. BUKLOG (Subanons of Northwestern in Mindanao) whole day cont. sample of ANIMISTIC celebration 2. BUKLOG (Subanons of Northwestern in Mindanao) whole day celebration that involves ancient ritual to honor the spirits: malengma (spirit of the water); mamanwa (spirit of the forest); manising palingkitan (spirit of the mountain) purpose: appease or thank the spirits for good harvest

Buklog features a platform of about 15 feet high. It is built on the Buklog features a platform of about 15 feet high. It is built on the spot chosen by baylan (native priestess)

samples of feasts or celebrations among Islamized groups 1. HARI RAYA POASA 2. celebration samples of feasts or celebrations among Islamized groups 1. HARI RAYA POASA 2. celebration at the end of the feasting month of Ramadan. Begins with a ritual of cleansing.

cont. samples of feasts or celebrations among Islamized groups 2. HARI RAYA RADJ celebration cont. samples of feasts or celebrations among Islamized groups 2. HARI RAYA RADJ celebration after the completion of pilgrimage to Mecca

cont. samples of feasts or celebrations among Islamized groups 3. MAULOD EN NABI celebration cont. samples of feasts or celebrations among Islamized groups 3. MAULOD EN NABI celebration of the birth of the Prophet Mohammed

sample of pre-Islamic festivities Kalilang sa Tonong (Maranao) held every April in Marawi and sample of pre-Islamic festivities Kalilang sa Tonong (Maranao) held every April in Marawi and includes fluvial parades singing and playing of indigenous instruments purpose: ask the spirit of water for a bountiful harvest

It also includes KASHAWING, a ritual held to ensure good harvest It also includes KASHAWING, a ritual held to ensure good harvest

samples of celebrations among Christians CHRISTMAS - Misa de Gallo - pastores - panunuluyan samples of celebrations among Christians CHRISTMAS - Misa de Gallo - pastores - panunuluyan - maytinis - Tatlong Hari - others

Lenten Rites § - panata § - pabasa, pasyon § - caridad § - Lenten Rites § - panata § - pabasa, pasyon § - caridad § - sinakulo § - osana § - paghuhugas ng paa § - siete palabras § - others

LET US REVIEW… 1. FESTIVALS/ CELEBRATIONS/ RITUALS ARE HELD EVEN BEFORE WESTERN COLONIZATION 2. LET US REVIEW… 1. FESTIVALS/ CELEBRATIONS/ RITUALS ARE HELD EVEN BEFORE WESTERN COLONIZATION 2. ALL CULTURES HAVE SPECIFIC FORMS OF CELEBRATIONS 3. THE ANIMISTIC, MUSLIM and Christian feasts ARE DEEPLY ROOTED TO THE CULTURE OF THE COMMUNITY and held in response to the needs of the community (not only material needs but spiritual as well)

4. Celebrations are not whimsically created but consciously held to: a. promote the welfare 4. Celebrations are not whimsically created but consciously held to: a. promote the welfare of the community b. promote political integrity c. social harmony of each tribal community d. honor and or appease the spirits (water, sky, forest and other elements) for bountiful harvest, guidance and protection e. ask permission or invoke spirits for guidance

cont. classification of festivals… 4. SECULAR festivals/celebrations started during the American colonial period and cont. classification of festivals… 4. SECULAR festivals/celebrations started during the American colonial period and has since been multiplied to thousands

Secular celebrations proliferated during the American period Nature and Purpose - foundation of the Secular celebrations proliferated during the American period Nature and Purpose - foundation of the province - promotion of the place as a tourist destination - promote the main product of the place - highlight the unique cultural traditions and customs - highlight historical events / heroes etc. - highlight achievements in the arts and other fields - honor and reverence for the environment

For the last 15 years or so “agrocultural festival” has mushroomed incessantly The rising For the last 15 years or so “agrocultural festival” has mushroomed incessantly The rising number of festivals centers on sacred images (though incidental at times) is very alarming

Other SAMPLES OF SECULAR FESTIVAL National Arts Festival – nationwide celebration every February National Other SAMPLES OF SECULAR FESTIVAL National Arts Festival – nationwide celebration every February National Heritage Month Independence Day celebration Arts Festival (music, theater, dance etc. )

Cuerdas nin Kagabsan: Strings of Unity First International Rondalla Festival Feb. 8 -14, 2004, Cuerdas nin Kagabsan: Strings of Unity First International Rondalla Festival Feb. 8 -14, 2004, Bicol Region

National and Foreign Participants (Russia, Israel, U. S. , Mexico, Australia etc. ) National and Foreign Participants (Russia, Israel, U. S. , Mexico, Australia etc. )

Outreach Performance Outreach Performance

OUTREACH PERFORMANCES OUTREACH PERFORMANCES

Some popular festivals Some popular festivals

Ati-Atihan of Kalibo Ati-Atihan of Kalibo

Pahiyas Festival Pahiyas Festival

MASSKARA FESTIVAL (Bacolod, Negros Occidental) MASSKARA FESTIVAL (Bacolod, Negros Occidental)

KADAYAWAN FESTIVAL (DAVAO City) KADAYAWAN FESTIVAL (DAVAO City)

PANAGBENGA (Baguio City, Benguet) PANAGBENGA (Baguio City, Benguet)

CURRENT Challenges in Creating a Festival /Event How to create a festival that will CURRENT Challenges in Creating a Festival /Event How to create a festival that will be at par with the existing ones in terms of : 1. Significance 2. Color 3. Symbols 4. Exuberance 5. Timing 6. Rhythm/Sounds 7. Variety of events 8. Magnitude of events 9. Marketing and promotion opportunities (media etc. ) 10. Profitability (not just money but other resources as well)

MEANING and symbolism MEANING and symbolism

Color, exuberance and pageantry Color, exuberance and pageantry

ANTIQUES/Pakulo ANTIQUES/Pakulo

Ingenuity /Creativity Ingenuity /Creativity

BIGGEST CHALLENGE OF ALL How to arrest the seemingly homogeneity of the festivals all BIGGEST CHALLENGE OF ALL How to arrest the seemingly homogeneity of the festivals all over the country

How to arrest the proliferation of the “culture of competition” being espoused by many How to arrest the proliferation of the “culture of competition” being espoused by many festivals

To be able to confront these challenges it is crucial to conduct a comprehensive To be able to confront these challenges it is crucial to conduct a comprehensive cultural research

it is the responsibility of the festival managers in cooperation with other stakeholders to it is the responsibility of the festival managers in cooperation with other stakeholders to plan and create a significant festival or celebration

a significant festival starts with a sensible and research based concept a significant festival starts with a sensible and research based concept

a sensible concept could be derived from… a. needs and aspirations of any given a sensible concept could be derived from… a. needs and aspirations of any given community b. history, origin and vision of the place d. distinct culture of the community e. identity of the people and place f. myths, legends, folktales g. traditional creative expressions h. advocacy

IT IS HIGH TIME TO PLAN A MORE SOULFUL CELEBRATION LET US START BY IT IS HIGH TIME TO PLAN A MORE SOULFUL CELEBRATION LET US START BY ASKING WHY ARE WE HOLDING THE FESTIVAL IN THE FIRST PLACE…

FESTIVAL SHOULD MEAN MORE TO THE SOCIETY WHERE IT EMERGES After all, FESTIVAL is FESTIVAL SHOULD MEAN MORE TO THE SOCIETY WHERE IT EMERGES After all, FESTIVAL is NOT just about pageantry, NOT just about winning a competition but more of a SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

S A L A MA T P O ! S A L A MA T P O !