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PIA 2528 Intergovernmental Relationships PIA 2528 Intergovernmental Relationships

Some Oral Interview Questions: End of Semester 1. What major historical factors appear to Some Oral Interview Questions: End of Semester 1. What major historical factors appear to have defined Governance, Local Government and Civil Society according to our "general reading. “ 2. What factors are unique and different for Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Asia or Latin America? 3. To what extent is society and culture important at the "country" level? Be able to discuss at least one country in your region.

Theme The Nature of Intergovernmental Relationships Theme The Nature of Intergovernmental Relationships

Overview: Historical Patterns of Relations ¡ ¡ ¡ AT ISSUE - Location of ultimate Overview: Historical Patterns of Relations ¡ ¡ ¡ AT ISSUE - Location of ultimate power and Responsibility Definition of Power: The authoritative allocation of values Balance: Leadership, Authority and Choice ¡ WORLD WIDE HUMOR- VIDEO ¡

Hierarchy and Authority: Feudal and Now? Hierarchy and Authority: Feudal and Now?

Symbolism, Power and Authority Leadership as Image Symbolism, Power and Authority Leadership as Image

German Liberalism 1848 German Liberalism 1848

Authority Authority

Authoritarian States Authoritarian States

TYPES OF INTER-GOVERNMENTAL AND INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS Confederation and loose confederal relationships TYPES OF INTER-GOVERNMENTAL AND INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS Confederation and loose confederal relationships

The Articles of Confederation, drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress, served as the The Articles of Confederation, drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress, served as the first Constitution of the United States.

Confederation Relationships Power lies with the sub-units ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ U. S. Articles Confederation Relationships Power lies with the sub-units ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ U. S. Articles of Confederation Canadian Federation European Union Southern African Development Council Economic Council of West African States ASEAN Mercusor

Federalism ¡ ¡ Concept: Can Transfer additional authority back to the sub-units but not Federalism ¡ ¡ Concept: Can Transfer additional authority back to the sub-units but not take power away from the federated governments (Provinces, states) Principal: Divided Soveregnty

Governance as a cake Governance as a cake

Federal Systems In Federal Relationship • Some power lies with the National Unit • Federal Systems In Federal Relationship • Some power lies with the National Unit • Some power lies with lower units • Layer Cake

German Intergovernmental Relations German Intergovernmental Relations

Layers of Government Intertwined Layers of Government Intertwined

Federal Powers ¡ ¡ Unique or Exclusive Powers. Federal and State Concurrent Powers- Federal Federal Powers ¡ ¡ Unique or Exclusive Powers. Federal and State Concurrent Powers- Federal and State Devolved Powers- State and Local Denied Authority

Federal Systems Key Distinction: 1. Lower units cannot break away from the National Unit Federal Systems Key Distinction: 1. Lower units cannot break away from the National Unit 2. National Units cannot take power away from the lower units 3. Divided Sovereignty

Federalism: Examples: USA Canada Germany Nigeria India Russian Federation Austria Switzerland Malaysia Federalism: Examples: USA Canada Germany Nigeria India Russian Federation Austria Switzerland Malaysia

Fort Sumter Fort Sumter

Federal Relationships Taxation Indian States Federal Relationships Taxation Indian States

Unitary Systems and Sub-regional units 1. All power ultimately lies at the national level Unitary Systems and Sub-regional units 1. All power ultimately lies at the national level 2. What power the local level has, is given to it by the national level 3. The power that the national unit has given to the local level can also be taken away from it

Unitary Government Unitary Government

Unitary Systems- Examples ¡ ¡ ¡ United Kingdom France Hungary Kenya Japan South Africa? Unitary Systems- Examples ¡ ¡ ¡ United Kingdom France Hungary Kenya Japan South Africa? (Unitary or Quasi. Federal) Bolivia China? Palestine? Indonesia Sweden

Indonesia Indonesia

Unitary Systems Unitary Systems

Subsidiarity: European Union Term ¡ Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled Subsidiarity: European Union Term ¡ Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent government authority possible. ¡ It is presently best known as a fundamental principle of European Union Law. According to this principle, the EU may only act (i. e. make laws) where member states agree that action of individual countries (or local governments) is insufficient. ¡ Subsidiarity has become a principle of public sector reform in LDCs

Term Avoids the Concept of Democracy ¡ South Africa Term Avoids the Concept of Democracy ¡ South Africa

 Subsidiarity: Reminder and Summary ¡ Concept: Transfer of authority to a lower level Subsidiarity: Reminder and Summary ¡ Concept: Transfer of authority to a lower level of government ¡ Primary Unit of Government: Lowest level that carries a bureaucracy with it ¡ Alternative Social Service Delivery Systems Debated- eg. Health in USA

Models of Subsidiarity: Review ¡ Devolution: Federal or Unitary (Political) ¡ Deconcentration (Administrative) ¡ Models of Subsidiarity: Review ¡ Devolution: Federal or Unitary (Political) ¡ Deconcentration (Administrative) ¡ Delegation (Special Unit- PAT) ¡ Privatization (Contracting Out) ¡ Program and Project Deconcentration: Principal Agency Issue)

Local Governance South African Elections, May, 2011 VIDEO Local Governance South African Elections, May, 2011 VIDEO

Coffee Break ¡ Ten Minutes Coffee Break ¡ Ten Minutes

Intergovernmental Relationships Basic Assumptions and Local Governance Intergovernmental Relationships Basic Assumptions and Local Governance

Reiteration Reiteration

Devolution ¡ Transfer to a non-Federal political body e. g. Decision-Making Legal, Budget and Devolution ¡ Transfer to a non-Federal political body e. g. Decision-Making Legal, Budget and personnel authority to district and town councils Key- power lies with lower level politicians

Thomas P. (Tip) O’Neil, Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives 1977 -1987 Thomas P. (Tip) O’Neil, Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives 1977 -1987

Street Level Issues- Costa Rica Street Level Issues- Costa Rica

Deconcentration: Transfer of authority to administrators at lower level within the administrative system Deconcentration: Transfer of authority to administrators at lower level within the administrative system

The Goal: Professionalism The Goal: Professionalism

Deconcentration: Review ¡ Functional vs. Prefectoral ¡ Prefectoral integrated ¡ Prefectoral unintegrated Deconcentration: Review ¡ Functional vs. Prefectoral ¡ Prefectoral integrated ¡ Prefectoral unintegrated

Control Systems: Review Functional Home Affairs Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Council Public Control Systems: Review Functional Home Affairs Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Council Public Works Office District Ag. Office District Ed. Office Labor District Labor Office

Control Systems Prefectoral - Integrated Interior Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Labor District Control Systems Prefectoral - Integrated Interior Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Labor District Office Council/Chief Public Works Office District Ag. Office District Ed. Office District Labor Office

Control Systems: Review Prefectoral - Unintegrated Interior Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Labor Control Systems: Review Prefectoral - Unintegrated Interior Local Govt. Public Works Agriculture Education Labor Public Works Office District Ag. Office District Ed. Office District Labor Office Police District Office Police Council/ Chief

The Critical View The Critical View

Delegation ¡ ¡ Transfer of authority to a statutory body such as Public Corporations Delegation ¡ ¡ Transfer of authority to a statutory body such as Public Corporations or parastatals (UK) Eg. AMTRAK

Delegation ¡ ¡ ¡ Transfer Function Outside of line Departments Use of Board Commercialization Delegation ¡ ¡ ¡ Transfer Function Outside of line Departments Use of Board Commercialization vs. Privatization

Public Enterprise Commercialization: In Theory Public Enterprise Commercialization: In Theory

Delegation Delegation

Privatization ¡ Transfer function out of government sector to the For Profit or Non-Profit Privatization ¡ Transfer function out of government sector to the For Profit or Non-Profit Sector

“Russian Privatization and Silence of the Lambs” “Russian Privatization and Silence of the Lambs”

Principles of Privatization ¡ Key Conditionality. Privatization of the economy within a context of Principles of Privatization ¡ Key Conditionality. Privatization of the economy within a context of administrative Reform ¡ Linked to Contracting Out

The View from the 1080 s Redux The View from the 1080 s Redux

Principles of Privatization a. divestiture (full sale) b. contracting out c. liquidation d. sell Principles of Privatization a. divestiture (full sale) b. contracting out c. liquidation d. sell off public private partnership shares

Waste Removal Waste Removal

Principles of Privatization Goal: Small government and return to the recurrent budgeting process and Principles of Privatization Goal: Small government and return to the recurrent budgeting process and balanced budget principles of “Neo-Orthodox Economists”

The Image: Electrical Privatization in Brazil The Image: Electrical Privatization in Brazil

Programs and Projects ¡ Program and Project Deconcentration: (Principal Agency Issue) ¡ Assymetric ¡ Programs and Projects ¡ Program and Project Deconcentration: (Principal Agency Issue) ¡ Assymetric ¡ Prone Relationships to Patron-Clientalism

President Chester A. Arthur and Patronage (1881 -1885) President Chester A. Arthur and Patronage (1881 -1885)

Principal Agency Syndrome: Asymmetric interests when a principal hires an agent Principal Agency Syndrome: Asymmetric interests when a principal hires an agent

Program and Project Decentralization: 1. Sectoral - By regular line or agency within a Program and Project Decentralization: 1. Sectoral - By regular line or agency within a Ministry l l E. g. Focused activity - seed production (Green Revolution) Agricultural experiments

Origins- Experiments in Mexico 1943 (Rockefeller Foundation) Origins- Experiments in Mexico 1943 (Rockefeller Foundation)

Indian Department of Agriculture Indian Department of Agriculture

Program and Project Decentralization: 2. Deconcentration or Devolution of authority to central level special Program and Project Decentralization: 2. Deconcentration or Devolution of authority to central level special unit eg. Transport, water, health or education projects to subordinate administrative or structures (Education Service) PAT (Port Authority Transport) Buses

Program and Project Decentralization: ¡ 3. Inter-Ministerial Committees or Units l Planning supervision l Program and Project Decentralization: ¡ 3. Inter-Ministerial Committees or Units l Planning supervision l Overlapping memberships, e. g. Land Use Planning

Inter-ministerial Cooperation in Botswana (and Expatriates) Inter-ministerial Cooperation in Botswana (and Expatriates)

Land Use Plan, Berlin Germany Land Use Plan, Berlin Germany

Program and Project Decentralization: 4. Creation of field level Special Project Units with semiautonomous Program and Project Decentralization: 4. Creation of field level Special Project Units with semiautonomous status (Special designated geographical areas) Integrated Development Programs (Deliver Social and Economic Services)

2. 1 Integrated Rural Development 2. 2 Small Irrigation Schemes Development 2. 3 Integrated 2. 1 Integrated Rural Development 2. 2 Small Irrigation Schemes Development 2. 3 Integrated Farming Systems Development 2. 4 Revobue Multipurpose Dam 2. 5 New Cash Crops Establishment 2. 6 Livestock Development 2. 7 Farmers' Associations Promotion 2. 8 Grain Storage Development 2. 9 District Water Supply 2. 10 Rural Electrification 2. 11 Mineral Resources Exploration Rural Socio. Economic Enhancement Scheme

Program and Project Decentralization: Project Decent. l E. g. A Range management project; or Program and Project Decentralization: Project Decent. l E. g. A Range management project; or l Integrated Rural Development - Most well known type of special project ¡ l Multitude of project activity in different sectors that may overlap or compliment.

Integrated Rural Development (IRD) Integrated Rural Development (IRD)

DISCUSSION ISSUES AND CONCERNS Democracy: Writers and Themes DISCUSSION ISSUES AND CONCERNS Democracy: Writers and Themes

Discussion: What Have You Been Reading? Discussion One: What is unique about each part Discussion: What Have You Been Reading? Discussion One: What is unique about each part of the world as seen from our authors? Discussion Two: Limited Government- What is it? Discussion Three: Command Economy?

VIDEO: Dictatorship Charlie Chaplin, “The Great Dictator” (1940) VIDEO: Dictatorship Charlie Chaplin, “The Great Dictator” (1940)

Case Studies: Stereotypes and The Institutional Legacy- Geographical Themes and Myths ¡ Africa: “Dark Case Studies: Stereotypes and The Institutional Legacy- Geographical Themes and Myths ¡ Africa: “Dark Continent, ” Slavery, race and Europe: ¡ Eastern Europe: Balkan Ghosts ¡ Asia: Villagization and Collectivism and the Asian Model ¡ Latin America: Iberian heritage (or US)Marxism, the U. S. and Ideology ¡ Middle East: Ottoman Legacy, Islam, Israel, vs. Europe

Regional Discussions: What are you finding out? 1. Democracy 1. Governance 2. Local Government Regional Discussions: What are you finding out? 1. Democracy 1. Governance 2. Local Government 3. Civil Society 4. Institutional State