Скачать презентацию Overcoming Disadvantage From Great Depression to Great Recession Скачать презентацию Overcoming Disadvantage From Great Depression to Great Recession

6ffdf5c8b7ccc88ec675dc218ca5fc16.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 12

Overcoming Disadvantage: From Great Depression to Great Recession Glen H. Elder, Jr. Carolina Population Overcoming Disadvantage: From Great Depression to Great Recession Glen H. Elder, Jr. Carolina Population Center The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill http: //www. unc. edu/~elder

Principles of Life Course Theory Human Development and Aging as Life-Long Process Human Agency Principles of Life Course Theory Human Development and Aging as Life-Long Process Human Agency in Constrained Situations Lives in Time and Place Linked Lives Timing in Lives

The Different Historical Times of the Oakland Berkeley Cohorts 1920 Oakland Cohort 1930 1950 The Different Historical Times of the Oakland Berkeley Cohorts 1920 Oakland Cohort 1930 1950 $ Income Loss Depression Berkeley Cohort 1940 H. S. Graduate World War II $ Income Loss H. S. Graduate 3

Family Adaptations Link Income Loss to Children’s Well-being Income loss 1929 -33 • Household Family Adaptations Link Income Loss to Children’s Well-being Income loss 1929 -33 • Household economy • Changes in relationships • Emotional distress, anger Children’s well-being

Oakland Berkeley cohort members by age at historical events Date Event Oakland Berkeley Age Oakland Berkeley cohort members by age at historical events Date Event Oakland Berkeley Age of cohort members 1929 -30 Onset of Great Depression 9 -10 1 -2 1932 -33 Crisis of Great Depression 11 -13 3 -5 1937 -38 Economic Slump 16 -18 8 -10 1941 -45 World War II 20 -25 12 -17 1974 53 - 46 - End of affluent age

Adverse Effects of Depression Hardship Gender Negative Effects of Hardship BOYS Berkeley (younger) More Adverse Effects of Depression Hardship Gender Negative Effects of Hardship BOYS Berkeley (younger) More than Oakland (older) GIRLS Berkeley (younger) Less than Oakland (older)

Emerging Debt Pattern “Way of Life” 1920 s – 2009 Before WW II • Emerging Debt Pattern “Way of Life” 1920 s – 2009 Before WW II • The 1910 s-20 s – buying things on credit, promoted by large retailers such as Sears, Roebuck, May Co. • “Living beyond one’s means? ” A good many Americans were doing so in the 20 s. • “When times go bad, ” as in the 30 s – job loss and inability to pay off debts

Evolving Debt Pattern “Way of Life” 1920 – 2009 After WW II • The Evolving Debt Pattern “Way of Life” 1920 – 2009 After WW II • The appearance of credit cards – Diners, American Express • Booming 90 s – ¾ of Americans had a credit card. More purchases by credit than by cash. • From “easy credit” to fragile families and communities. “Ability to repay loan” less important. Bankruptcies soar over 400 percent from 1985 to present. Source: Sullivan, T. A. , E. Warren, & J. L. Westbrook. 2000. The Fragile Middle Class: Americans in Debt. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Origins of Rural Economic Crisis, 1975 – 1995 • Bankers encourage Iowa farmers to Origins of Rural Economic Crisis, 1975 – 1995 • Bankers encourage Iowa farmers to plant “fencerow to fencerow, ” and to buy more tillable acreage. • “Soaring inflation” ended the prosperity of the 70 s for rural Iowa, Feds increased interest rate for borrowers. Credit dried up. • Value of land declined and families cut back on purchases, sending entire state of Iowa into a depression-like economy. Worst since the 1930 s.

Iowa Youth and Family Study Questions: 1. Effects of economic hardship on young people. Iowa Youth and Family Study Questions: 1. Effects of economic hardship on young people. 2. Factors that increase youth achievement.

Sources of Resilient Lives Family Connections Networks of Social Engagement Caring Adults Mastery Experiences Sources of Resilient Lives Family Connections Networks of Social Engagement Caring Adults Mastery Experiences Source: Elder, Glen H. , Jr. , and Rand D. Conger. 2000. Children of the Land: Adversity and Success in Rural America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

glen_elder@unc. edu http: //www. unc. edu/~elder [email protected] edu http: //www. unc. edu/~elder