PERANAN SI TI DALAM ORGANISASI Tujuan pembelajaran

Скачать презентацию PERANAN SI TI DALAM ORGANISASI Tujuan pembelajaran Скачать презентацию PERANAN SI TI DALAM ORGANISASI Tujuan pembelajaran

fbddba121e1b44fe932f585bfa437b20.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 31

PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI PERANAN SI/TI DALAM ORGANISASI

Tujuan pembelajaran • Memahami konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi • Memahami perkembangan strategi SI/TI Tujuan pembelajaran • Memahami konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi • Memahami perkembangan strategi SI/TI • Memahami dampak strategi bisnis terhadap perkembangan strategi SI/TI • Tantangan perencanaan SI/TI di Indonesia

Agenda • Konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi • Evolusi SI dalam organisasi • Faktor Agenda • Konteks strategis SI/TI dalam organisasi • Evolusi SI dalam organisasi • Faktor kesuksesan sistem informasi strategis • Hubungan strategi SI/TI dan stsrategi bisnis • Strategi SI/TI • Strategi kompetitif dan implikasinya terhadap strategi SI/TI • Perencanaan strategis sistem informasi di indonesia : local point of view

Konteks Strategis SI dalam Organisasi • Makin banyak produk tersedia dalam bentuk digital. Sehungga Konteks Strategis SI dalam Organisasi • Makin banyak produk tersedia dalam bentuk digital. Sehungga e-delivery melalui SI (berikan contoh e-product) • Makin banyak perdagangan (commerce) dilakukan secara elektronik (e-commerce-menciptakan peluang baru, transaksi online) • Makin banyak aktivitas yang makin kompleks, memerlukan berbagai data dan informasi (data mining, enterprise information systems – ERP/enterprise resource planning) • Keterhubungan aktivitas bisnis dalam perusahaan dan antar perusahaan (meningkatkan efisiensi dan produktivitas) • Kemajuan teknologi yang dapat memproses data berskala besar dalam waktu yang relatif singkat (SPMB data)

The Evolution of Information Systems Year 1960 – Data processing (DP) era v Year The Evolution of Information Systems Year 1960 – Data processing (DP) era v Year 1970 – Management IS (MIS) era v Year 1980 – Strategic IS (SIS-EIS) era v Year 1990 – E-business & e-commerce era v Year 2000 – Enterprise Resource Planning era v Setiap era memiliki karakteristik SI yang berbeda v

Karakteristik Era Data Processing • Pemrosesan secara sentralisasi • Menggunakan multi-purpose Mainframe computer • Karakteristik Era Data Processing • Pemrosesan secara sentralisasi • Menggunakan multi-purpose Mainframe computer • Batch processing (Batch processing adalah suatu model pengolahan data, dengan menghimpun data terlebih dahulu, dan diatur pengelompokkan datanya dalam kelompok-kelompok yang disebut batch) • Penyimpanan Data: magnetic disk, tape • Bahasa Pemrograman: Cobol, Basic, etc. • Proses-proses berbasis otomasi informasi Apa sifat bisnis pada era DP?

Karakteristik Era SIM • • Mulai menggunakan minicomputer Menggunakan berbagai aplikasi bisnis Masih sentralisasi Karakteristik Era SIM • • Mulai menggunakan minicomputer Menggunakan berbagai aplikasi bisnis Masih sentralisasi Menggunakan model portofolio aplikasi hierakis berdasarkan stratifikasi kegiatan manajemen : – Perencanaan strategis – Kontrol manajemen – Kontrol operasional • Meningkatkan keefektifan manajemen dengan memenuhi kebutuhan informasinya untuk pengambilan keputusan- untuk membantu manajer Apa sifat bisnis era SIM?

Karakteristik Era SIS • Mulai menggunakan Personal Computer (PC) • Mulai menggunakan office automation Karakteristik Era SIS • Mulai menggunakan Personal Computer (PC) • Mulai menggunakan office automation • Mulai menggunakan kapabilitas-kapabilitas baru: flexible access dan decision support • Meningkatkan keunggulan/competitiveness dengan mengubah sifat atau cara melaksanakan bisnis (yaitu investasi SI/TI dapat menjadi sumber daya yang competitive advantage) Apa sifat bisnis pada era SIS?

Planning systems examples SIS MIS DP Control systems example Operational systems examples Sales forecasting Planning systems examples SIS MIS DP Control systems example Operational systems examples Sales forecasting operating plans capacity planning, profit/earnings forecasts, business mix analysis, manpower planning, financial modeling Sales analysis budgetary control, management accounting, inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market research/statistics, WIP control, requirements planning, supplier analysis, etc. Order entry, processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading, invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop-floor scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word processing Early Views and Models of IS/IT in Organizations (Anthony, 65)

Jenis SIS • SIS yang menghubungkan organisasi dengan pelanggan atau pemasoknya untuk berbagi informasi Jenis SIS • SIS yang menghubungkan organisasi dengan pelanggan atau pemasoknya untuk berbagi informasi • SIS yang secara efektif mengintegrasikan penggunaan inforamsi di dalam value chain organisasi • SIS yang membuat organisasi mengembangkan produk atau jasa baru atau yang dikembangkan berdasarkan informasi • SIS yang menyediakan manajer informasi yang lebih baik bagi pengembangan strategi • Contoh : Tradenet, SABRE (American Airlines), Valuelink (Baxter Healthcare).

Faktor Kesuksesan SIS • Berfokus pada lingkungan eksternal daripada internal, sebagai contoh : imager Faktor Kesuksesan SIS • Berfokus pada lingkungan eksternal daripada internal, sebagai contoh : imager building • Berfokus pada menambah value daripada mengurangi biaya, contoh : e-ticket • Sharing manfaat/benefit secara internal maupun eksternal, contoh : ATM • Memahami pelanggan dan kebutuhannya, contoh : customized product • Business instead of technology driven innovation: i. e covering a wider customers • Incremental instead of total development: i. e web-based application • Menggunakan informasi yang diperoleh untuk mengembangkan bisnis, contoh : learning organization

Trends in the evolution of business IS/IT (source: adapted from R. D. Galliers and Trends in the evolution of business IS/IT (source: adapted from R. D. Galliers and E. Somogyi)

Different views of strategic information systems Different views of strategic information systems

The Relationship Between the Business, SIS, MIS, and DP Business Strategic Management Executive Management The Relationship Between the Business, SIS, MIS, and DP Business Strategic Management Executive Management IS/IT Strategic Management Impact Analysis Information Analysis User Management IS Management Systems Design User Operations Project and Computer Management

The relationship between business, IS and IT strategies The relationship between business, IS and IT strategies

Membuka akses ke potensial pelanggan di seluruh Indonesia Mengembangkan aplikasi berbasis Web Menggunakan teknologi Membuka akses ke potensial pelanggan di seluruh Indonesia Mengembangkan aplikasi berbasis Web Menggunakan teknologi informasi berbasis sistem terbuka agar bisa di view oleh berbagai platform Contoh Keterkaitan Strategi Bisnis, Strategi IS, dan Strategi IT

An Applications Portfolio for the ‘Combined Era’ Mc. Farlan ‘ 84 An Applications Portfolio for the ‘Combined Era’ Mc. Farlan ‘ 84

Memilih Strategi SI? • Apakah masalah memerlukan solusi baru atau inovatif? • Creative strategy Memilih Strategi SI? • Apakah masalah memerlukan solusi baru atau inovatif? • Creative strategy e. g. Brainstorming • Is the problem mechanistic? • Logical strategy e. g. Logical Thinking • Is the problem unclear & involve people? • Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) • Use common sense when choosing a problem solving method.

So… What’s an IS/IT Strategy? • IS/IT strategy is composed of two parts – So… What’s an IS/IT Strategy? • IS/IT strategy is composed of two parts – IS component – IT component • IS strategy defines the organization’s requirement for information systems to support the overall strategy of the business • The IT strategy is outlining the vision of how the organization’s demand for information and systems will be supported by IT • It addresses the provision of ICT capabilities and resources and services such as IT operations, systems development and user support

The Context of IS/IT Strategy (Sullivan, 1985) Internal organization pressures: demanding further distribution of The Context of IS/IT Strategy (Sullivan, 1985) Internal organization pressures: demanding further distribution of IS/IT control Diffusion: degree of decentralization of IS/IT control in the organization High Low Opportunistic Complex Traditional Backbone Low Infusion-degree of dependence of IS/IT of the business High External competitive pressures: increasing the criticality of IS/IT to the business

Implications of Competitive Business Strategy to IS/IT Strategy • How can IS/IT affect the Implications of Competitive Business Strategy to IS/IT Strategy • How can IS/IT affect the nature and value of the product or service and its life cycle? – Generate a new product or a new line of business – Enable products to be designed or delivered more quickly – Be used to additional features or services to increase the product’s value

Continued. . • How can IS/IT affect the demand for products and services, segments Continued. . • How can IS/IT affect the demand for products and services, segments more effectively, extend them geographically, or provide new distribution channels to reach the market? – Enable to reach more appropriate customers – Enable to match our different products/services to customer appropriately – Enable the product/service to be distributed in new ways to the customers – Enable to get closer to the market-place rather than deal through intermediaries

Continued. . • How can IS/IT affect the cost base of the key processes Continued. . • How can IS/IT affect the cost base of the key processes in the industry or change the balance in the trade-off between flexibility and standardization? – Enable the product/service to be produced more economically – Enable production and associated logistics to be integrated to produce greater flexibility of resource use – Enable a higher quality of product or service to be offered at a much lower cost than traditionally

Examples of How IS/IT has affected the competitive forces in the airline industry How Examples of How IS/IT has affected the competitive forces in the airline industry How can IS/IT build barriers to new entry? By increasing IT entry cost for reservation systems. By tying in distribution channels (travel agencies). How can IS/IT build in switching costs By linking purchasing and remittance systems to reduce overheads of customer. for customer? Discount/volume packages to discourage piecemeal purchase. How can IS/IT change the basis of competition? Lower costs: optimize yield per aircraft. Differentiate service: reconfiguring aircraft due to demand. Niche/focus service into high yield sectors (business travel) How can IS/IT change the balance of power in supplier/customer relationship? Agent is constantly aware of seat availability of competing airlines. Airline can readily promote unsold capacity via chosen agents. How can IS/IT generate new products/services? Integrated travel package to high mileage business customers—by passing agencies. New routes/schedule to cater for demand.

Impact of Competitive Forces and Potential IS/IT Opportunities Key force impacting the industry Business Impact of Competitive Forces and Potential IS/IT Opportunities Key force impacting the industry Business implications Potential IS/IT effects Threat of new entrants Additional capacity Reduced prices New basis for competition Provide entry barriers or reduce access by: exploiting existing economies of scale, differentiate products or services, control distribution channels, segment markets Buyer power high Forces prices down Demand higher quality Require service flexibility Encourage competition Differentiate products or services and improve price or performance Increase switching costs of buyer Facilitate buyer product selection Supplier power high Raises prices or costs Reduced quality of supply Reduced availability Supplier sourcing systems Extended quality control into suppliers Forward planning with supplier Substitute products threatened Limits potential market and profit Price ceilings Improve price or performance Redefine products and services to increase value Redefine market segments Intense competition from rivals Price competition Product development Distribution and service critical Customer loyalty required Improve price or performance Differentiate products and services in distribution channel and to consumer Get closer to the end consumer—understand the requirements

Why is IS/T Planning Important? • IT Strategy is the process of defining the Why is IS/T Planning Important? • IT Strategy is the process of defining the strategic use of technology in an organization. • The IS/T Planning process ensures efficient and effective investment of IT to support the business • IT is More Critical to Corporate Success • The use of IT is increasingly pervasive • Enterprises are discovering that IT can influence the relative performance of most departments

Indonesia and IS Planning • There is a tendency not to pay attention for Indonesia and IS Planning • There is a tendency not to pay attention for ‘planning’ • The attitude extends to IS/T planning • Part of the problem is that there is no ‘tangible’ or ‘less realizable’ outcome resulting from IS/T planning • We see more Indonesian organizations conduct IT projects – not preceded by formal IS/T Planning

Results of Lack of IS/T Planning • Failed of IS/T projects • We see Results of Lack of IS/T Planning • Failed of IS/T projects • We see IT projects which lacks direction, weak in scope, have little of no identification of Critical Success Factors. • Inefficient use of investment in IT • Bad name for IT professionals and due to failed IT implementations

IS/IT Planning for the Indonesian • Need processes which are more facilitatordriven, higher involvement IS/IT Planning for the Indonesian • Need processes which are more facilitatordriven, higher involvement of consultants who has psychological and cultural sensitivity • Need processes which are a combination between verbal (direct) and in-direct interactions – to ensure that ideas and opinions are fully expressed

IS/T Planning in Indonesian Organizations: Realities • Justification for auditing purposes • Idea often IS/T Planning in Indonesian Organizations: Realities • Justification for auditing purposes • Idea often comes bottom up: hence the challenges • Do not believe in documentation: hence the approach is often less formal • Difficult to get buy-in from management who would rather see IT implementation projects • Who’s project is this: an IT department project?

Trends in IS/T Planning • We will see more ‘formal’ IS/T Planning activities with Trends in IS/T Planning • We will see more ‘formal’ IS/T Planning activities with increase of IS/T dominance as an integral part of business • IS/T Planning will need to be done faster, with the faster trend of technology development • Clear definition between business plan, IS/T planning and IT implementation will become more and more blurred as technology will continue to drive businesses stronger




  • Мы удаляем страницу по первому запросу с достаточным набором данных, указывающих на ваше авторство. Мы также можем оставить страницу, явно указав ваше авторство (страницы полезны всем пользователям рунета и не несут цели нарушения авторских прав). Если такой вариант возможен, пожалуйста, укажите об этом.