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Perspectives on Middlemanager Actions During Improvement Efforts in Government Organizations Phil Harnden April 15, Perspectives on Middlemanager Actions During Improvement Efforts in Government Organizations Phil Harnden April 15, 2002 1

Dissertation Committee: Dr. Richard Burke Dr. Michael Kalsher Dr. Richard Leifer Dr. Lois Peters Dissertation Committee: Dr. Richard Burke Dr. Michael Kalsher Dr. Richard Leifer Dr. Lois Peters 9 Locations 691 people completed 217 question on-line survey 2

Make My Day? ! 3 Make My Day? ! 3

Are Your Taxes Done? Mike Thompson , Detroit, Michigan, The Detroit Free Press 4 Are Your Taxes Done? Mike Thompson , Detroit, Michigan, The Detroit Free Press 4

Why Interested in Topic? …Mid. Manager Is Tough Role 'I would like a boss Why Interested in Topic? …Mid. Manager Is Tough Role 'I would like a boss who talks. ’ Employee 121_247 If you could change or purchase one thing…. 'I do like a command control type atmosphere. ’ Senior Manager 123_022 'Management that actually manages. Employee 121_365 5

'Managers do not listen. They already have made up their minds about what they 'Managers do not listen. They already have made up their minds about what they are going to do when they ask you for your thoughts. Managers are not interested in change even though they say they are. They keep doing things the way they have been doing them in the past. ’ Employee 121_095 'I would change our HR practices. The civil service has a number of anachronistic practices which when coupled with a downsized un-automated personnel support system has crippled our ability to bring skilled motivated workers into our facility and reassign, demote or fire unproductive workers. The former problem is greatest. ’ Senior Manager 123_146 'I would improve the communication between the "inner circle" and the rest of the organization, opening up the decision-making process so that all are well informed of developing organizational changes and encouraged to participate through open discussion and input to the decision-making process. ’ Mid-Manager 122_083 'No more surveys. Take up too much time. ’ Mid-Manager 122_154 6

Laughter Is True Confession…. 7 Laughter Is True Confession…. 7

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Locations NAVAL AVIATION SYSTEMS Data obtained March 2000 through March 2001 All organizations involved Locations NAVAL AVIATION SYSTEMS Data obtained March 2000 through March 2001 All organizations involved in High 9 Performance Organizations Improvement Efforts

Original Model DV DV 10 Original Model DV DV 10

Mid-Manager Survey on-line at www. profileplus. com Employee 121 mustang MM 122 eagle SM Mid-Manager Survey on-line at www. profileplus. com Employee 121 mustang MM 122 eagle SM 123 master 11

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Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) The KAI is a 32 item survey that requires individuals Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) The KAI is a 32 item survey that requires individuals about 10 -15 minutes to complete. Each item is scored from 1 -5 giving a theoretical range from 32 -160 with a theoretical mean of 96. In practice, normally distributed scores range from 45 to 146, and the means observed in research in several nations and with many groups range within 2 points of 95 with an observed SD ranging from 15. 5 to 17. 9. The KAI contains several built in validity checks. The KAI contains three reliable, stable factors, each with a Cronbach's alpha above. 80. • Sufficiency v. Proliferation of Originality • Efficiency • Rule/Group conformity 15

Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) Separates Level (Innate) and Style (Preferences) for solving problems and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) Separates Level (Innate) and Style (Preferences) for solving problems and making decisions Level- Hi Edison Periodic Table Crick- Double Helix Da. Vinci Einstein Style A Mechanics Tech support Work to Rule Style I The Handyman Taxi Driver Level- Low Innovative Adaptive “Paradigms” Mental Models or Filters 16

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Demographic Data Available 19 Demographic Data Available 19

Dataset and Demographics 20 Dataset and Demographics 20

Factor Analysis- struggled with structure 21 Factor Analysis- struggled with structure 21

Final Factor Structure – Parallel Analysis 22 Final Factor Structure – Parallel Analysis 22

5 items Value Mech Focus 5 items Value Mgr Capability 5 items Value Positive 5 items Value Mech Focus 5 items Value Mgr Capability 5 items Value Positive Climate Value High Perf Comp 5 item Value Idea Gen Process 5 items Importance to 6 items Value Feedback Organization Actions Typical Effect High Perf Comp Effect Idea Gen Process 5 items Effect Mgr Capability Manager 5 items Effect Mech Focus 5 item Effect Feedback Effect Positive Climate 5 items 6 items Effect Tm Ldr Engagement 4 items Tm Ldr Open to Ideas 4 items Effect Tm Ldr Dialogue 4 items 3 items Team Engaged in Why 12 items Positive Unit Outcomes Effect Mgr Mechanisms 5 items 8 items All others found in first factor Organizational Alignment Translate & Understand Plan Individual Positive Org Motivation Outcomes to Change 4 items 6 items Risk Tolerant Climate Effective Change 4 items 5 items Analyze for Groups: Hi. Low. Perfmance 7 items Groups (1 -3) G 1 Echelon (1 -3) G 4 Education (1 -5) 8 items G 5 Gender (1 -2) G 6 Time With (1 -5) 7 items Positive Wk Support Climate Positive Idea Involve Climate Low Cynicism Improving Hi Perf 23

Correlation Testing for Hypothesis 24 Correlation Testing for Hypothesis 24

Differences in Perspectives by Age 25 Differences in Perspectives by Age 25

Differences in Perspectives by Echelon 26 Differences in Perspectives by Echelon 26

Differences in Perspective by Education 27 Differences in Perspective by Education 27

No Differences in Perspectives by Gender 28 No Differences in Perspectives by Gender 28

Differences in Perspectives by KAI 29 Differences in Perspectives by KAI 29

Differences in Perspective by Time With Group 30 Differences in Perspective by Time With Group 30

Differences in Perspective by Total Organizational Outcome KAI Low Outcome 97 High Outcome 87 Differences in Perspective by Total Organizational Outcome KAI Low Outcome 97 High Outcome 87 31 Both Operate in “Adaptive Environments”

Summary of Differences by Blocking Variable 32 Summary of Differences by Blocking Variable 32

Discriminant and Logistic Regression Both Assign 70 - 75% to High or Low Performance Discriminant and Logistic Regression Both Assign 70 - 75% to High or Low Performance Groups With Consistent Variables Used 33

Canonical Correlations Show Relationship Between Performance and Variables 34 Canonical Correlations Show Relationship Between Performance and Variables 34

Final Model Top Management Translates and Helps Understand the Plan (+) O R G Final Model Top Management Translates and Helps Understand the Plan (+) O R G A N I Z A T I O N S E N I O R S W O R K G R O U P S Manager E Positive Work Mechanisms in N Support Place (+) Climate (+) I Idea O Risk Tolerant Involvement Effective Team R Climate (+) Leader Engagement S Low Cynicism(-) (+) Work W Team or Group O Group R Leaders (Mid. K Managers) Individual Level : Motivation for Change ORGANIZATION Unit and Organizational Performance (DV) Connection between Individual and Group Levelssee sub-factor questions for details G R O U P O R G A N I Z A T I O N D e m o g r a p h i c s Adaptive KAI Score (+) Lower Age (+) Higher Echelon (+) Less Education (+) Gender (Female) NS 35 Less Time With Org (+)

Summary • Effective Managerial Actions Do Make a Difference • Variation in View by Summary • Effective Managerial Actions Do Make a Difference • Variation in View by Echelon, Age and KAI • Performance Differences Accounted For By Different Factors • Consistency in View of What Competencies Are Important (Valued) for Organizational Success • Need a Better Way to Get at Ensuring Understanding of Motivation to Change (Why Change? Why Now? ) • Government Organizations Need More Focus on Developing Managerial Competencies (Facilitative Leadership or Management 101) 36

Limitations • Only 9 Organizations at One Point in Time • Highly Educated Sample Limitations • Only 9 Organizations at One Point in Time • Highly Educated Sample • Paired Comparisons Not Available • No Repeated Measures • External View of Performance Not Available for All • Random Sampling Not Guaranteed • No Private Sector Organizations • Sample Only of Organizations “Involved” in Improvement Efforts; Comparisons Not Available • Length of Survey May Have Affected Total Performance • On-line May Have Affected Some Participants • Aggregation Issues (Individual, Group, Organizational) • Correlational Vice Causational Study 37

Further Areas for Research • Private Sector Firms • Other Government Agencies Not Overtly Further Areas for Research • Private Sector Firms • Other Government Agencies Not Overtly Involved in Organizational Improvement Efforts • KAI for Organizations • Analyze Text Input for Comparisons • Compare Quantitative and Qualitative • Structural Equations Modeling for Confirmatory Factor Analysis • Analyze Why “Individual Development” Elements Dropped Out of Factor Structure 38

Further Questions? 39 Further Questions? 39

Further Questions? 40 Further Questions? 40