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Phonemic Awareness, Literacy, and Students who are DHH Rachel Friedman Narr, Ph. D. California State University, Northridge Deaf Education rachel. [email protected] edu
Part I Theory related to developing phonemic awareness with Deaf/Hard of Hearing students
Use of the Components as Cueing Systems while Reading • Cueing Systems (Goodman, 1996; Clay 1991) – MEANING cues (semantic) – STRUCTURE cues (includes morphology) (syntactic) – VISUAL & SOUND cues (graphophonic) Use of all three systems is necessary
Word-level information • GRAPHO = Visual Configuration of words – Graphemics (word shapes, spelling patterns) – Morphemics (components of words) – Syllabication • Phonic = “sound” based – sound-letter correspondences
Written English is based upon the Alphabetic Principle • The systematic use of alphabetic letters to represent speech sounds. F /f/ How a word’s internal structure (it’s “sound”) relates to the spelling (orthography).
Example of how the alphabetic principle works ship How many phonemes do you hear in……. carrot ladder book box
Clarification of Terms • Phonological Awareness~ An overarching term that includes phonemic awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) AND other parts of spoken language, such as words, syllables, onsets, and rimes. Phonological awareness skills are associated with spoken language BEFORE the introduction of I like to eat, eat apples and bananas print. O lote to oat, oat opples and bononos
Clarification of Terms • Phonemic Awareness~ The ability to identify and manipulate the individual phonemes (sounds) in spoken words. Includes skills such as phoneme isolation, omission, substitution, segmentation, blending, among others. “Cart” without the “t” makes CAR; If you say “house” and change the “h” to “m” you get the word MOUSE!
Clarification of Terms • Phonics~ The understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters that represent those sounds in written language).
• Research Support – Research with Hearing Children – Research with Deaf Individuals • National Reading Panel
Research Support with hearing children ● Phonological awareness develops naturally in most hearing children ● Children who are good readers have good phonological awareness skills (National Reading Panel Report, 2000)
Research with Hearing Children Phonological awareness… is highly related to reading achievement and lack of phonological awareness is correlated with reading failure. Phonological awareness training… reduces reading failure and provides long lasting benefits. (National Reading Panel Report, 2000)
Individuals who are D/HH • Studies indicate some deaf individuals have phonological awareness skills Crain, & (Dyer, Mac. Sweeney, Szczerbinski, Green, & Campbell, 2003; Harris & Moreno, 2004; La. Sasso, Leybaert, 2003) • Children who are D/HH can benefit from instruction emphasizing phonological awareness (Trezek and colleagues, 2005, 2006)
National Reading Panel on Teaching Phonemic Awareness • Meta-analysis of studies showed teaching children to manipulate phonemes in words was highly effective across settings and grades. http: //www. nationalreadingpanel. org
Where does phonological awareness fit within our reading curricula?
Insert your state standards for reading and spelling here
California Standards * Language Arts Kindergarte n Phonemic Awareness 1. 9 Blend vowel-consonant sounds orally to make words or syllables. 1. 10 Identify and produce rhyming words in response to an oral prompt. 1. 11 Distinguish orally stated one-syllable words and separate into beginning or ending sounds. 1. 13 Count the number of sounds in syllables and syllables in words. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. 14 Match all consonant and short-vowel sounds to appropriate letters. 1. 16 Understand that as letters of words change, so do the sounds (i. e. , the alphabetic principle).
First Grade Phonemic Awareness 1. 4 Distinguish initial, medial, and final sounds in single-syllable words. 1. 6 Create and state a series of rhyming words, including consonant blends. 1. 7 Add, delete, or change target sounds to change words (e. g. , change cow to how; pan to an). 1. 8 Blend two to four phonemes into recognizable words (e. g. , /c/ a/ t/ = cat; /f/ l/ a/ t/ = flat).
Second Grade Decoding and Word Recognition 1. 1 Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e. g. , diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading. 1. 2 Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e. g. , vowel-consonant-vowel = su/ per; vowel-consonant/consonant-vowel = sup/ per). Vocabulary and Concept Development 1. 9 Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes (e. g. , over-, un-, -ing, -ly).
Clarification of Terms • Phonological processing~ What you DO from the time your eyes meet the text and you make meaning from it. • Internal phonological representations~ The concept of phonemes that are stored in memory for use in reading and spelling.
How can deaf children acquire a phonological system when they have restricted knowledge of spoken language due to hearing loss? (Stewart & Clarke, 2003)
The land of print literacy What are possible routes to the alphabetic principle for DHH students?
GOAL: to build INTERNAL phonological representations • • Speechreading Speech Production Use of residual hearing; audition Spelling; Fingerspelling; Orthography; Morphography • Visual representation of English sounds – Cued English – Visual phonics (Friedman Narr, 2006).
Consider the possibilities of building INTERNAL phonological representations • Speechreading – Provides information about the phonological structure of spoken English, albeit limited. – Is easily accessible. – Many DHH students learn to speechread incidentally. – The skill can be taught, and is often targeted by SLPs working with DHH students. • Speech Production – Provides limited information about the phonological structure of spoken English. – Typically targeted through speech therapy, received by many DHH students in elementary school.
Consider the possibilities of building INTERNAL phonological representations • Use of residual hearing; audition – Provides limited information about the phonological structure of spoken English. – Accessibility varies student to student. • Spelling; Fingerspelling; Orthography; Morphography – Enhances knowledge about the phonological structure of spoken English through association, not a 1: 1 correspondence. – Is accessible through direct teaching.
Considering the possibilities of building INTERNAL phonological representations • Visual representation of English sounds – Cued English – Visual phonics BOTH provide complete access to the phonological information contained in spoken English. BOTH require specialized teacher training for use.
Cued Speech (English) • A visual COMMUNICATION system that uses 8 handshapes in four locations to represent the phonemes. • In combination with lip movements, all sounds of spoken English look different and are clearly understandable to individuals who are D/HH. • cues every phoneme at the syllable level • focuses attention on the sequence of sounds (phonemes) and syllables of language • enables the child to develop a complete phonemic model of spoken English
Research Support for Literacy Development using Cued Speech • Students who are profoundly deaf in oral, TC, & Cued Speech programs read as well as hearing peers when Cued Speech is used. (Wandel, 1989). • Deaf children exposed to Cued Speech at home at an early age rely on inner speech for rhyming, remembering, and spelling similarly to hearing children but differently from deaf children not exposed early to CS. (Leybaert & Charlier, 1996).
Consonant Handshapes /zh, d, p/ /TH, k, v, z/ /h, r, s/ /b, wh, n/ /m, f, t/ /w, l, sh/ /j, g, th/ /ch, y, ng/
ee, ur ue, aw, e i, a, oo Vowel Positions uh o, ah ie, ou oi, ay
Visual Phonics • A multisensory approach to phoneme representation that incorporates tactile, kinesthetic, visual, & auditory feedback. • 45 hand cues and written symbols that help make the connection between written and spoken language. • Each hand cue is suggestive of how the sound is produced. • Each sound has a written symbol (independent from the alphabet).
Research Support for Literacy Development using Visual Phonics • During 1 year of reading instruction from a phonics based reading curriculum with Visual Phonics, Kindergarten and 1 st grade DHH students demonstrated improvements in beginning reading skills (word reading, pseudoword decoding, and reading comp) (Trezek & Wang, 2006) • Acquisition and generalization of phonic skills occurred during use of a direct instruction reading curriculum when it was paired with Visual Phonics, speech production intervention, and specific vocabulary instruction. » (Trezek & Malmgren, 2005)
The girls love to eat pizza. e at pizza
Summary Questions/Thoughts • How do hearing children learn to make sense of print? • Discuss the major differences in how hearing children learn to read and how deaf children learn to read. • What are possible routes to the alphabetic principle for DHH students? What are the “pros” and “cons” of these routes? • Explain the concept of the INTERNAL phonological representation.
References Dyer, A. , Mac. Sweeney, M. , Szczerbinski, M. , Green, L. , & Campbell, R. (2003). Predictors of reading delay in deaf adolescents: The relative contributions of rapid automatized naming speed and phonological awareness and decoding. Journal of Deaf Students and Deaf Education, 8, 215– 229. Friedman Narr, R. A. (2006). Teaching Phonological Awareness with Deaf/Hard of Hearing Students. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38, 53 -58. Harris, M. , & Moreno, C. (2004). Deaf children’s use of phonological coding: Evidence from reading, spelling, and working memory. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9, 253– 268. La. Sasso, C. , Crain, K. , & Leybaert, J. (2003). Rhyme generation in deaf students: The effect of exposure to cued speech. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8, 250– 270. National Reading Panel, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00 -4769). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Stewart, D. A. & Clarke, B. R. (2003). Literacy and your deaf child. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. Trezek, B. , & Malmgren, K. (2005). The efficacy of utilizing a phonics treatment package with middle school deaf and hard of hearing students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10, 256– 271. Trezek, B. & Wang, Y. (2006). Implications of Utilizing a Phonics-Based Reading Curriculum With Children Who Are Deaf or. Hard of Hearing. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11, 203 - 213.
For more information or discussion pertaining to this presentation, please contact Dr. Rachel Friedman Narr rachel. [email protected] edu © 2006